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require 'yaml'
module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
class ActiveRecordError < StandardError #:nodoc:
class SubclassNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class AssociationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class SerializationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class AdapterNotSpecified < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
class AdapterNotFound < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
class ConnectionNotEstablished < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class ConnectionFailed < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class RecordNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class StatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class PreparedStatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class StaleObjectError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
class AttributeAssignmentError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
attr_reader :exception, :attribute
def initialize(message, exception, attribute)
@exception = exception
@attribute = attribute
@message = message
class MultiparameterAssignmentErrors < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
attr_reader :errors
def initialize(errors)
@errors = errors
# Active Record objects doesn't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from the table definition with
# which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes and their type is done directly in the database. Any change
# is instantly reflected in the Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
# database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
# See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/README.html for more insight.
# == Creation
# Active Records accepts constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash method is especially useful when
# you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like a HTTP request. It works like this:
# user ="name" => "David", "occupation" => "Code Artist")
# # => "David"
# You can also use block initialization:
# user = do |u|
# = "David"
# u.occupation = "Code Artist"
# end
# And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
# user =
# = "David"
# user.occupation = "Code Artist"
# == Conditions
# Conditions can either be specified as a string or an array representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
# The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string form can
# be used for statements that doesn't involve tainted data. Examples:
# User < ActiveRecord::Base
# def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
# find_first("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'")
# end
# def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
# find_first([ "user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password ])
# end
# end
# The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection
# attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ parameters come directly from a HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> method,
# on the other hand, will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that
# an attacker can't escape the query and fake the login (or worse).
# == Overwriting default accessors
# All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record object, but some times you
# want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by either by overwriting the default accessors (using the same
# name as the attribute) calling read_attribute(attr_name) and write_attribute(attr_name, value) to actually change things.
# Example:
# class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
# # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
# def length=(minutes)
# write_attribute("length", minutes * 60)
# end
# def length
# read_attribute("length") / 60
# end
# end
# == Accessing attributes before they have been type casted
# Some times you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined type cast run its course first.
# That can be done by using the <attribute>_before_type_cast accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model
# has a balance attribute, you can call account.balance_before_type_cast or account.id_before_type_cast.
# This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an integer field and you want to display
# the original string back in an error message. Accessing the attribute normally would type cast the string to 0, which isn't what you
# want.
# == Dynamic attribute-based finders
# Dynamic attribute-based finders are a cleaner way of getting objects by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by
# appending the name of an attribute to <tt>find_by_</tt>, so you get finders like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name, Payment.find_by_transaction_id</tt>.
# So instead of writing <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name])</tt>, you just do <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
# It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_", so you get finders like
# <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password</tt> or even <tt>Payment.find_by_purchaser_and_state_and_country</tt>. So instead of writing
# <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password])</tt>, you just do
# <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password)</tt>.
# It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for Payment.find_all_by_amount
# is actually Payment.find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil). And the full interface to Person.find_by_user_name is
# actually Person.find_by_user_name(user_name, orderings = nil)
# == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
# Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
# This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappeable objects without doing any additional work. Example:
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# serialize :preferences
# end
# user = User.create("preferences" => { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
# User.find( # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
# You can also specify an class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception if a serialized object is retrieved as a
# descendent of a class not in the hierarchy. Example:
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# serialize :preferences, Hash
# end
# user = User.create("preferences" => %w( one two three ))
# User.find( # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
# == Single table inheritance
# Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by default is called "type" (can be changed
# by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>). This means that an inheritance looking like this:
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
# class Firm < Company; end
# class Client < Company; end
# class PriorityClient < Client; end
# When you do Firm.create("name" => "37signals"), this record will be saved in the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then
# fetch this row again using Company.find_first "name = '37signals'" and it will return a Firm object.
# If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't be triggered. In that case, it'll work just
# like normal subclasses with no special magic for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
# Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
# == Connection to multiple databases in different models
# Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved by ActiveRecord::Base.connection.
# All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection.
# For example, if Course is a ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database you can just say Course.establish_connection
# and Course *and all its subclasses* will use this connection instead.
# This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is
# requested, the retrieve_connection method will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
# == Exceptions
# * +ActiveRecordError+ -- generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record
# * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include a
# <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
# * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified an non-existent adapter
# (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
# * +AssociationTypeMismatch+ -- the object assigned to the association wasn't of the type specified in the association definition.
# * +SerializationTypeMismatch+ -- the object serialized wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
# * +ConnectionNotEstablished+ -- no connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt> before querying.
# * +RecordNotFound+ -- no record responded to the find* method.
# Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions.
# * +StatementInvalid+ -- the database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
# Either the record with the given ID doesn't exist or the record didn't meet the additional restrictions.
# * +MultiparameterAssignmentErrors+ -- collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
# +attributes=+ method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of +AttributeAssignmentError+
# objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
# * +AttributeAssignmentError+ -- an error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the +attributes=+ method.
# You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute triggered the error.
# *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
# So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through Base.logger= which will then be used by all
# instances in the current object space.
class Base
include ClassInheritableAttributes
# Accepts a logger conforming to the interface of Log4r or the default Ruby 1.8+ Logger class, which is then passed
# on to any new database connections made and which can be retrieved on both a class and instance level by calling +logger+.
cattr_accessor :logger
# Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
# also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work unrelated
# to any of the specific Active Records.
def self.connection
# Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
# also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work that isn't
# easily done without going straight to SQL.
def connection
def self.inherited(child) #:nodoc:
@@subclasses[self] ||= []
@@subclasses[self] << child
@@subclasses = {}
cattr_accessor :configurations
@@primary_key_prefix_type = {}
# Accessor for the prefix type that will be prepended to every primary key column name. The options are :table_name and
# :table_name_with_underscore. If the first is specified, the Product class will look for "productid" instead of "id" as
# the primary column. If the latter is specified, the Product class will look for "product_id" instead of "id". Remember
# that this is a global setting for all Active Records.
cattr_accessor :primary_key_prefix_type
@@primary_key_prefix_type = nil
# Accessor for the name of the prefix string to prepend to every table name. So if set to "basecamp_", all
# table names will be named like "basecamp_projects", "basecamp_people", etc. This is a convenient way of creating a namespace
# for tables in a shared database. By default, the prefix is the empty string.
cattr_accessor :table_name_prefix
@@table_name_prefix = ""
# Works like +table_name_prefix+, but appends instead of prepends (set to "_basecamp" gives "projects_basecamp",
# "people_basecamp"). By default, the suffix is the empty string.
cattr_accessor :table_name_suffix
@@table_name_suffix = ""
# Indicate whether or not table names should be the pluralized versions of the corresponding class names.
# If true, this the default table name for a +Product+ class will be +products+. If false, it would just be +product+.
# See table_name for the full rules on table/class naming. This is true, by default.
cattr_accessor :pluralize_table_names
@@pluralize_table_names = true
# Determines whether or not to use ANSI codes to colorize the logging statements committed by the connection adapter. These colors
# makes it much easier to overview things during debugging (when used through a reader like +tail+ and on a black background), but
# may complicate matters if you use software like syslog. This is true, by default.
cattr_accessor :colorize_logging
@@colorize_logging = true
# Determines whether to use Time.local (using :local) or Time.utc (using :utc) when pulling dates and times from the database.
# This is set to :local by default.
cattr_accessor :default_timezone
@@default_timezone = :local
class << self # Class methods
# Returns objects for the records responding to either a specific id (1), a list of ids (1, 5, 6) or an array of ids.
# If only one ID is specified, that object is returned directly. If more than one ID is specified, an array is returned.
# Examples:
# Person.find(1) # returns the object for ID = 1
# Person.find(1, 2, 6) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (1, 2, 6)
# Person.find([7, 17]) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (7, 17)
# Person.find([1]) # returns an array for objects the object with ID = 1
# The last argument may be a Hash of find options. Currently, +conditions+ is the only option, behaving the same as with +find_all+.
# Person.find(1, :conditions => "associate_id = 5"
# Person.find(1, 2, 6, :conditions => "status = 'active'"
# Person.find([7, 17], :conditions => ["sanitize_me = ?", "bare'quote"]
# +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found.
def find(*args)
# Return an Array if ids are passed in an Array.
expects_array = args.first.kind_of?(Array)
# Extract options hash from argument list.
options = extract_options_from_args!(args)
conditions = " AND #{sanitize_sql(options[:conditions])}" if options[:conditions]
ids = args.flatten.compact.uniq
case ids.size
# Raise if no ids passed.
when 0
raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} without an ID#{conditions}"
# Find a single id.
when 1
unless result = find_first("#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(ids.first)}#{conditions}")
raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} with ID=#{ids.first}#{conditions}"
# Box result if expecting array.
expects_array ? [result] : result
# Find multiple ids.
ids_list = { |id| sanitize(id) }.join(',')
result = find_all("#{primary_key} IN (#{ids_list})#{conditions}", primary_key)
if result.size == ids.size
raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find all #{name.pluralize} with IDs (#{ids_list})#{conditions}"
# Returns true if the given +id+ represents the primary key of a record in the database, false otherwise.
# Example:
# Person.exists?(5)
def exists?(id)
!find_first("#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(id)}").nil? rescue false
# This method is deprecated in favor of find with the :conditions option.
# Works like find, but the record matching +id+ must also meet the +conditions+.
# +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found matching the +id+ or meeting the condition.
# Example:
# Person.find_on_conditions 5, "first_name LIKE '%dav%' AND last_name = 'heinemeier'"
def find_on_conditions(ids, conditions)
find(ids, :conditions => conditions)
# Returns an array of all the objects that could be instantiated from the associated
# table in the database. The +conditions+ can be used to narrow the selection of objects (WHERE-part),
# such as by "color = 'red'", and arrangement of the selection can be done through +orderings+ (ORDER BY-part),
# such as by "last_name, first_name DESC". A maximum of returned objects and their offset can be specified in
# +limit+ with either just a single integer as the limit or as an array with the first element as the limit,
# the second as the offset. Examples:
# Project.find_all "category = 'accounts'", "last_accessed DESC", 15
# Project.find_all ["category = ?", category_name], "created ASC", [15, 20]
def find_all(conditions = nil, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil)
sql = "SELECT * FROM #{table_name} "
sql << "#{joins} " if joins
add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
sql << "ORDER BY #{orderings} " unless orderings.nil?
limit = sanitize_sql(limit) if limit.is_a? Array and limit.first.is_a? String
connection.add_limit!(sql, limit) if limit
# Works like find_all, but requires a complete SQL string. Examples:
# Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.*, FROM posts p, comments c WHERE = c.post_id"
# Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT * FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
def find_by_sql(sql)
connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load").inject([]) { |objects, record| objects << instantiate(record) }
# Returns the object for the first record responding to the conditions in +conditions+,
# such as "group = 'master'". If more than one record is returned from the query, it's the first that'll
# be used to create the object. In such cases, it might be beneficial to also specify
# +orderings+, like "income DESC, name", to control exactly which record is to be used. Example:
# Employee.find_first "income > 50000", "income DESC, name"
def find_first(conditions = nil, orderings = nil)
find_all(conditions, orderings, 1).first
# Creates an object, instantly saves it as a record (if the validation permits it), and returns it. If the save
# fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
def create(attributes = nil)
if attributes.is_a?(Array)
attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr) }
object = new(attributes)
# Finds the record from the passed +id+, instantly saves it with the passed +attributes+ (if the validation permits it),
# and returns it. If the save fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
def update(id, attributes)
if id.is_a?(Array)
idx = -1
id.collect { |id| idx += 1; update(id, attributes[idx]) }
object = find(id)
# Deletes the record with the given +id+ without instantiating an object first. If an array of ids is provided, all of them
# are deleted.
def delete(id)
delete_all([ "#{primary_key} IN (?)", id ])
# Destroys the record with the given +id+ by instantiating the object and calling #destroy (all the callbacks are the triggered).
# If an array of ids is provided, all of them are destroyed.
def destroy(id)
id.is_a?(Array) ? id.each { |id| destroy(id) } : find(id).destroy
# Updates all records with the SET-part of an SQL update statement in +updates+ and returns an integer with the number of rows updates.
# A subset of the records can be selected by specifying +conditions+. Example:
# Billing.update_all "category = 'authorized', approved = 1", "author = 'David'"
def update_all(updates, conditions = nil)
sql = "UPDATE #{table_name} SET #{sanitize_sql(updates)} "
add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
return connection.update(sql, "#{name} Update")
# Destroys the objects for all the records that matches the +condition+ by instantiating each object and calling
# the destroy method. Example:
# Person.destroy_all "last_login < '2004-04-04'"
def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
find_all(conditions).each { |object| object.destroy }
# Deletes all the records that matches the +condition+ without instantiating the objects first (and hence not
# calling the destroy method). Example:
# Post.destroy_all "person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')"
def delete_all(conditions = nil)
sql = "DELETE FROM #{table_name} "
add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
connection.delete(sql, "#{name} Delete all")
# Returns the number of records that meets the +conditions+. Zero is returned if no records match. Example:
# Product.count "sales > 1"
def count(conditions = nil)
sql = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM #{table_name} "
add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
# Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part.
# Product.count "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id ="
def count_by_sql(sql)
sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
count = connection.select_one(sql, "#{name} Count").values.first
return count ? count.to_i : 0
# Increments the specified counter by one. So <tt>DiscussionBoard.increment_counter("post_count",
# discussion_board_id)</tt> would increment the "post_count" counter on the board responding to discussion_board_id.
# This is used for caching aggregate values, so that they doesn't need to be computed every time. Especially important
# for looping over a collection where each element require a number of aggregate values. Like the DiscussionBoard
# that needs to list both the number of posts and comments.
def increment_counter(counter_name, id)
update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} + 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
# Works like increment_counter, but decrements instead.
def decrement_counter(counter_name, id)
update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} - 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
# Attributes named in this macro are protected from mass-assignment, such as <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and
# <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. Their assignment will simply be ignored. Instead, you can use the direct writer
# methods to do assignment. This is meant to protect sensitive attributes to be overwritten by URL/form hackers. Example:
# class Customer < ActiveRecord::Base
# attr_protected :credit_rating
# end
# customer ="name" => David, "credit_rating" => "Excellent")
# customer.credit_rating # => nil
# customer.attributes = { "description" => "Jolly fellow", "credit_rating" => "Superb" }
# customer.credit_rating # => nil
# customer.credit_rating = "Average"
# customer.credit_rating # => "Average"
def attr_protected(*attributes)
write_inheritable_array("attr_protected", attributes)
# Returns an array of all the attributes that have been protected from mass-assignment.
def protected_attributes # :nodoc:
# If this macro is used, only those attributed named in it will be accessible for mass-assignment, such as
# <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. This is the more conservative choice for mass-assignment
# protection. If you'd rather start from an all-open default and restrict attributes as needed, have a look at
# attr_protected.
def attr_accessible(*attributes)
write_inheritable_array("attr_accessible", attributes)
# Returns an array of all the attributes that have been made accessible to mass-assignment.
def accessible_attributes # :nodoc:
# Specifies that the attribute by the name of +attr_name+ should be serialized before saving to the database and unserialized
# after loading from the database. The serialization is done through YAML. If +class_name+ is specified, the serialized
# object must be of that class on retrieval or +SerializationTypeMismatch+ will be raised.
def serialize(attr_name, class_name = Object)
write_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized", serialized_attributes.update(attr_name.to_s => class_name))
# Returns a hash of all the attributes that have been specified for serialization as keys and their class restriction as values.
def serialized_attributes
read_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized") || { }
# Guesses the table name (in forced lower-case) based on the name of the class in the inheritance hierarchy descending
# directly from ActiveRecord. So if the hierarchy looks like: Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, then Message is used
# to guess the table name from even when called on Reply. The rules used to do the guess are handled by the Inflector class
# in Active Support, which knows almost all common English inflections (report a bug if your inflection isn't covered).
# Additionally, the class-level table_name_prefix is prepended to the table_name and the table_name_suffix is appended.
# So if you have "myapp_" as a prefix, the table name guess for an Account class becomes "myapp_accounts".
# You can also overwrite this class method to allow for unguessable links, such as a Mouse class with a link to a
# "mice" table. Example:
# class Mouse < ActiveRecord::Base
# set_table_name "mice"
# end
def table_name
table_name_prefix + undecorated_table_name(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self)) + table_name_suffix
# Defines the primary key field -- can be overridden in subclasses. Overwriting will negate any effect of the
# primary_key_prefix_type setting, though.
def primary_key
case primary_key_prefix_type
when :table_name
Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self), false)
when :table_name_with_underscore
# Defines the column name for use with single table inheritance -- can be overridden in subclasses.
def inheritance_column
# Sets the table name to use to the given value, or (if the value
# is nil or false) to the value returned by the given block.
# Example:
# class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
# set_table_name "project"
# end
def set_table_name( value=nil, &block )
define_attr_method :table_name, value, &block
alias :table_name= :set_table_name
# Sets the name of the primary key column to use to the given value,
# or (if the value is nil or false) to the value returned by the given
# block.
# Example:
# class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
# set_primary_key "sysid"
# end
def set_primary_key( value=nil, &block )
define_attr_method :primary_key, value, &block
alias :primary_key= :set_primary_key
# Sets the name of the inheritance column to use to the given value,
# or (if the value # is nil or false) to the value returned by the
# given block.
# Example:
# class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
# set_inheritance_column do
# original_inheritance_column + "_id"
# end
# end
def set_inheritance_column( value=nil, &block )
define_attr_method :inheritance_column, value, &block
alias :inheritance_column= :set_inheritance_column
# Turns the +table_name+ back into a class name following the reverse rules of +table_name+.
def class_name(table_name = table_name) # :nodoc:
# remove any prefix and/or suffix from the table name
class_name = Inflector.camelize(table_name[table_name_prefix.length..-(table_name_suffix.length + 1)])
class_name = Inflector.singularize(class_name) if pluralize_table_names
return class_name
# Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
def columns
@columns ||= connection.columns(table_name, "#{name} Columns")
# Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
def columns_hash
@columns_hash ||= columns.inject({}) { |hash, column| hash[] = column; hash }
# Returns an array of columns objects where the primary id, all columns ending in "_id" or "_count",
# and columns used for single table inheritance has been removed.
def content_columns
@content_columns ||= columns.reject { |c| == primary_key || =~ /(_id|_count)$/ || == inheritance_column }
# Returns a hash of all the methods added to query each of the columns in the table with the name of the method as the key
# and true as the value. This makes it possible to do O(1) lookups in respond_to? to check if a given method for attribute
# is available.
def column_methods_hash
@dynamic_methods_hash ||= columns_hash.keys.inject( do |methods, attr|
methods[attr.to_sym] = true
methods["#{attr}=".to_sym] = true
methods["#{attr}?".to_sym] = true
methods["#{attr}_before_type_cast".to_sym] = true
# Resets all the cached information about columns, which will cause they to be reloaded on the next request.
def reset_column_information
@columns = @columns_hash = @content_columns = @dynamic_methods_hash = nil
def reset_column_information_and_inheritable_attributes_for_all_subclasses#:nodoc:
subclasses.each { |klass| klass.reset_inheritable_attributes; klass.reset_column_information }
# Transforms attribute key names into a more humane format, such as "First name" instead of "first_name". Example:
# Person.human_attribute_name("first_name") # => "First name"
# Deprecated in favor of just calling "first_name".humanize
def human_attribute_name(attribute_key_name) #:nodoc:
def descends_from_active_record? # :nodoc:
superclass == Base || !columns_hash.has_key?(inheritance_column)
def quote(object) #:nodoc:
# Used to sanitize objects before they're used in an SELECT SQL-statement. Delegates to <tt>connection.quote</tt>.
def sanitize(object) #:nodoc:
# Used to aggregate logging and benchmark, so you can measure and represent multiple statements in a single block.
# Usage (hides all the SQL calls for the individual actions and calculates total runtime for them all):
# Project.benchmark("Creating project") do
# project = Project.create("name" => "stuff")
# project.create_manager("name" => "David")
# project.milestones << Milestone.find_all
# end
def benchmark(title)
result = nil
bm = Benchmark.measure { result = silence { yield } } "#{title} (#{sprintf("%f", bm.real)})"
return result
# Silences the logger for the duration of the block.
def silence
result = nil
logger.level = Logger::ERROR
result = yield
logger.level = Logger::DEBUG
return result
# Overwrite the default class equality method to provide support for association proxies.
def ===(object)
# Finder methods must instantiate through this method to work with the single-table inheritance model
# that makes it possible to create objects of different types from the same table.
def instantiate(record)
object = record_with_type?(record) ? compute_type(record[inheritance_column]).allocate : allocate
rescue NameError
"The single-table inheritance mechanism failed to locate the subclass: '#{record[inheritance_column]}'. " +
"This error is raised because the column '#{inheritance_column}' is reserved for storing the class in case of inheritance. " +
"Please rename this column if you didn't intend it to be used for storing the inheritance class " +
"or overwrite #{self.to_s}.inheritance_column to use another column for that information."
object.instance_variable_set("@attributes", record)
return object
# Returns true if the +record+ has a single table inheritance column and is using it.
def record_with_type?(record)
record.include?(inheritance_column) && !record[inheritance_column].nil? &&
# Returns the name of the type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
# MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as "MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass".
def type_name_with_module(type_name) =~ /::/ ?*)::/).first.first + "::" + type_name : type_name
# Adds a sanitized version of +conditions+ to the +sql+ string. Note that it's the passed +sql+ string is changed.
def add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
sql << "WHERE #{sanitize_sql(conditions)} " unless conditions.nil?
sql << (conditions.nil? ? "WHERE " : " AND ") + type_condition unless descends_from_active_record?
def type_condition
" (" + subclasses.inject("#{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(name)}' ") do |condition, subclass|
condition << "OR #{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(}' "
end + ") "
# Guesses the table name, but does not decorate it with prefix and suffix information.
def undecorated_table_name(class_name = class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
table_name = Inflector.underscore(Inflector.demodulize(class_name))
table_name = Inflector.pluralize(table_name) if pluralize_table_names
return table_name
# Enables dynamic finders like find_by_user_name(user_name) and find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) that are turned into
# find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name]) and find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password]) respectively. Also works
# for find_all, but using find_all_by_amount(50) that are turned into find_all(["amount = ?", 50]).
# It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for find_all_by_amount
# is actually find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil).
def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
method_name = method_id.id2name
if method_name =~ /find_(all_by|by)_([_a-z][_a-z\d]*)/
finder, attributes = ($1 == "all_by" ? :find_all : :find_first), $2.split("_and_")
attributes.each { |attr_name| super unless column_methods_hash[attr_name.intern] }
attr_index = -1
conditions = attributes.collect { |attr_name| attr_index += 1; "#{attr_name} #{arguments[attr_index].nil? ? "IS" : "="} ? " }.join(" AND ")
send(finder, [conditions, *arguments[0...attributes.length]], *arguments[attributes.length..-1])
# Defines an "attribute" method (like #inheritance_column or
# #table_name). A new (class) method will be created with the
# given name. If a value is specified, the new method will
# return that value (as a string). Otherwise, the given block
# will be used to compute the value of the method.
# The original method will be aliased, with the new name being
# prefixed with "original_". This allows the new method to
# access the original value.
# Example:
# class A < ActiveRecord::Base
# define_attr_method :primary_key, "sysid"
# define_attr_method( :inheritance_column ) do
# original_inheritance_column + "_id"
# end
# end
def define_attr_method(name, value=nil, &block)
sing = class << self; self; end
block = proc { value.to_s } if value
sing.send( :alias_method, "original_#{name}", name )
sing.send( :define_method, name, &block )
def subclasses
@@subclasses[self] ||= []
@@subclasses[self] + extra = @@subclasses[self].inject([]) {|list, subclass| list + subclass.subclasses }
# Returns the class type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
# MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass.
def compute_type(type_name)
type_name_with_module(type_name).split("::").inject(Object) do |final_type, part|
final_type = final_type.const_get(part)
# Returns the name of the class descending directly from ActiveRecord in the inheritance hierarchy.
def class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass)
if klass.superclass == Base
elsif klass.superclass.nil?
raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} doesn't belong in a hierarchy descending from ActiveRecord"
# Accepts an array or string. The string is returned untouched, but the array has each value
# sanitized and interpolated into the sql statement.
# ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
def sanitize_sql(ary)
return ary unless ary.is_a?(Array)
statement, *values = ary
if values.first.is_a?(Hash) and statement =~ /:\w+/
replace_named_bind_variables(statement, values.first)
elsif statement.include?('?')
replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
statement % values.collect { |value| connection.quote_string(value.to_s) }
alias_method :sanitize_conditions, :sanitize_sql
def replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.count('?'), values.size)
bound = values.dup
statement.gsub('?') { quote_bound_value(bound.shift) }
def replace_named_bind_variables(statement, bind_vars)
raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.scan(/:(\w+)/).uniq.size, bind_vars.size)
statement.gsub(/:(\w+)/) do
match = $1.to_sym
if bind_vars.has_key?(match)
raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "missing value for :#{match} in #{statement}"
def quote_bound_value(value)
case value
when Array { |v| connection.quote(v) }.join(',')
def raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, expected, provided)
unless expected == provided
raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "wrong number of bind variables (#{provided} for #{expected}) in: #{statement}"
def extract_options_from_args!(args)
if args.last.is_a?(Hash) then args.pop else {} end
def encode_quoted_value(value)
quoted_value = connection.quote(value)
quoted_value = "'#{quoted_value[1..-2].gsub(/\'/, "\\\\'")}'" if quoted_value.include?("\\\'")
# New objects can be instantiated as either empty (pass no construction parameter) or pre-set with
# attributes but not yet saved (pass a hash with key names matching the associated table column names).
# In both instances, valid attribute keys are determined by the column names of the associated table --
# hence you can't have attributes that aren't part of the table columns.
def initialize(attributes = nil)
@attributes = attributes_from_column_definition
@new_record = true
self.attributes = attributes unless attributes.nil?
yield self if block_given?
# Every Active Record class must use "id" as their primary ID. This getter overwrites the native
# id method, which isn't being used in this context.
def id
# Enables Active Record objects to be used as URL parameters in Action Pack automatically.
alias_method :to_param, :id
def id_before_type_cast #:nodoc:
def quoted_id #:nodoc:
quote(id, self.class.columns_hash[self.class.primary_key])
# Sets the primary ID.
def id=(value)
write_attribute(self.class.primary_key, value)
# Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet -- that is, a record for the object doesn't exist yet.
def new_record?
# * No record exists: Creates a new record with values matching those of the object attributes.
# * A record does exist: Updates the record with values matching those of the object attributes.
def save
# Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should
# be made (since they can't be persisted).
def destroy
unless new_record?
"DELETE FROM #{self.class.table_name} " +
"WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
"#{} Destroy"
# Returns a clone of the record that hasn't been assigned an id yet and is treated as a new record.
def clone
attrs = self.attributes
cloned_record =
# Updates a single attribute and saves the record. This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records.
# Note: This method is overwritten by the Validation module that'll make sure that updates made with this method
# doesn't get subjected to validation checks. Hence, attributes can be updated even if the full object isn't valid.
def update_attribute(name, value)
self[name] = value
# Updates all the attributes in from the passed hash and saves the record. If the object is invalid, the saving will
# fail and false will be returned.
def update_attributes(attributes)
self.attributes = attributes
return save
# Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and adds one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
def increment(attribute)
self[attribute] ||= 0
self[attribute] += 1
# Increments the +attribute+ and saves the record.
def increment!(attribute)
increment(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
# Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and subtracts one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
def decrement(attribute)
self[attribute] ||= 0
self[attribute] -= 1
# Decrements the +attribute+ and saves the record.
def decrement!(attribute)
decrement(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
# Turns an +attribute+ that's currently true into false and vice versa. Returns self.
def toggle(attribute)
self[attribute] = quote(!send("#{attribute}?", column_for_attribute(attribute)))
# Toggles the +attribute+ and saves the record.
def toggle!(attribute)
toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
# Reloads the attributes of this object from the database.
def reload
return self
# Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
# "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like, 12, 12)).
# (Alias for the protected read_attribute method).
def [](attr_name)
# Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+.
# (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).
def []= (attr_name, value)
write_attribute(attr_name.to_s, value)
# Allows you to set all the attributes at once by passing in a hash with keys
# matching the attribute names (which again matches the column names). Sensitive attributes can be protected
# from this form of mass-assignment by using the +attr_protected+ macro. Or you can alternatively
# specify which attributes *can* be accessed in with the +attr_accessible+ macro. Then all the
# attributes not included in that won't be allowed to be mass-assigned.
def attributes=(attributes)
return if attributes.nil?
multi_parameter_attributes = []
remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes).each do |k, v|
k.include?("(") ? multi_parameter_attributes << [ k, v ] : send(k + "=", v)
# Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and clones of their objects as values.
def attributes
self.attribute_names.inject({}) do |attributes, name|
attributes[name] = read_attribute(name).clone
rescue TypeError
attributes[name] = read_attribute(name)
# Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither
# nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that responds to empty?, most notably Strings).
def attribute_present?(attribute)
is_empty = read_attribute(attribute).respond_to?("empty?") ? read_attribute(attribute).empty? : false
@attributes.include?(attribute) && !@attributes[attribute].nil? && !is_empty
# Returns an array of names for the attributes available on this object sorted alphabetically.
def attribute_names
# Returns the column object for the named attribute.
def column_for_attribute(name)
# Returns true if the +comparison_object+ is the same object, or is of the same type and has the same id.
def ==(comparison_object)
comparison_object.equal?(self) or (comparison_object.instance_of?(self.class) and == id)
# Delegates to ==
def eql?(comparison_object)
self == (comparison_object)
# Delegates to id in order to allow two records of the same type and id to work with something like:
# [ Person.find(1), Person.find(2), Person.find(3) ] & [ Person.find(1), Person.find(4) ] # => [ Person.find(1) ]
def hash
# For checking respond_to? without searching the attributes (which is faster).
alias_method :respond_to_without_attributes?, :respond_to?
# A Person object with a name attribute can ask person.respond_to?("name"), person.respond_to?("name="), and
# person.respond_to?("name?") which will all return true.
def respond_to?(method, include_priv = false)
self.class.column_methods_hash[method.to_sym] || respond_to_without_attributes?(method, include_priv)
def create_or_update
if new_record? then create else update end
return true
# Updates the associated record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
def update
"UPDATE #{self.class.table_name} " +
"SET #{quoted_comma_pair_list(connection, attributes_with_quotes(false))} " +
"WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
"#{} Update"
# Creates a new record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
def create = connection.insert(
"INSERT INTO #{self.class.table_name} " +
"(#{quoted_column_names.join(', ')}) " +
"VALUES(#{attributes_with_quotes.values.join(', ')})",
"#{} Create",
@new_record = false
# Sets the attribute used for single table inheritance to this class name if this is not the ActiveRecord descendant.
# Considering the hierarchy Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, this makes it possible to do without having to
# set Reply[Reply.inheritance_column] = "Reply" yourself. No such attribute would be set for objects of the
# Message class in that example.
def ensure_proper_type
unless self.class.descends_from_active_record?
write_attribute(self.class.inheritance_column, Inflector.demodulize(
# Allows access to the object attributes, which are held in the @attributes hash, as were
# they first-class methods. So a Person class with a name attribute can use Person#name and
# Person#name= and never directly use the attributes hash -- except for multiple assigns with
# ActiveRecord#attributes=. A Milestone class can also ask Milestone#completed? to test that
# the completed attribute is not nil or 0.
# It's also possible to instantiate related objects, so a Client class belonging to the clients
# table with a master_id foreign key can instantiate master through Client#master.
def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
method_name = method_id.id2name
if method_name =~ read_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
return read_attribute($1)
elsif method_name =~ read_untyped_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
return read_attribute_before_type_cast($1)
elsif method_name =~ write_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
write_attribute($1, arguments[0])
elsif method_name =~ query_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
return query_attribute($1)
def read_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)[^=?]*$/ end
def read_untyped_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)_before_type_cast$/ end
def write_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)=.*$/ end
def query_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)\?$/ end
# Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
# "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like, 12, 12)).
def read_attribute(attr_name)
if @attributes.keys.include? attr_name
if column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column) ?
unserialize_attribute(attr_name) : column.type_cast(@attributes[attr_name])
def read_attribute_before_type_cast(attr_name)
# Returns true if the attribute is of a text column and marked for serialization.
def unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column)
@attributes[attr_name] && [:text, :string].include?(column.send(:type)) && @attributes[attr_name].is_a?(String) && self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]
# Returns the unserialized object of the attribute.
def unserialize_attribute(attr_name)
unserialized_object = object_from_yaml(@attributes[attr_name])
if unserialized_object.is_a?(self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name])
@attributes[attr_name] = unserialized_object
"#{attr_name} was supposed to be a #{self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]}, " +
"but was a #{unserialized_object.class.to_s}"
# Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+. Empty strings for fixnum and float
# columns are turned into nil.
def write_attribute(attr_name, value)
@attributes[attr_name] = empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value) ? nil : value
def empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value)
column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
column && (column.klass == Fixnum || column.klass == Float) && value == ""
def query_attribute(attr_name)
attribute = @attributes[attr_name]
if attribute.kind_of?(Fixnum) && attribute == 0
elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute == "0"
elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute.empty?
elsif attribute.nil?
elsif attribute == false
elsif attribute == "f"
elsif attribute == "false"
def remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes)
if self.class.accessible_attributes.nil? && self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
attributes.reject { |key, value| attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
elsif self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
attributes.reject { |key, value| !self.class.accessible_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
elsif self.class.accessible_attributes.nil?
attributes.reject { |key, value| self.class.protected_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
# The primary key and inheritance column can never be set by mass-assignment for security reasons.
def attributes_protected_by_default
[ self.class.primary_key, self.class.inheritance_column ]
# Returns copy of the attributes hash where all the values have been safely quoted for use in
# an SQL statement.
def attributes_with_quotes(include_primary_key = true)
columns_hash = self.class.columns_hash
attrs_quoted = attributes.inject({}) do |attrs_quoted, pair|
attrs_quoted[pair.first] = quote(pair.last, columns_hash[pair.first]) unless !include_primary_key && pair.first == self.class.primary_key
attrs_quoted.delete_if { |key, value| !self.class.columns_hash.keys.include?(key) }
# Quote strings appropriately for SQL statements.
def quote(value, column = nil)
connection.quote(value, column)
# Interpolate custom sql string in instance context.
# Optional record argument is meant for custom insert_sql.
def interpolate_sql(sql, record = nil)
# Initializes the attributes array with keys matching the columns from the linked table and
# the values matching the corresponding default value of that column, so
# that a new instance, or one populated from a passed-in Hash, still has all the attributes
# that instances loaded from the database would.
def attributes_from_column_definition
connection.columns(self.class.table_name, "#{} Columns").inject({}) do |attributes, column|
attributes[] = column.default unless == self.class.primary_key
# Instantiates objects for all attribute classes that needs more than one constructor parameter. This is done
# by calling new on the column type or aggregation type (through composed_of) object with these parameters.
# So having the pairs written_on(1) = "2004", written_on(2) = "6", written_on(3) = "24", will instantiate
# written_on (a date type) with"2004", "6", "24"). You can also specify a typecast character in the
# parentheses to have the parameters typecasted before they're used in the constructor. Use i for Fixnum, f for Float,
# s for String, and a for Array. If all the values for a given attribute is empty, the attribute will be set to nil.
def assign_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
# Includes an ugly hack for Time.local instead of because the latter is reserved by Time itself.
def execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(callstack)
errors = []
callstack.each do |name, values|
klass = (self.class.reflect_on_aggregation(name) || column_for_attribute(name)).klass
if values.empty?
send(name + "=", nil)
send(name + "=", Time == klass ? klass.local(*values) :*values))
rescue => ex
errors <<"error on assignment #{values.inspect} to #{name}", ex, name)
unless errors.empty?
raise, "#{errors.size} error(s) on assignment of multiparameter attributes"
def extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
attributes = { }
for pair in pairs
multiparameter_name, value = pair
attribute_name = multiparameter_name.split("(").first
attributes[attribute_name] = [] unless attributes.include?(attribute_name)
unless value.empty?
attributes[attribute_name] <<
[ find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name), type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value) ]
attributes.each { |name, values| attributes[name] = values.sort_by{ |v| v.first }.collect { |v| v.last } }
def type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
multiparameter_name =~ /\([0-9]*([a-z])\)/ ? value.send("to_" + $1) : value
def find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)
# Returns a comma-separated pair list, like "key1 = val1, key2 = val2".
def comma_pair_list(hash)
hash.inject([]) { |list, pair| list << "#{pair.first} = #{pair.last}" }.join(", ")
def quoted_column_names(attributes = attributes_with_quotes)
attributes.keys.collect { |column_name| connection.quote_column_name(column_name) }
def quote_columns(column_quoter, hash)
hash.inject({}) do |list, pair|
list[column_quoter.quote_column_name(pair.first)] = pair.last
def quoted_comma_pair_list(column_quoter, hash)
comma_pair_list(quote_columns(column_quoter, hash))
def object_from_yaml(string)
return string unless string.is_a?(String)
if has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
rescue Object
# Apparently wasn't YAML anyway
def has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
string[0..3] == "--- "
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