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module ActiveRecord
# Raised by <tt>save!</tt> and <tt>create!</tt> when the record is invalid. Use the
# +record+ method to retrieve the record which did not validate.
# begin
# complex_operation_that_calls_save!_internally
# rescue ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid => invalid
# puts invalid.record.errors
# end
class RecordInvalid < ActiveRecordError
attr_reader :record
def initialize(record)
@record = record
super("Validation failed: #{@record.errors.full_messages.join(", ")}")
end
end
# Active Record validation is reported to and from this object, which is used by Base#save to
# determine whether the object is in a valid state to be saved. See usage example in Validations.
class Errors
include Enumerable
class << self
def default_error_messages
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn("ActiveRecord::Errors.default_error_messages has been deprecated. Please use I18n.translate('activerecord.errors.messages').")
I18n.translate 'activerecord.errors.messages'
end
end
def initialize(base) # :nodoc:
@base, @errors = base, {}
end
# Adds an error to the base object instead of any particular attribute. This is used
# to report errors that don't tie to any specific attribute, but rather to the object
# as a whole. These error messages don't get prepended with any field name when iterating
# with +each_full+, so they should be complete sentences.
def add_to_base(msg)
add(:base, msg)
end
# Adds an error message (+messsage+) to the +attribute+, which will be returned on a call to <tt>on(attribute)</tt>
# for the same attribute and ensure that this error object returns false when asked if <tt>empty?</tt>. More than one
# error can be added to the same +attribute+ in which case an array will be returned on a call to <tt>on(attribute)</tt>.
# If no +messsage+ is supplied, :invalid is assumed.
# If +message+ is a Symbol, it will be translated, using the appropriate scope (see translate_error).
def add(attribute, message = nil, options = {})
message ||= :invalid
message = generate_message(attribute, message, options) if message.is_a?(Symbol)
@errors[attribute.to_s] ||= []
@errors[attribute.to_s] << message
end
# Will add an error message to each of the attributes in +attributes+ that is empty.
def add_on_empty(attributes, custom_message = nil)
for attr in [attributes].flatten
value = @base.respond_to?(attr.to_s) ? @base.send(attr.to_s) : @base[attr.to_s]
is_empty = value.respond_to?(:empty?) ? value.empty? : false
add(attr, :empty, :default => custom_message) unless !value.nil? && !is_empty
end
end
# Will add an error message to each of the attributes in +attributes+ that is blank (using Object#blank?).
def add_on_blank(attributes, custom_message = nil)
for attr in [attributes].flatten
value = @base.respond_to?(attr.to_s) ? @base.send(attr.to_s) : @base[attr.to_s]
add(attr, :blank, :default => custom_message) if value.blank?
end
end
# Translates an error message in it's default scope (<tt>activerecord.errrors.messages</tt>).
# Error messages are first looked up in <tt>models.MODEL.attributes.ATTRIBUTE.MESSAGE</tt>, if it's not there,
# it's looked up in <tt>models.MODEL.MESSAGE</tt> and if that is not there it returns the translation of the
# default message (e.g. <tt>activerecord.errors.messages.MESSAGE</tt>). The translated model name,
# translated attribute name and the value are available for interpolation.
#
# When using inheritence in your models, it will check all the inherited models too, but only if the model itself
# hasn't been found. Say you have <tt>class Admin < User; end</tt> and you wanted the translation for the <tt>:blank</tt>
# error +message+ for the <tt>title</tt> +attribute+, it looks for these translations:
#
# <ol>
# <li><tt>activerecord.errors.models.admin.attributes.title.blank</tt></li>
# <li><tt>activerecord.errors.models.admin.blank</tt></li>
# <li><tt>activerecord.errors.models.user.attributes.title.blank</tt></li>
# <li><tt>activerecord.errors.models.user.blank</tt></li>
# <li><tt>activerecord.errors.messages.blank</tt></li>
# <li>any default you provided through the +options+ hash (in the activerecord.errors scope)</li>
# </ol>
def generate_message(attribute, message = :invalid, options = {})
message, options[:default] = options[:default], message if options[:default].is_a?(Symbol)
defaults = @base.class.self_and_descendents_from_active_record.map do |klass|
[ :"models.#{klass.name.underscore}.attributes.#{attribute}.#{message}",
:"models.#{klass.name.underscore}.#{message}" ]
end
defaults << options.delete(:default)
defaults = defaults.compact.flatten << :"messages.#{message}"
key = defaults.shift
value = @base.respond_to?(attribute) ? @base.send(attribute) : nil
options = { :default => defaults,
:model => @base.class.human_name,
:attribute => @base.class.human_attribute_name(attribute.to_s),
:value => value,
:scope => [:activerecord, :errors]
}.merge(options)
I18n.translate(key, options)
end
# Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has errors associated with it.
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.invalid?(:name) # => true
# company.errors.invalid?(:address) # => false
def invalid?(attribute)
!@errors[attribute.to_s].nil?
end
# Returns +nil+, if no errors are associated with the specified +attribute+.
# Returns the error message, if one error is associated with the specified +attribute+.
# Returns an array of error messages, if more than one error is associated with the specified +attribute+.
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.on(:name) # => ["is too short (minimum is 5 characters)", "can't be blank"]
# company.errors.on(:email) # => "can't be blank"
# company.errors.on(:address) # => nil
def on(attribute)
errors = @errors[attribute.to_s]
return nil if errors.nil?
errors.size == 1 ? errors.first : errors
end
alias :[] :on
# Returns errors assigned to the base object through +add_to_base+ according to the normal rules of <tt>on(attribute)</tt>.
def on_base
on(:base)
end
# Yields each attribute and associated message per error added.
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.each{|attr,msg| puts "#{attr} - #{msg}" }
# # => name - is too short (minimum is 5 characters)
# # name - can't be blank
# # address - can't be blank
def each
@errors.each_key { |attr| @errors[attr].each { |msg| yield attr, msg } }
end
# Yields each full error message added. So <tt>Person.errors.add("first_name", "can't be empty")</tt> will be returned
# through iteration as "First name can't be empty".
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.each_full{|msg| puts msg }
# # => Name is too short (minimum is 5 characters)
# # Name can't be blank
# # Address can't be blank
def each_full
full_messages.each { |msg| yield msg }
end
# Returns all the full error messages in an array.
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.full_messages # =>
# ["Name is too short (minimum is 5 characters)", "Name can't be blank", "Address can't be blank"]
def full_messages(options = {})
full_messages = []
@errors.each_key do |attr|
@errors[attr].each do |message|
next unless message
if attr == "base"
full_messages << message
else
#key = :"activerecord.att.#{@base.class.name.underscore.to_sym}.#{attr}"
attr_name = @base.class.human_attribute_name(attr)
full_messages << attr_name + ' ' + message
end
end
end
full_messages
end
# Returns true if no errors have been added.
def empty?
@errors.empty?
end
# Removes all errors that have been added.
def clear
@errors = {}
end
# Returns the total number of errors added. Two errors added to the same attribute will be counted as such.
def size
@errors.values.inject(0) { |error_count, attribute| error_count + attribute.size }
end
alias_method :count, :size
alias_method :length, :size
# Returns an XML representation of this error object.
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, :in => 5..30
# end
#
# company = Company.create(:address => '123 First St.')
# company.errors.to_xml
# # => <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
# # <errors>
# # <error>Name is too short (minimum is 5 characters)</error>
# # <error>Name can't be blank</error>
# # <error>Address can't be blank</error>
# # </errors>
def to_xml(options={})
options[:root] ||= "errors"
options[:indent] ||= 2
options[:builder] ||= Builder::XmlMarkup.new(:indent => options[:indent])
options[:builder].instruct! unless options.delete(:skip_instruct)
options[:builder].errors do |e|
full_messages.each { |msg| e.error(msg) }
end
end
end
# Please do have a look at ActiveRecord::Validations::ClassMethods for a higher level of validations.
#
# Active Records implement validation by overwriting Base#validate (or the variations, +validate_on_create+ and
# +validate_on_update+). Each of these methods can inspect the state of the object, which usually means ensuring
# that a number of attributes have a certain value (such as not empty, within a given range, matching a certain regular expression).
#
# Example:
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# protected
# def validate
# errors.add_on_empty %w( first_name last_name )
# errors.add("phone_number", "has invalid format") unless phone_number =~ /[0-9]*/
# end
#
# def validate_on_create # is only run the first time a new object is saved
# unless valid_discount?(membership_discount)
# errors.add("membership_discount", "has expired")
# end
# end
#
# def validate_on_update
# errors.add_to_base("No changes have occurred") if unchanged_attributes?
# end
# end
#
# person = Person.new("first_name" => "David", "phone_number" => "what?")
# person.save # => false (and doesn't do the save)
# person.errors.empty? # => false
# person.errors.count # => 2
# person.errors.on "last_name" # => "can't be empty"
# person.errors.on "phone_number" # => "has invalid format"
# person.errors.each_full { |msg| puts msg }
# # => "Last name can't be empty\n" +
# # "Phone number has invalid format"
#
# person.attributes = { "last_name" => "Heinemeier", "phone_number" => "555-555" }
# person.save # => true (and person is now saved in the database)
#
# An Errors object is automatically created for every Active Record.
module Validations
VALIDATIONS = %w( validate validate_on_create validate_on_update )
def self.included(base) # :nodoc:
base.extend ClassMethods
base.class_eval do
alias_method_chain :save, :validation
alias_method_chain :save!, :validation
end
base.send :include, ActiveSupport::Callbacks
base.define_callbacks *VALIDATIONS
end
# Active Record classes can implement validations in several ways. The highest level, easiest to read,
# and recommended approach is to use the declarative <tt>validates_..._of</tt> class methods (and
# +validates_associated+) documented below. These are sufficient for most model validations.
#
# Slightly lower level is +validates_each+. It provides some of the same options as the purely declarative
# validation methods, but like all the lower-level approaches it requires manually adding to the errors collection
# when the record is invalid.
#
# At a yet lower level, a model can use the class methods +validate+, +validate_on_create+ and +validate_on_update+
# to add validation methods or blocks. These are ActiveSupport::Callbacks and follow the same rules of inheritance
# and chaining.
#
# The lowest level style is to define the instance methods +validate+, +validate_on_create+ and +validate_on_update+
# as documented in ActiveRecord::Validations.
#
# == +validate+, +validate_on_create+ and +validate_on_update+ Class Methods
#
# Calls to these methods add a validation method or block to the class. Again, this approach is recommended
# only when the higher-level methods documented below (<tt>validates_..._of</tt> and +validates_associated+) are
# insufficient to handle the required validation.
#
# This can be done with a symbol pointing to a method:
#
# class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
# validate :must_be_friends
#
# def must_be_friends
# errors.add_to_base("Must be friends to leave a comment") unless commenter.friend_of?(commentee)
# end
# end
#
# Or with a block which is passed the current record to be validated:
#
# class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
# validate do |comment|
# comment.must_be_friends
# end
#
# def must_be_friends
# errors.add_to_base("Must be friends to leave a comment") unless commenter.friend_of?(commentee)
# end
# end
#
# This usage applies to +validate_on_create+ and +validate_on_update+ as well.
module ClassMethods
DEFAULT_VALIDATION_OPTIONS = {
:on => :save,
:allow_nil => false,
:allow_blank => false,
:message => nil
}.freeze
ALL_RANGE_OPTIONS = [ :is, :within, :in, :minimum, :maximum ].freeze
ALL_NUMERICALITY_CHECKS = { :greater_than => '>', :greater_than_or_equal_to => '>=',
:equal_to => '==', :less_than => '<', :less_than_or_equal_to => '<=',
:odd => 'odd?', :even => 'even?' }.freeze
# Validates each attribute against a block.
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_each :first_name, :last_name do |record, attr, value|
# record.errors.add attr, 'starts with z.' if value[0] == ?z
# end
# end
#
# Options:
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - Skip validation if attribute is +nil+.
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - Skip validation if attribute is blank.
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_each(*attrs)
options = attrs.extract_options!.symbolize_keys
attrs = attrs.flatten
# Declare the validation.
send(validation_method(options[:on] || :save), options) do |record|
attrs.each do |attr|
value = record.send(attr)
next if (value.nil? && options[:allow_nil]) || (value.blank? && options[:allow_blank])
yield record, attr, value
end
end
end
# Encapsulates the pattern of wanting to validate a password or email address field with a confirmation. Example:
#
# Model:
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_confirmation_of :user_name, :password
# validates_confirmation_of :email_address, :message => "should match confirmation"
# end
#
# View:
# <%= password_field "person", "password" %>
# <%= password_field "person", "password_confirmation" %>
#
# The added +password_confirmation+ attribute is virtual; it exists only as an in-memory attribute for validating the password.
# To achieve this, the validation adds accessors to the model for the confirmation attribute. NOTE: This check is performed
# only if +password_confirmation+ is not +nil+, and by default only on save. To require confirmation, make sure to add a presence
# check for the confirmation attribute:
#
# validates_presence_of :password_confirmation, :if => :password_changed?
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "doesn't match confirmation").
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_confirmation_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
attr_accessor(*(attr_names.map { |n| "#{n}_confirmation" }))
validates_each(attr_names, configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
unless record.send("#{attr_name}_confirmation").nil? or value == record.send("#{attr_name}_confirmation")
record.errors.add(attr_name, :confirmation, :default => configuration[:message])
end
end
end
# Encapsulates the pattern of wanting to validate the acceptance of a terms of service check box (or similar agreement). Example:
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_acceptance_of :terms_of_service
# validates_acceptance_of :eula, :message => "must be abided"
# end
#
# If the database column does not exist, the +terms_of_service+ attribute is entirely virtual. This check is
# performed only if +terms_of_service+ is not +nil+ and by default on save.
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "must be accepted").
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - Skip validation if attribute is +nil+ (default is true).
# * <tt>:accept</tt> - Specifies value that is considered accepted. The default value is a string "1", which
# makes it easy to relate to an HTML checkbox. This should be set to +true+ if you are validating a database
# column, since the attribute is typecast from "1" to +true+ before validation.
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_acceptance_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save, :allow_nil => true, :accept => "1" }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
db_cols = begin
column_names
rescue Exception # To ignore both statement and connection errors
[]
end
names = attr_names.reject { |name| db_cols.include?(name.to_s) }
attr_accessor(*names)
validates_each(attr_names,configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
unless value == configuration[:accept]
record.errors.add(attr_name, :accepted, :default => configuration[:message])
end
end
end
# Validates that the specified attributes are not blank (as defined by Object#blank?). Happens by default on save. Example:
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_presence_of :first_name
# end
#
# The first_name attribute must be in the object and it cannot be blank.
#
# If you want to validate the presence of a boolean field (where the real values are true and false),
# you will want to use validates_inclusion_of :field_name, :in => [true, false]
# This is due to the way Object#blank? handles boolean values. false.blank? # => true
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "can't be blank").
# * <tt>on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. :if => :allow_validation, or :if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. :unless => :skip_validation, or :unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
#
def validates_presence_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
# can't use validates_each here, because it cannot cope with nonexistent attributes,
# while errors.add_on_empty can
send(validation_method(configuration[:on]), configuration) do |record|
record.errors.add_on_blank(attr_names, configuration[:message])
end
end
# Validates that the specified attribute matches the length restrictions supplied. Only one option can be used at a time:
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_length_of :first_name, :maximum=>30
# validates_length_of :last_name, :maximum=>30, :message=>"less than {{count}} if you don't mind"
# validates_length_of :fax, :in => 7..32, :allow_nil => true
# validates_length_of :phone, :in => 7..32, :allow_blank => true
# validates_length_of :user_name, :within => 6..20, :too_long => "pick a shorter name", :too_short => "pick a longer name"
# validates_length_of :fav_bra_size, :minimum => 1, :too_short => "please enter at least {{count}} character"
# validates_length_of :smurf_leader, :is => 4, :message => "papa is spelled with {{count}} characters... don't play me."
# validates_length_of :essay, :minimum => 100, :too_short => "Your essay must be at least {{count}} words."), :tokenizer => lambda {|str| str.scan(/\w+/) }
# end
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:minimum</tt> - The minimum size of the attribute.
# * <tt>:maximum</tt> - The maximum size of the attribute.
# * <tt>:is</tt> - The exact size of the attribute.
# * <tt>:within</tt> - A range specifying the minimum and maximum size of the attribute.
# * <tt>:in</tt> - A synonym(or alias) for <tt>:within</tt>.
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - Attribute may be +nil+; skip validation.
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - Attribute may be blank; skip validation.
# * <tt>:too_long</tt> - The error message if the attribute goes over the maximum (default is: "is too long (maximum is {{count}} characters)").
# * <tt>:too_short</tt> - The error message if the attribute goes under the minimum (default is: "is too short (min is {{count}} characters)").
# * <tt>:wrong_length</tt> - The error message if using the <tt>:is</tt> method and the attribute is the wrong size (default is: "is the wrong length (should be {{count}} characters)").
# * <tt>:message</tt> - The error message to use for a <tt>:minimum</tt>, <tt>:maximum</tt>, or <tt>:is</tt> violation. An alias of the appropriate <tt>too_long</tt>/<tt>too_short</tt>/<tt>wrong_length</tt> message.
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:tokenizer</tt> - Specifies how to split up the attribute string. (e.g. <tt>:tokenizer => lambda {|str| str.scan(/\w+/)}</tt> to
# count words as in above example.)
# Defaults to <tt>lambda{ |value| value.split(//) }</tt> which counts individual characters.
def validates_length_of(*attrs)
# Merge given options with defaults.
options = {
:tokenizer => lambda {|value| value.split(//)}
}.merge(DEFAULT_VALIDATION_OPTIONS)
options.update(attrs.extract_options!.symbolize_keys)
# Ensure that one and only one range option is specified.
range_options = ALL_RANGE_OPTIONS & options.keys
case range_options.size
when 0
raise ArgumentError, 'Range unspecified. Specify the :within, :maximum, :minimum, or :is option.'
when 1
# Valid number of options; do nothing.
else
raise ArgumentError, 'Too many range options specified. Choose only one.'
end
# Get range option and value.
option = range_options.first
option_value = options[range_options.first]
case option
when :within, :in
raise ArgumentError, ":#{option} must be a Range" unless option_value.is_a?(Range)
validates_each(attrs, options) do |record, attr, value|
value = options[:tokenizer].call(value) if value.kind_of?(String)
if value.nil? or value.size < option_value.begin
record.errors.add(attr, :too_short, :default => options[:too_short], :count => option_value.begin)
elsif value.size > option_value.end
record.errors.add(attr, :too_long, :default => options[:too_long], :count => option_value.end)
end
end
when :is, :minimum, :maximum
raise ArgumentError, ":#{option} must be a nonnegative Integer" unless option_value.is_a?(Integer) and option_value >= 0
# Declare different validations per option.
validity_checks = { :is => "==", :minimum => ">=", :maximum => "<=" }
message_options = { :is => :wrong_length, :minimum => :too_short, :maximum => :too_long }
validates_each(attrs, options) do |record, attr, value|
value = options[:tokenizer].call(value) if value.kind_of?(String)
unless !value.nil? and value.size.method(validity_checks[option])[option_value]
key = message_options[option]
custom_message = options[:message] || options[key]
record.errors.add(attr, key, :default => custom_message, :count => option_value)
end
end
end
end
alias_method :validates_size_of, :validates_length_of
# Validates whether the value of the specified attributes are unique across the system. Useful for making sure that only one user
# can be named "davidhh".
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :user_name, :scope => :account_id
# end
#
# It can also validate whether the value of the specified attributes are unique based on multiple scope parameters. For example,
# making sure that a teacher can only be on the schedule once per semester for a particular class.
#
# class TeacherSchedule < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :teacher_id, :scope => [:semester_id, :class_id]
# end
#
# When the record is created, a check is performed to make sure that no record exists in the database with the given value for the specified
# attribute (that maps to a column). When the record is updated, the same check is made but disregarding the record itself.
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - Specifies a custom error message (default is: "has already been taken").
# * <tt>:scope</tt> - One or more columns by which to limit the scope of the uniqueness constraint.
# * <tt>:case_sensitive</tt> - Looks for an exact match. Ignored by non-text columns (+true+ by default).
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is blank (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
#
# === Concurrency and integrity
#
# Using this validation method in conjunction with ActiveRecord::Base#save
# does not guarantee the absence of duplicate record insertions, because
# uniqueness checks on the application level are inherently prone to race
# conditions. For example, suppose that two users try to post a Comment at
# the same time, and a Comment's title must be unique. At the database-level,
# the actions performed by these users could be interleaved in the following manner:
#
# User 1 | User 2
# ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
# # User 1 checks whether there's |
# # already a comment with the title |
# # 'My Post'. This is not the case. |
# SELECT * FROM comments |
# WHERE title = 'My Post' |
# |
# | # User 2 does the same thing and also
# | # infers that his title is unique.
# | SELECT * FROM comments
# | WHERE title = 'My Post'
# |
# # User 1 inserts his comment. |
# INSERT INTO comments |
# (title, content) VALUES |
# ('My Post', 'hi!') |
# |
# | # User 2 does the same thing.
# | INSERT INTO comments
# | (title, content) VALUES
# | ('My Post', 'hello!')
# |
# | # ^^^^^^
# | # Boom! We now have a duplicate
# | # title!
#
# This could even happen if you use transactions with the 'serializable'
# isolation level. There are several ways to get around this problem:
# - By locking the database table before validating, and unlocking it after
# saving. However, table locking is very expensive, and thus not
# recommended.
# - By locking a lock file before validating, and unlocking it after saving.
# This does not work if you've scaled your Rails application across
# multiple web servers (because they cannot share lock files, or cannot
# do that efficiently), and thus not recommended.
# - Creating a unique index on the field, by using
# ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#add_index. In the
# rare case that a race condition occurs, the database will guarantee
# the field's uniqueness.
#
# When the database catches such a duplicate insertion,
# ActiveRecord::Base#save will raise an ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid
# exception. You can either choose to let this error propagate (which
# will result in the default Rails exception page being shown), or you
# can catch it and restart the transaction (e.g. by telling the user
# that the title already exists, and asking him to re-enter the title).
# This technique is also known as optimistic concurrency control:
# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimistic_concurrency_control
#
# Active Record currently provides no way to distinguish unique
# index constraint errors from other types of database errors, so you
# will have to parse the (database-specific) exception message to detect
# such a case.
def validates_uniqueness_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :case_sensitive => true }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
validates_each(attr_names,configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
# The check for an existing value should be run from a class that
# isn't abstract. This means working down from the current class
# (self), to the first non-abstract class. Since classes don't know
# their subclasses, we have to build the hierarchy between self and
# the record's class.
class_hierarchy = [record.class]
while class_hierarchy.first != self
class_hierarchy.insert(0, class_hierarchy.first.superclass)
end
# Now we can work our way down the tree to the first non-abstract
# class (which has a database table to query from).
finder_class = class_hierarchy.detect { |klass| !klass.abstract_class? }
is_text_column = finder_class.columns_hash[attr_name.to_s].text?
if value.nil?
comparison_operator = "IS ?"
elsif is_text_column
comparison_operator = "#{connection.case_sensitive_equality_operator} ?"
value = value.to_s
else
comparison_operator = "= ?"
end
sql_attribute = "#{record.class.quoted_table_name}.#{connection.quote_column_name(attr_name)}"
if value.nil? || (configuration[:case_sensitive] || !is_text_column)
condition_sql = "#{sql_attribute} #{comparison_operator}"
condition_params = [value]
else
condition_sql = "LOWER(#{sql_attribute}) #{comparison_operator}"
condition_params = [value.mb_chars.downcase]
end
if scope = configuration[:scope]
Array(scope).map do |scope_item|
scope_value = record.send(scope_item)
condition_sql << " AND #{record.class.quoted_table_name}.#{scope_item} #{attribute_condition(scope_value)}"
condition_params << scope_value
end
end
unless record.new_record?
condition_sql << " AND #{record.class.quoted_table_name}.#{record.class.primary_key} <> ?"
condition_params << record.send(:id)
end
finder_class.with_exclusive_scope do
if finder_class.exists?([condition_sql, *condition_params])
record.errors.add(attr_name, :taken, :default => configuration[:message], :value => value)
end
end
end
end
# Validates whether the value of the specified attribute is of the correct form by matching it against the regular expression
# provided.
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_format_of :email, :with => /\A([^@\s]+)@((?:[-a-z0-9]+\.)+[a-z]{2,})\Z/i, :on => :create
# end
#
# Note: use <tt>\A</tt> and <tt>\Z</tt> to match the start and end of the string, <tt>^</tt> and <tt>$</tt> match the start/end of a line.
#
# A regular expression must be provided or else an exception will be raised.
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "is invalid").
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is blank (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:with</tt> - The regular expression used to validate the format with (note: must be supplied!).
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_format_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save, :with => nil }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
raise(ArgumentError, "A regular expression must be supplied as the :with option of the configuration hash") unless configuration[:with].is_a?(Regexp)
validates_each(attr_names, configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
unless value.to_s =~ configuration[:with]
record.errors.add(attr_name, :invalid, :default => configuration[:message], :value => value)
end
end
end
# Validates whether the value of the specified attribute is available in a particular enumerable object.
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_inclusion_of :gender, :in => %w( m f ), :message => "woah! what are you then!??!!"
# validates_inclusion_of :age, :in => 0..99
# validates_inclusion_of :format, :in => %w( jpg gif png ), :message => "extension {{value}} is not included in the list"
# end
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:in</tt> - An enumerable object of available items.
# * <tt>:message</tt> - Specifies a custom error message (default is: "is not included in the list").
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is blank (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_inclusion_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
enum = configuration[:in] || configuration[:within]
raise(ArgumentError, "An object with the method include? is required must be supplied as the :in option of the configuration hash") unless enum.respond_to?(:include?)
validates_each(attr_names, configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
unless enum.include?(value)
record.errors.add(attr_name, :inclusion, :default => configuration[:message], :value => value)
end
end
end
# Validates that the value of the specified attribute is not in a particular enumerable object.
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_exclusion_of :username, :in => %w( admin superuser ), :message => "You don't belong here"
# validates_exclusion_of :age, :in => 30..60, :message => "This site is only for under 30 and over 60"
# validates_exclusion_of :format, :in => %w( mov avi ), :message => "extension {{value}} is not allowed"
# end
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:in</tt> - An enumerable object of items that the value shouldn't be part of.
# * <tt>:message</tt> - Specifies a custom error message (default is: "is reserved").
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - If set to true, skips this validation if the attribute is blank (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_exclusion_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
enum = configuration[:in] || configuration[:within]
raise(ArgumentError, "An object with the method include? is required must be supplied as the :in option of the configuration hash") unless enum.respond_to?(:include?)
validates_each(attr_names, configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
if enum.include?(value)
record.errors.add(attr_name, :exclusion, :default => configuration[:message], :value => value)
end
end
end
# Validates whether the associated object or objects are all valid themselves. Works with any kind of association.
#
# class Book < ActiveRecord::Base
# has_many :pages
# belongs_to :library
#
# validates_associated :pages, :library
# end
#
# Warning: If, after the above definition, you then wrote:
#
# class Page < ActiveRecord::Base
# belongs_to :book
#
# validates_associated :book
# end
#
# this would specify a circular dependency and cause infinite recursion.
#
# NOTE: This validation will not fail if the association hasn't been assigned. If you want to ensure that the association
# is both present and guaranteed to be valid, you also need to use +validates_presence_of+.
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "is invalid")
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_associated(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
validates_each(attr_names, configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
unless (value.is_a?(Array) ? value : [value]).inject(true) { |v, r| (r.nil? || r.valid?) && v }
record.errors.add(attr_name, :invalid, :default => configuration[:message], :value => value)
end
end
end
# Validates whether the value of the specified attribute is numeric by trying to convert it to
# a float with Kernel.Float (if <tt>only_integer</tt> is false) or applying it to the regular expression
# <tt>/\A[\+\-]?\d+\Z/</tt> (if <tt>only_integer</tt> is set to true).
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_numericality_of :value, :on => :create
# end
#
# Configuration options:
# * <tt>:message</tt> - A custom error message (default is: "is not a number").
# * <tt>:on</tt> - Specifies when this validation is active (default is <tt>:save</tt>, other options <tt>:create</tt>, <tt>:update</tt>).
# * <tt>:only_integer</tt> - Specifies whether the value has to be an integer, e.g. an integral value (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - Skip validation if attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+). Notice that for fixnum and float columns empty strings are converted to +nil+.
# * <tt>:greater_than</tt> - Specifies the value must be greater than the supplied value.
# * <tt>:greater_than_or_equal_to</tt> - Specifies the value must be greater than or equal the supplied value.
# * <tt>:equal_to</tt> - Specifies the value must be equal to the supplied value.
# * <tt>:less_than</tt> - Specifies the value must be less than the supplied value.
# * <tt>:less_than_or_equal_to</tt> - Specifies the value must be less than or equal the supplied value.
# * <tt>:odd</tt> - Specifies the value must be an odd number.
# * <tt>:even</tt> - Specifies the value must be an even number.
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# occur (e.g. <tt>:if => :allow_validation</tt>, or <tt>:if => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should
# not occur (e.g. <tt>:unless => :skip_validation</tt>, or <tt>:unless => Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.
def validates_numericality_of(*attr_names)
configuration = { :on => :save, :only_integer => false, :allow_nil => false }
configuration.update(attr_names.extract_options!)
numericality_options = ALL_NUMERICALITY_CHECKS.keys & configuration.keys
(numericality_options - [ :odd, :even ]).each do |option|
raise ArgumentError, ":#{option} must be a number" unless configuration[option].is_a?(Numeric)
end
validates_each(attr_names,configuration) do |record, attr_name, value|
raw_value = record.send("#{attr_name}_before_type_cast") || value
next if configuration[:allow_nil] and raw_value.nil?
if configuration[:only_integer]
unless raw_value.to_s =~ /\A[+-]?\d+\Z/
record.errors.add(attr_name, :not_a_number, :value => raw_value, :default => configuration[:message])
next
end
raw_value = raw_value.to_i
else
begin
raw_value = Kernel.Float(raw_value)
rescue ArgumentError, TypeError
record.errors.add(attr_name, :not_a_number, :value => raw_value, :default => configuration[:message])
next
end
end
numericality_options.each do |option|
case option
when :odd, :even
unless raw_value.to_i.method(ALL_NUMERICALITY_CHECKS[option])[]
record.errors.add(attr_name, option, :value => raw_value, :default => configuration[:message])
end
else
record.errors.add(attr_name, option, :default => configuration[:message], :value => raw_value, :count => configuration[option]) unless raw_value.method(ALL_NUMERICALITY_CHECKS[option])[configuration[option]]
end
end
end
end
# Creates an object just like Base.create but calls save! instead of save
# so an exception is raised if the record is invalid.
def create!(attributes = nil, &block)
if attributes.is_a?(Array)
attributes.collect { |attr| create!(attr, &block) }
else
object = new(attributes)
yield(object) if block_given?
object.save!
object
end
end
private
def validation_method(on)
case on
when :save then :validate
when :create then :validate_on_create
when :update then :validate_on_update
end
end
end
# The validation process on save can be skipped by passing false. The regular Base#save method is
# replaced with this when the validations module is mixed in, which it is by default.
def save_with_validation(perform_validation = true)
if perform_validation && valid? || !perform_validation
save_without_validation
else
false
end
end
# Attempts to save the record just like Base#save but will raise a RecordInvalid exception instead of returning false
# if the record is not valid.
def save_with_validation!
if valid?
save_without_validation!
else
raise RecordInvalid.new(self)
end
end
# Runs +validate+ and +validate_on_create+ or +validate_on_update+ and returns true if no errors were added otherwise false.
def valid?
errors.clear
run_callbacks(:validate)
validate
if new_record?
run_callbacks(:validate_on_create)
validate_on_create
else
run_callbacks(:validate_on_update)
validate_on_update
end
errors.empty?
end
# Returns the Errors object that holds all information about attribute error messages.
def errors
@errors ||= Errors.new(self)
end
protected
# Overwrite this method for validation checks on all saves and use <tt>Errors.add(field, msg)</tt> for invalid attributes.
def validate #:doc:
end
# Overwrite this method for validation checks used only on creation.
def validate_on_create #:doc:
end
# Overwrite this method for validation checks used only on updates.
def validate_on_update # :doc:
end
end
end
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