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require 'active_record/connection_adapters/abstract_adapter'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/statement_pool'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/oid'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/cast'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/array_parser'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/quoting'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/schema_statements'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/database_statements'
require 'active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql/referential_integrity'
require 'arel/visitors/bind_visitor'
# Make sure we're using pg high enough for PGResult#values
gem 'pg', '~> 0.11'
require 'pg'
require 'ipaddr'
module ActiveRecord
module ConnectionHandling
# Establishes a connection to the database that's used by all Active Record objects
def postgresql_connection(config) # :nodoc:
conn_params = config.symbolize_keys
# Forward any unused config params to PGconn.connect.
[:statement_limit, :encoding, :min_messages, :schema_search_path,
:schema_order, :adapter, :pool, :checkout_timeout, :template,
:reaping_frequency, :insert_returning, :variables].each do |key|
conn_params.delete key
end
conn_params.delete_if { |k,v| v.nil? }
# Map ActiveRecords param names to PGs.
conn_params[:user] = conn_params.delete(:username) if conn_params[:username]
conn_params[:dbname] = conn_params.delete(:database) if conn_params[:database]
# The postgres drivers don't allow the creation of an unconnected PGconn object,
# so just pass a nil connection object for the time being.
ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLAdapter.new(nil, logger, conn_params, config)
end
end
module ConnectionAdapters
# PostgreSQL-specific extensions to column definitions in a table.
class PostgreSQLColumn < Column #:nodoc:
attr_accessor :array
# Instantiates a new PostgreSQL column definition in a table.
def initialize(name, default, oid_type, sql_type = nil, null = true)
@oid_type = oid_type
if sql_type =~ /\[\]$/
@array = true
super(name, self.class.extract_value_from_default(default), sql_type[0..sql_type.length - 3], null)
else
@array = false
super(name, self.class.extract_value_from_default(default), sql_type, null)
end
end
# :stopdoc:
class << self
include ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLColumn::Cast
include ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLColumn::ArrayParser
attr_accessor :money_precision
end
# :startdoc:
# Extracts the value from a PostgreSQL column default definition.
def self.extract_value_from_default(default)
# This is a performance optimization for Ruby 1.9.2 in development.
# If the value is nil, we return nil straight away without checking
# the regular expressions. If we check each regular expression,
# Regexp#=== will call NilClass#to_str, which will trigger
# method_missing (defined by whiny nil in ActiveSupport) which
# makes this method very very slow.
return default unless default
case default
# Numeric types
when /\A\(?(-?\d+(\.\d*)?\)?)\z/
$1
# Character types
when /\A\(?'(.*)'::.*\b(?:character varying|bpchar|text)\z/m
$1
# Binary data types
when /\A'(.*)'::bytea\z/m
$1
# Date/time types
when /\A'(.+)'::(?:time(?:stamp)? with(?:out)? time zone|date)\z/
$1
when /\A'(.*)'::interval\z/
$1
# Boolean type
when 'true'
true
when 'false'
false
# Geometric types
when /\A'(.*)'::(?:point|line|lseg|box|"?path"?|polygon|circle)\z/
$1
# Network address types
when /\A'(.*)'::(?:cidr|inet|macaddr)\z/
$1
# Bit string types
when /\AB'(.*)'::"?bit(?: varying)?"?\z/
$1
# XML type
when /\A'(.*)'::xml\z/m
$1
# Arrays
when /\A'(.*)'::"?\D+"?\[\]\z/
$1
# Hstore
when /\A'(.*)'::hstore\z/
$1
# JSON
when /\A'(.*)'::json\z/
$1
# Object identifier types
when /\A-?\d+\z/
$1
else
# Anything else is blank, some user type, or some function
# and we can't know the value of that, so return nil.
nil
end
end
def type_cast(value)
return if value.nil?
return super if encoded?
@oid_type.type_cast value
end
private
def extract_limit(sql_type)
case sql_type
when /^bigint/i; 8
when /^smallint/i; 2
when /^timestamp/i; nil
else super
end
end
# Extracts the scale from PostgreSQL-specific data types.
def extract_scale(sql_type)
# Money type has a fixed scale of 2.
sql_type =~ /^money/ ? 2 : super
end
# Extracts the precision from PostgreSQL-specific data types.
def extract_precision(sql_type)
if sql_type == 'money'
self.class.money_precision
elsif sql_type =~ /timestamp/i
$1.to_i if sql_type =~ /\((\d+)\)/
else
super
end
end
# Maps PostgreSQL-specific data types to logical Rails types.
def simplified_type(field_type)
case field_type
# Numeric and monetary types
when /^(?:real|double precision)$/
:float
# Monetary types
when 'money'
:decimal
when 'hstore'
:hstore
# Network address types
when 'inet'
:inet
when 'cidr'
:cidr
when 'macaddr'
:macaddr
# Character types
when /^(?:character varying|bpchar)(?:\(\d+\))?$/
:string
# Binary data types
when 'bytea'
:binary
# Date/time types
when /^timestamp with(?:out)? time zone$/
:datetime
when /^interval(?:|\(\d+\))$/
:string
# Geometric types
when /^(?:point|line|lseg|box|"?path"?|polygon|circle)$/
:string
# Bit strings
when /^bit(?: varying)?(?:\(\d+\))?$/
:string
# XML type
when 'xml'
:xml
# tsvector type
when 'tsvector'
:tsvector
# Arrays
when /^\D+\[\]$/
:string
# Object identifier types
when 'oid'
:integer
# UUID type
when 'uuid'
:uuid
# JSON type
when 'json'
:json
# Small and big integer types
when /^(?:small|big)int$/
:integer
# Pass through all types that are not specific to PostgreSQL.
else
super
end
end
end
# The PostgreSQL adapter works with the native C (https://bitbucket.org/ged/ruby-pg) driver.
#
# Options:
#
# * <tt>:host</tt> - Defaults to a Unix-domain socket in /tmp. On machines without Unix-domain sockets,
# the default is to connect to localhost.
# * <tt>:port</tt> - Defaults to 5432.
# * <tt>:username</tt> - Defaults to be the same as the operating system name of the user running the application.
# * <tt>:password</tt> - Password to be used if the server demands password authentication.
# * <tt>:database</tt> - Defaults to be the same as the user name.
# * <tt>:schema_search_path</tt> - An optional schema search path for the connection given
# as a string of comma-separated schema names. This is backward-compatible with the <tt>:schema_order</tt> option.
# * <tt>:encoding</tt> - An optional client encoding that is used in a <tt>SET client_encoding TO
# <encoding></tt> call on the connection.
# * <tt>:min_messages</tt> - An optional client min messages that is used in a
# <tt>SET client_min_messages TO <min_messages></tt> call on the connection.
# * <tt>:variables</tt> - An optional hash of additional parameters that
# will be used in <tt>SET SESSION key = val</tt> calls on the connection.
# * <tt>:insert_returning</tt> - An optional boolean to control the use or <tt>RETURNING</tt> for <tt>INSERT</tt> statements
# defaults to true.
#
# Any further options are used as connection parameters to libpq. See
# http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/libpq-connect.html for the
# list of parameters.
#
# In addition, default connection parameters of libpq can be set per environment variables.
# See http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/libpq-envars.html .
class PostgreSQLAdapter < AbstractAdapter
class ColumnDefinition < ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::ColumnDefinition
attr_accessor :array
end
class TableDefinition < ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::TableDefinition
def xml(*args)
options = args.extract_options!
column(args[0], 'xml', options)
end
def tsvector(*args)
options = args.extract_options!
column(args[0], 'tsvector', options)
end
def hstore(name, options = {})
column(name, 'hstore', options)
end
def inet(name, options = {})
column(name, 'inet', options)
end
def cidr(name, options = {})
column(name, 'cidr', options)
end
def macaddr(name, options = {})
column(name, 'macaddr', options)
end
def uuid(name, options = {})
column(name, 'uuid', options)
end
def json(name, options = {})
column(name, 'json', options)
end
def column(name, type = nil, options = {})
super
column = self[name]
column.array = options[:array]
self
end
private
def new_column_definition(base, name, type)
definition = ColumnDefinition.new base, name, type
@columns << definition
@columns_hash[name] = definition
definition
end
end
ADAPTER_NAME = 'PostgreSQL'
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES = {
primary_key: "serial primary key",
string: { name: "character varying", limit: 255 },
text: { name: "text" },
integer: { name: "integer" },
float: { name: "float" },
decimal: { name: "decimal" },
datetime: { name: "timestamp" },
timestamp: { name: "timestamp" },
time: { name: "time" },
date: { name: "date" },
binary: { name: "bytea" },
boolean: { name: "boolean" },
xml: { name: "xml" },
tsvector: { name: "tsvector" },
hstore: { name: "hstore" },
inet: { name: "inet" },
cidr: { name: "cidr" },
macaddr: { name: "macaddr" },
uuid: { name: "uuid" },
json: { name: "json" }
}
include Quoting
include ReferentialIntegrity
include SchemaStatements
include DatabaseStatements
# Returns 'PostgreSQL' as adapter name for identification purposes.
def adapter_name
ADAPTER_NAME
end
# Adds `:array` option to the default set provided by the
# AbstractAdapter
def prepare_column_options(column, types)
spec = super
spec[:array] = 'true' if column.respond_to?(:array) && column.array
spec
end
# Adds `:array` as a valid migration key
def migration_keys
super + [:array]
end
# Returns +true+, since this connection adapter supports prepared statement
# caching.
def supports_statement_cache?
true
end
def supports_index_sort_order?
true
end
def supports_partial_index?
true
end
def supports_transaction_isolation?
true
end
class StatementPool < ConnectionAdapters::StatementPool
def initialize(connection, max)
super
@counter = 0
@cache = Hash.new { |h,pid| h[pid] = {} }
end
def each(&block); cache.each(&block); end
def key?(key); cache.key?(key); end
def [](key); cache[key]; end
def length; cache.length; end
def next_key
"a#{@counter + 1}"
end
def []=(sql, key)
while @max <= cache.size
dealloc(cache.shift.last)
end
@counter += 1
cache[sql] = key
end
def clear
cache.each_value do |stmt_key|
dealloc stmt_key
end
cache.clear
end
def delete(sql_key)
dealloc cache[sql_key]
cache.delete sql_key
end
private
def cache
@cache[Process.pid]
end
def dealloc(key)
@connection.query "DEALLOCATE #{key}" if connection_active?
end
def connection_active?
@connection.status == PGconn::CONNECTION_OK
rescue PGError
false
end
end
class BindSubstitution < Arel::Visitors::PostgreSQL # :nodoc:
include Arel::Visitors::BindVisitor
end
# Initializes and connects a PostgreSQL adapter.
def initialize(connection, logger, connection_parameters, config)
super(connection, logger)
if config.fetch(:prepared_statements) { true }
@visitor = Arel::Visitors::PostgreSQL.new self
else
@visitor = BindSubstitution.new self
end
connection_parameters.delete :prepared_statements
@connection_parameters, @config = connection_parameters, config
# @local_tz is initialized as nil to avoid warnings when connect tries to use it
@local_tz = nil
@table_alias_length = nil
connect
@statements = StatementPool.new @connection,
config.fetch(:statement_limit) { 1000 }
if postgresql_version < 80200
raise "Your version of PostgreSQL (#{postgresql_version}) is too old, please upgrade!"
end
initialize_type_map
@local_tz = execute('SHOW TIME ZONE', 'SCHEMA').first["TimeZone"]
@use_insert_returning = @config.key?(:insert_returning) ? @config[:insert_returning] : true
end
# Clears the prepared statements cache.
def clear_cache!
@statements.clear
end
# Is this connection alive and ready for queries?
def active?
@connection.query 'SELECT 1'
true
rescue PGError
false
end
# Close then reopen the connection.
def reconnect!
super
@connection.reset
configure_connection
end
def reset!
clear_cache!
super
end
# Disconnects from the database if already connected. Otherwise, this
# method does nothing.
def disconnect!
super
@connection.close rescue nil
end
def native_database_types #:nodoc:
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES
end
# Returns true, since this connection adapter supports migrations.
def supports_migrations?
true
end
# Does PostgreSQL support finding primary key on non-Active Record tables?
def supports_primary_key? #:nodoc:
true
end
# Enable standard-conforming strings if available.
def set_standard_conforming_strings
old, self.client_min_messages = client_min_messages, 'panic'
execute('SET standard_conforming_strings = on', 'SCHEMA') rescue nil
ensure
self.client_min_messages = old
end
def supports_insert_with_returning?
true
end
def supports_ddl_transactions?
true
end
# Returns true, since this connection adapter supports savepoints.
def supports_savepoints?
true
end
# Returns true.
def supports_explain?
true
end
# Returns the configured supported identifier length supported by PostgreSQL
def table_alias_length
@table_alias_length ||= query('SHOW max_identifier_length', 'SCHEMA')[0][0].to_i
end
def add_column_options!(sql, options)
if options[:array] || options[:column].try(:array)
sql << '[]'
end
super
end
# Set the authorized user for this session
def session_auth=(user)
clear_cache!
exec_query "SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION #{user}"
end
module Utils
extend self
# Returns an array of <tt>[schema_name, table_name]</tt> extracted from +name+.
# +schema_name+ is nil if not specified in +name+.
# +schema_name+ and +table_name+ exclude surrounding quotes (regardless of whether provided in +name+)
# +name+ supports the range of schema/table references understood by PostgreSQL, for example:
#
# * <tt>table_name</tt>
# * <tt>"table.name"</tt>
# * <tt>schema_name.table_name</tt>
# * <tt>schema_name."table.name"</tt>
# * <tt>"schema.name"."table name"</tt>
def extract_schema_and_table(name)
table, schema = name.scan(/[^".\s]+|"[^"]*"/)[0..1].collect{|m| m.gsub(/(^"|"$)/,'') }.reverse
[schema, table]
end
end
def use_insert_returning?
@use_insert_returning
end
protected
# Returns the version of the connected PostgreSQL server.
def postgresql_version
@connection.server_version
end
# See http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/errcodes-appendix.html
FOREIGN_KEY_VIOLATION = "23503"
UNIQUE_VIOLATION = "23505"
def translate_exception(exception, message)
case exception.result.try(:error_field, PGresult::PG_DIAG_SQLSTATE)
when UNIQUE_VIOLATION
RecordNotUnique.new(message, exception)
when FOREIGN_KEY_VIOLATION
InvalidForeignKey.new(message, exception)
else
super
end
end
private
def initialize_type_map
result = execute('SELECT oid, typname, typelem, typdelim, typinput FROM pg_type', 'SCHEMA')
leaves, nodes = result.partition { |row| row['typelem'] == '0' }
# populate the leaf nodes
leaves.find_all { |row| OID.registered_type? row['typname'] }.each do |row|
OID::TYPE_MAP[row['oid'].to_i] = OID::NAMES[row['typname']]
end
arrays, nodes = nodes.partition { |row| row['typinput'] == 'array_in' }
# populate composite types
nodes.find_all { |row| OID::TYPE_MAP.key? row['typelem'].to_i }.each do |row|
vector = OID::Vector.new row['typdelim'], OID::TYPE_MAP[row['typelem'].to_i]
OID::TYPE_MAP[row['oid'].to_i] = vector
end
# populate array types
arrays.find_all { |row| OID::TYPE_MAP.key? row['typelem'].to_i }.each do |row|
array = OID::Array.new OID::TYPE_MAP[row['typelem'].to_i]
OID::TYPE_MAP[row['oid'].to_i] = array
end
end
FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED = "0A000" # :nodoc:
def exec_no_cache(sql, binds)
@connection.async_exec(sql)
end
def exec_cache(sql, binds)
begin
stmt_key = prepare_statement sql
# Clear the queue
@connection.get_last_result
@connection.send_query_prepared(stmt_key, binds.map { |col, val|
type_cast(val, col)
})
@connection.block
@connection.get_last_result
rescue PGError => e
# Get the PG code for the failure. Annoyingly, the code for
# prepared statements whose return value may have changed is
# FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED. Check here for more details:
# http://git.postgresql.org/gitweb/?p=postgresql.git;a=blob;f=src/backend/utils/cache/plancache.c#l573
begin
code = e.result.result_error_field(PGresult::PG_DIAG_SQLSTATE)
rescue
raise e
end
if FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED == code
@statements.delete sql_key(sql)
retry
else
raise e
end
end
end
# Returns the statement identifier for the client side cache
# of statements
def sql_key(sql)
"#{schema_search_path}-#{sql}"
end
# Prepare the statement if it hasn't been prepared, return
# the statement key.
def prepare_statement(sql)
sql_key = sql_key(sql)
unless @statements.key? sql_key
nextkey = @statements.next_key
@connection.prepare nextkey, sql
@statements[sql_key] = nextkey
end
@statements[sql_key]
end
# The internal PostgreSQL identifier of the money data type.
MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID = 790 #:nodoc:
# The internal PostgreSQL identifier of the BYTEA data type.
BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID = 17 #:nodoc:
# Connects to a PostgreSQL server and sets up the adapter depending on the
# connected server's characteristics.
def connect
@connection = PGconn.connect(@connection_parameters)
# Money type has a fixed precision of 10 in PostgreSQL 8.2 and below, and as of
# PostgreSQL 8.3 it has a fixed precision of 19. PostgreSQLColumn.extract_precision
# should know about this but can't detect it there, so deal with it here.
PostgreSQLColumn.money_precision = (postgresql_version >= 80300) ? 19 : 10
configure_connection
end
# Configures the encoding, verbosity, schema search path, and time zone of the connection.
# This is called by #connect and should not be called manually.
def configure_connection
if @config[:encoding]
@connection.set_client_encoding(@config[:encoding])
end
self.client_min_messages = @config[:min_messages] || 'warning'
self.schema_search_path = @config[:schema_search_path] || @config[:schema_order]
# Use standard-conforming strings if available so we don't have to do the E'...' dance.
set_standard_conforming_strings
# If using Active Record's time zone support configure the connection to return
# TIMESTAMP WITH ZONE types in UTC.
# (SET TIME ZONE does not use an equals sign like other SET variables)
if ActiveRecord::Base.default_timezone == :utc
execute("SET time zone 'UTC'", 'SCHEMA')
elsif @local_tz
execute("SET time zone '#{@local_tz}'", 'SCHEMA')
end
# SET statements from :variables config hash
# http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.3/static/sql-set.html
variables = @config[:variables] || {}
variables.map do |k, v|
if v == ':default' || v == :default
# Sets the value to the global or compile default
execute("SET SESSION #{k.to_s} TO DEFAULT", 'SCHEMA')
elsif !v.nil?
execute("SET SESSION #{k.to_s} TO #{quote(v)}", 'SCHEMA')
end
end
end
# Returns the current ID of a table's sequence.
def last_insert_id(sequence_name) #:nodoc:
Integer(last_insert_id_value(sequence_name))
end
def last_insert_id_value(sequence_name)
last_insert_id_result(sequence_name).rows.first.first
end
def last_insert_id_result(sequence_name) #:nodoc:
exec_query("SELECT currval('#{sequence_name}')", 'SQL')
end
# Executes a SELECT query and returns the results, performing any data type
# conversions that are required to be performed here instead of in PostgreSQLColumn.
def select(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
exec_query(sql, name, binds)
end
def select_raw(sql, name = nil)
res = execute(sql, name)
results = result_as_array(res)
fields = res.fields
res.clear
return fields, results
end
# Returns the list of a table's column names, data types, and default values.
#
# The underlying query is roughly:
# SELECT column.name, column.type, default.value
# FROM column LEFT JOIN default
# ON column.table_id = default.table_id
# AND column.num = default.column_num
# WHERE column.table_id = get_table_id('table_name')
# AND column.num > 0
# AND NOT column.is_dropped
# ORDER BY column.num
#
# If the table name is not prefixed with a schema, the database will
# take the first match from the schema search path.
#
# Query implementation notes:
# - format_type includes the column size constraint, e.g. varchar(50)
# - ::regclass is a function that gives the id for a table name
def column_definitions(table_name) #:nodoc:
exec_query(<<-end_sql, 'SCHEMA').rows
SELECT a.attname, format_type(a.atttypid, a.atttypmod),
pg_get_expr(d.adbin, d.adrelid), a.attnotnull, a.atttypid, a.atttypmod
FROM pg_attribute a LEFT JOIN pg_attrdef d
ON a.attrelid = d.adrelid AND a.attnum = d.adnum
WHERE a.attrelid = '#{quote_table_name(table_name)}'::regclass
AND a.attnum > 0 AND NOT a.attisdropped
ORDER BY a.attnum
end_sql
end
def extract_pg_identifier_from_name(name)
match_data = name.start_with?('"') ? name.match(/\"([^\"]+)\"/) : name.match(/([^\.]+)/)
if match_data
rest = name[match_data[0].length, name.length]
rest = rest[1, rest.length] if rest.start_with? "."
[match_data[1], (rest.length > 0 ? rest : nil)]
end
end
def extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
sql[/into\s+([^\(]*).*values\s*\(/i]
$1.strip if $1
end
def table_definition
TableDefinition.new(self)
end
end
end
end
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