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require 'action_mailer/adv_attr_accessor'
require 'action_mailer/part'
require 'action_mailer/part_container'
require 'action_mailer/utils'
require 'tmail/net'
module ActionMailer #:nodoc:
# Action Mailer allows you to send email from your application using a mailer model and views.
#
#
# = Mailer Models
#
# To use Action Mailer, you need to create a mailer model.
#
# $ script/generate mailer Notifier
#
# The generated model inherits from ActionMailer::Base. Emails are defined by creating methods within the model which are then
# used to set variables to be used in the mail template, to change options on the mail, or
# to add attachments.
#
# Examples:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# from "system@example.com"
# subject "New account information"
# body :account => recipient
# end
# end
#
# Mailer methods have the following configuration methods available.
#
# * <tt>recipients</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses are where your email will be delivered to. Sets the <tt>To:</tt> header.
# * <tt>subject</tt> - The subject of your email. Sets the <tt>Subject:</tt> header.
# * <tt>from</tt> - Who the email you are sending is from. Sets the <tt>From:</tt> header.
# * <tt>cc</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will receive a carbon copy of your email. Sets the <tt>Cc:</tt> header.
# * <tt>bcc</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will receive a blind carbon copy of your email. Sets the <tt>Bcc:</tt> header.
# * <tt>reply_to</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will be listed as the default recipients when replying to your email. Sets the <tt>Reply-To:</tt> header.
# * <tt>sent_on</tt> - The date on which the message was sent. If not set, the header wil be set by the delivery agent.
# * <tt>content_type</tt> - Specify the content type of the message. Defaults to <tt>text/plain</tt>.
# * <tt>headers</tt> - Specify additional headers to be set for the message, e.g. <tt>headers 'X-Mail-Count' => 107370</tt>.
#
# When a <tt>headers 'return-path'</tt> is specified, that value will be used as the 'envelope from'
# address. Setting this is useful when you want delivery notifications sent to a different address than
# the one in <tt>from</tt>.
#
# The <tt>body</tt> method has special behavior. It takes a hash which generates an instance variable
# named after each key in the hash containing the value that that key points to.
#
# So, for example, <tt>body :account => recipient</tt> would result
# in an instance variable <tt>@account</tt> with the value of <tt>recipient</tt> being accessible in the
# view.
#
#
# = Mailer views
#
# Like Action Controller, each mailer class has a corresponding view directory
# in which each method of the class looks for a template with its name.
# To define a template to be used with a mailing, create an <tt>.erb</tt> file with the same name as the method
# in your mailer model. For example, in the mailer defined above, the template at
# <tt>app/views/notifier/signup_notification.erb</tt> would be used to generate the email.
#
# Variables defined in the model are accessible as instance variables in the view.
#
# Emails by default are sent in plain text, so a sample view for our model example might look like this:
#
# Hi <%= @account.name %>,
# Thanks for joining our service! Please check back often.
#
# You can even use Action Pack helpers in these views. For example:
#
# You got a new note!
# <%= truncate(note.body, 25) %>
#
#
# = Generating URLs
#
# URLs can be generated in mailer views using <tt>url_for</tt> or named routes.
# Unlike controllers from Action Pack, the mailer instance doesn't have any context about the incoming request,
# so you'll need to provide all of the details needed to generate a URL.
#
# When using <tt>url_for</tt> you'll need to provide the <tt>:host</tt>, <tt>:controller</tt>, and <tt>:action</tt>:
#
# <%= url_for(:host => "example.com", :controller => "welcome", :action => "greeting") %>
#
# When using named routes you only need to supply the <tt>:host</tt>:
#
# <%= users_url(:host => "example.com") %>
#
# You will want to avoid using the <tt>name_of_route_path</tt> form of named routes because it doesn't make sense to
# generate relative URLs in email messages.
#
# It is also possible to set a default host that will be used in all mailers by setting the <tt>:host</tt> option in
# the <tt>ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options</tt> hash as follows:
#
# ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options[:host] = "example.com"
#
# This can also be set as a configuration option in <tt>config/environment.rb</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => "example.com" }
#
# If you do decide to set a default <tt>:host</tt> for your mailers you will want to use the
# <tt>:only_path => false</tt> option when using <tt>url_for</tt>. This will ensure that absolute URLs are generated because
# the <tt>url_for</tt> view helper will, by default, generate relative URLs when a <tt>:host</tt> option isn't
# explicitly provided.
#
# = Sending mail
#
# Once a mailer action and template are defined, you can deliver your message or create it and save it
# for delivery later:
#
# Notifier.deliver_signup_notification(david) # sends the email
# mail = Notifier.create_signup_notification(david) # => a tmail object
# Notifier.deliver(mail)
#
# You never instantiate your mailer class. Rather, your delivery instance
# methods are automatically wrapped in class methods that start with the word
# <tt>deliver_</tt> followed by the name of the mailer method that you would
# like to deliver. The <tt>signup_notification</tt> method defined above is
# delivered by invoking <tt>Notifier.deliver_signup_notification</tt>.
#
#
# = HTML email
#
# To send mail as HTML, make sure your view (the <tt>.erb</tt> file) generates HTML and
# set the content type to html.
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
# body :account => recipient
# content_type "text/html"
# end
# end
#
#
# = Multipart email
#
# You can explicitly specify multipart messages:
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
# content_type "multipart/alternative"
#
# part :content_type => "text/html",
# :body => render_message("signup-as-html", :account => recipient)
#
# part "text/plain" do |p|
# p.body = render_message("signup-as-plain", :account => recipient)
# p.transfer_encoding = "base64"
# end
# end
# end
#
# Multipart messages can also be used implicitly because Action Mailer will automatically
# detect and use multipart templates, where each template is named after the name of the action, followed
# by the content type. Each such detected template will be added as separate part to the message.
#
# For example, if the following templates existed:
# * signup_notification.text.plain.erb
# * signup_notification.text.html.erb
# * signup_notification.text.xml.builder
# * signup_notification.text.x-yaml.erb
#
# Each would be rendered and added as a separate part to the message,
# with the corresponding content type. The content type for the entire
# message is automatically set to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>, which indicates
# that the email contains multiple different representations of the same email
# body. The same body hash is passed to each template.
#
# Implicit template rendering is not performed if any attachments or parts have been added to the email.
# This means that you'll have to manually add each part to the email and set the content type of the email
# to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>.
#
# = Attachments
#
# Attachments can be added by using the +attachment+ method.
#
# Example:
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# # attachments
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
#
# attachment :content_type => "image/jpeg",
# :body => File.read("an-image.jpg")
#
# attachment "application/pdf" do |a|
# a.body = generate_your_pdf_here()
# end
# end
# end
#
#
# = Configuration options
#
# These options are specified on the class level, like <tt>ActionMailer::Base.template_root = "/my/templates"</tt>
#
# * <tt>template_root</tt> - Determines the base from which template references will be made.
#
# * <tt>logger</tt> - the logger is used for generating information on the mailing run if available.
# Can be set to nil for no logging. Compatible with both Ruby's own Logger and Log4r loggers.
#
# * <tt>smtp_settings</tt> - Allows detailed configuration for <tt>:smtp</tt> delivery method:
# * <tt>:address</tt> - Allows you to use a remote mail server. Just change it from its default "localhost" setting.
# * <tt>:port</tt> - On the off chance that your mail server doesn't run on port 25, you can change it.
# * <tt>:domain</tt> - If you need to specify a HELO domain, you can do it here.
# * <tt>:user_name</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the username in this setting.
# * <tt>:password</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the password in this setting.
# * <tt>:authentication</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, you need to specify the authentication type here.
# This is a symbol and one of <tt>:plain</tt>, <tt>:login</tt>, <tt>:cram_md5</tt>.
#
# * <tt>sendmail_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:sendmail</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The location of the sendmail executable. Defaults to <tt>/usr/sbin/sendmail</tt>.
# * <tt>:arguments</tt> - The command line arguments. Defaults to <tt>-i -t</tt>.
#
# * <tt>raise_delivery_errors</tt> - Whether or not errors should be raised if the email fails to be delivered.
#
# * <tt>delivery_method</tt> - Defines a delivery method. Possible values are <tt>:smtp</tt> (default), <tt>:sendmail</tt>, and <tt>:test</tt>.
#
# * <tt>perform_deliveries</tt> - Determines whether <tt>deliver_*</tt> methods are actually carried out. By default they are,
# but this can be turned off to help functional testing.
#
# * <tt>deliveries</tt> - Keeps an array of all the emails sent out through the Action Mailer with <tt>delivery_method :test</tt>. Most useful
# for unit and functional testing.
#
# * <tt>default_charset</tt> - The default charset used for the body and to encode the subject. Defaults to UTF-8. You can also
# pick a different charset from inside a method with +charset+.
# * <tt>default_content_type</tt> - The default content type used for the main part of the message. Defaults to "text/plain". You
# can also pick a different content type from inside a method with +content_type+.
# * <tt>default_mime_version</tt> - The default mime version used for the message. Defaults to <tt>1.0</tt>. You
# can also pick a different value from inside a method with +mime_version+.
# * <tt>default_implicit_parts_order</tt> - When a message is built implicitly (i.e. multiple parts are assembled from templates
# which specify the content type in their filenames) this variable controls how the parts are ordered. Defaults to
# <tt>["text/html", "text/enriched", "text/plain"]</tt>. Items that appear first in the array have higher priority in the mail client
# and appear last in the mime encoded message. You can also pick a different order from inside a method with
# +implicit_parts_order+.
class Base
include AdvAttrAccessor, PartContainer
if Object.const_defined?(:ActionController)
include ActionController::UrlWriter
include ActionController::Layout
end
private_class_method :new #:nodoc:
class_inheritable_accessor :view_paths
cattr_accessor :logger
@@smtp_settings = {
:address => "localhost",
:port => 25,
:domain => 'localhost.localdomain',
:user_name => nil,
:password => nil,
:authentication => nil
}
cattr_accessor :smtp_settings
@@sendmail_settings = {
:location => '/usr/sbin/sendmail',
:arguments => '-i -t'
}
cattr_accessor :sendmail_settings
@@raise_delivery_errors = true
cattr_accessor :raise_delivery_errors
superclass_delegating_accessor :delivery_method
self.delivery_method = :smtp
@@perform_deliveries = true
cattr_accessor :perform_deliveries
@@deliveries = []
cattr_accessor :deliveries
@@default_charset = "utf-8"
cattr_accessor :default_charset
@@default_content_type = "text/plain"
cattr_accessor :default_content_type
@@default_mime_version = "1.0"
cattr_accessor :default_mime_version
@@default_implicit_parts_order = [ "text/html", "text/enriched", "text/plain" ]
cattr_accessor :default_implicit_parts_order
cattr_reader :protected_instance_variables
@@protected_instance_variables = %w(@body)
# Specify the BCC addresses for the message
adv_attr_accessor :bcc
# Define the body of the message. This is either a Hash (in which case it
# specifies the variables to pass to the template when it is rendered),
# or a string, in which case it specifies the actual text of the message.
adv_attr_accessor :body
# Specify the CC addresses for the message.
adv_attr_accessor :cc
# Specify the charset to use for the message. This defaults to the
# +default_charset+ specified for ActionMailer::Base.
adv_attr_accessor :charset
# Specify the content type for the message. This defaults to <tt>text/plain</tt>
# in most cases, but can be automatically set in some situations.
adv_attr_accessor :content_type
# Specify the from address for the message.
adv_attr_accessor :from
# Specify the address (if different than the "from" address) to direct
# replies to this message.
adv_attr_accessor :reply_to
# Specify additional headers to be added to the message.
adv_attr_accessor :headers
# Specify the order in which parts should be sorted, based on content-type.
# This defaults to the value for the +default_implicit_parts_order+.
adv_attr_accessor :implicit_parts_order
# Defaults to "1.0", but may be explicitly given if needed.
adv_attr_accessor :mime_version
# The recipient addresses for the message, either as a string (for a single
# address) or an array (for multiple addresses).
adv_attr_accessor :recipients
# The date on which the message was sent. If not set (the default), the
# header will be set by the delivery agent.
adv_attr_accessor :sent_on
# Specify the subject of the message.
adv_attr_accessor :subject
# Specify the template name to use for current message. This is the "base"
# template name, without the extension or directory, and may be used to
# have multiple mailer methods share the same template.
adv_attr_accessor :template
# Override the mailer name, which defaults to an inflected version of the
# mailer's class name. If you want to use a template in a non-standard
# location, you can use this to specify that location.
def mailer_name(value = nil)
if value
self.mailer_name = value
else
self.class.mailer_name
end
end
def mailer_name=(value)
self.class.mailer_name = value
end
# The mail object instance referenced by this mailer.
attr_reader :mail
attr_reader :template_name, :default_template_name, :action_name
class << self
attr_writer :mailer_name
def mailer_name
@mailer_name ||= name.underscore
end
# for ActionView compatibility
alias_method :controller_name, :mailer_name
alias_method :controller_path, :mailer_name
def respond_to?(method_symbol, include_private = false) #:nodoc:
matches_dynamic_method?(method_symbol) || super
end
def method_missing(method_symbol, *parameters) #:nodoc:
if match = matches_dynamic_method?(method_symbol)
case match[1]
when 'create' then new(match[2], *parameters).mail
when 'deliver' then new(match[2], *parameters).deliver!
when 'new' then nil
else super
end
else
super
end
end
# Receives a raw email, parses it into an email object, decodes it,
# instantiates a new mailer, and passes the email object to the mailer
# object's +receive+ method. If you want your mailer to be able to
# process incoming messages, you'll need to implement a +receive+
# method that accepts the email object as a parameter:
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def receive(mail)
# ...
# end
# end
def receive(raw_email)
logger.info "Received mail:\n #{raw_email}" unless logger.nil?
mail = TMail::Mail.parse(raw_email)
mail.base64_decode
new.receive(mail)
end
# Deliver the given mail object directly. This can be used to deliver
# a preconstructed mail object, like:
#
# email = MyMailer.create_some_mail(parameters)
# email.set_some_obscure_header "frobnicate"
# MyMailer.deliver(email)
def deliver(mail)
new.deliver!(mail)
end
def register_template_extension(extension)
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn(
"ActionMailer::Base.register_template_extension has been deprecated." +
"Use ActionView::Template.register_template_handler instead", caller)
end
def template_root
self.view_paths && self.view_paths.first
end
def template_root=(root)
self.view_paths = ActionView::Base.process_view_paths(root)
end
private
def matches_dynamic_method?(method_name) #:nodoc:
method_name = method_name.to_s
/^(create|deliver)_([_a-z]\w*)/.match(method_name) || /^(new)$/.match(method_name)
end
end
# Instantiate a new mailer object. If +method_name+ is not +nil+, the mailer
# will be initialized according to the named method. If not, the mailer will
# remain uninitialized (useful when you only need to invoke the "receive"
# method, for instance).
def initialize(method_name=nil, *parameters) #:nodoc:
create!(method_name, *parameters) if method_name
end
# Initialize the mailer via the given +method_name+. The body will be
# rendered and a new TMail::Mail object created.
def create!(method_name, *parameters) #:nodoc:
initialize_defaults(method_name)
__send__(method_name, *parameters)
# If an explicit, textual body has not been set, we check assumptions.
unless String === @body
# First, we look to see if there are any likely templates that match,
# which include the content-type in their file name (i.e.,
# "the_template_file.text.html.erb", etc.). Only do this if parts
# have not already been specified manually.
if @parts.empty?
Dir.glob("#{template_path}/#{@template}.*").each do |path|
template = template_root["#{mailer_name}/#{File.basename(path)}"]
# Skip unless template has a multipart format
next unless template && template.multipart?
@parts << Part.new(
:content_type => template.content_type,
:disposition => "inline",
:charset => charset,
:body => render_message(template, @body)
)
end
unless @parts.empty?
@content_type = "multipart/alternative"
@parts = sort_parts(@parts, @implicit_parts_order)
end
end
# Then, if there were such templates, we check to see if we ought to
# also render a "normal" template (without the content type). If a
# normal template exists (or if there were no implicit parts) we render
# it.
template_exists = @parts.empty?
template_exists ||= template_root["#{mailer_name}/#{@template}"]
@body = render_message(@template, @body) if template_exists
# Finally, if there are other message parts and a textual body exists,
# we shift it onto the front of the parts and set the body to nil (so
# that create_mail doesn't try to render it in addition to the parts).
if !@parts.empty? && String === @body
@parts.unshift Part.new(:charset => charset, :body => @body)
@body = nil
end
end
# If this is a multipart e-mail add the mime_version if it is not
# already set.
@mime_version ||= "1.0" if !@parts.empty?
# build the mail object itself
@mail = create_mail
end
# Delivers a TMail::Mail object. By default, it delivers the cached mail
# object (from the <tt>create!</tt> method). If no cached mail object exists, and
# no alternate has been given as the parameter, this will fail.
def deliver!(mail = @mail)
raise "no mail object available for delivery!" unless mail
unless logger.nil?
logger.info "Sent mail to #{Array(recipients).join(', ')}"
logger.debug "\n#{mail.encoded}"
end
begin
__send__("perform_delivery_#{delivery_method}", mail) if perform_deliveries
rescue Exception => e # Net::SMTP errors or sendmail pipe errors
raise e if raise_delivery_errors
end
return mail
end
private
# Set up the default values for the various instance variables of this
# mailer. Subclasses may override this method to provide different
# defaults.
def initialize_defaults(method_name)
@charset ||= @@default_charset.dup
@content_type ||= @@default_content_type.dup
@implicit_parts_order ||= @@default_implicit_parts_order.dup
@template ||= method_name
@default_template_name = @action_name = @template
@mailer_name ||= self.class.name.underscore
@parts ||= []
@headers ||= {}
@body ||= {}
@mime_version = @@default_mime_version.dup if @@default_mime_version
end
def render_message(method_name, body)
if method_name.respond_to?(:content_type)
@current_template_content_type = method_name.content_type
end
render :file => method_name, :body => body
ensure
@current_template_content_type = nil
end
def render(opts)
body = opts.delete(:body)
if opts[:file] && (opts[:file] !~ /\// && !opts[:file].respond_to?(:render))
opts[:file] = "#{mailer_name}/#{opts[:file]}"
end
begin
old_template, @template = @template, initialize_template_class(body)
layout = respond_to?(:pick_layout, true) ? pick_layout(opts) : false
@template.render(opts.merge(:layout => layout))
ensure
@template = old_template
end
end
def default_template_format
if @current_template_content_type
Mime::Type.lookup(@current_template_content_type).to_sym
else
:html
end
end
def candidate_for_layout?(options)
!@template.send(:_exempt_from_layout?, default_template_name)
end
def template_root
self.class.template_root
end
def template_root=(root)
self.class.template_root = root
end
def template_path
"#{template_root}/#{mailer_name}"
end
def initialize_template_class(assigns)
template = ActionView::Base.new(view_paths, assigns, self)
template.template_format = default_template_format
template
end
def sort_parts(parts, order = [])
order = order.collect { |s| s.downcase }
parts = parts.sort do |a, b|
a_ct = a.content_type.downcase
b_ct = b.content_type.downcase
a_in = order.include? a_ct
b_in = order.include? b_ct
s = case
when a_in && b_in
order.index(a_ct) <=> order.index(b_ct)
when a_in
-1
when b_in
1
else
a_ct <=> b_ct
end
# reverse the ordering because parts that come last are displayed
# first in mail clients
(s * -1)
end
parts
end
def create_mail
m = TMail::Mail.new
m.subject, = quote_any_if_necessary(charset, subject)
m.to, m.from = quote_any_address_if_necessary(charset, recipients, from)
m.bcc = quote_address_if_necessary(bcc, charset) unless bcc.nil?
m.cc = quote_address_if_necessary(cc, charset) unless cc.nil?
m.reply_to = quote_address_if_necessary(reply_to, charset) unless reply_to.nil?
m.mime_version = mime_version unless mime_version.nil?
m.date = sent_on.to_time rescue sent_on if sent_on
headers.each { |k, v| m[k] = v }
real_content_type, ctype_attrs = parse_content_type
if @parts.empty?
m.set_content_type(real_content_type, nil, ctype_attrs)
m.body = Utils.normalize_new_lines(body)
else
if String === body
part = TMail::Mail.new
part.body = Utils.normalize_new_lines(body)
part.set_content_type(real_content_type, nil, ctype_attrs)
part.set_content_disposition "inline"
m.parts << part
end
@parts.each do |p|
part = (TMail::Mail === p ? p : p.to_mail(self))
m.parts << part
end
if real_content_type =~ /multipart/
ctype_attrs.delete "charset"
m.set_content_type(real_content_type, nil, ctype_attrs)
end
end
@mail = m
end
def perform_delivery_smtp(mail)
destinations = mail.destinations
mail.ready_to_send
sender = mail['return-path'] || mail.from
smtp = Net::SMTP.new(smtp_settings[:address], smtp_settings[:port])
smtp.enable_starttls_auto if smtp.respond_to?(:enable_starttls_auto)
smtp.start(smtp_settings[:domain], smtp_settings[:user_name], smtp_settings[:password],
smtp_settings[:authentication]) do |smtp|
smtp.sendmail(mail.encoded, sender, destinations)
end
end
def perform_delivery_sendmail(mail)
sendmail_args = sendmail_settings[:arguments]
sendmail_args += " -f \"#{mail['return-path']}\"" if mail['return-path']
IO.popen("#{sendmail_settings[:location]} #{sendmail_args}","w+") do |sm|
sm.print(mail.encoded.gsub(/\r/, ''))
sm.flush
end
end
def perform_delivery_test(mail)
deliveries << mail
end
end
end
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