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require 'active_record/connection_adapters/abstract_adapter'
require 'active_support/core_ext/kernel/requires'
require 'active_support/core_ext/object/blank'
require 'set'
module ActiveRecord
class Base
# Establishes a connection to the database that's used by all Active Record objects.
def self.mysql_connection(config) # :nodoc:
config = config.symbolize_keys
host = config[:host]
port = config[:port]
socket = config[:socket]
username = config[:username] ? config[:username].to_s : 'root'
password = config[:password].to_s
database = config[:database]
unless defined? Mysql
begin
require 'mysql'
rescue LoadError
raise "!!! Missing the mysql2 gem. Add it to your Gemfile: gem 'mysql2'"
end
unless defined?(Mysql::Result) && Mysql::Result.method_defined?(:each_hash)
raise "!!! Outdated mysql gem. Upgrade to 2.8.1 or later. In your Gemfile: gem 'mysql', '2.8.1'. Or use gem 'mysql2'"
end
end
mysql = Mysql.init
mysql.ssl_set(config[:sslkey], config[:sslcert], config[:sslca], config[:sslcapath], config[:sslcipher]) if config[:sslca] || config[:sslkey]
default_flags = Mysql.const_defined?(:CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS) ? Mysql::CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS : 0
default_flags |= Mysql::CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS if Mysql.const_defined?(:CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS)
options = [host, username, password, database, port, socket, default_flags]
ConnectionAdapters::MysqlAdapter.new(mysql, logger, options, config)
end
end
module ConnectionAdapters
class MysqlColumn < Column #:nodoc:
def extract_default(default)
if sql_type =~ /blob/i || type == :text
if default.blank?
return null ? nil : ''
else
raise ArgumentError, "#{type} columns cannot have a default value: #{default.inspect}"
end
elsif missing_default_forged_as_empty_string?(default)
nil
else
super
end
end
def has_default?
return false if sql_type =~ /blob/i || type == :text #mysql forbids defaults on blob and text columns
super
end
private
def simplified_type(field_type)
return :boolean if MysqlAdapter.emulate_booleans && field_type.downcase.index("tinyint(1)")
return :string if field_type =~ /enum/i
super
end
def extract_limit(sql_type)
case sql_type
when /blob|text/i
case sql_type
when /tiny/i
255
when /medium/i
16777215
when /long/i
2147483647 # mysql only allows 2^31-1, not 2^32-1, somewhat inconsistently with the tiny/medium/normal cases
else
super # we could return 65535 here, but we leave it undecorated by default
end
when /^bigint/i; 8
when /^int/i; 4
when /^mediumint/i; 3
when /^smallint/i; 2
when /^tinyint/i; 1
else
super
end
end
# MySQL misreports NOT NULL column default when none is given.
# We can't detect this for columns which may have a legitimate ''
# default (string) but we can for others (integer, datetime, boolean,
# and the rest).
#
# Test whether the column has default '', is not null, and is not
# a type allowing default ''.
def missing_default_forged_as_empty_string?(default)
type != :string && !null && default == ''
end
end
# The MySQL adapter will work with both Ruby/MySQL, which is a Ruby-based MySQL adapter that comes bundled with Active Record, and with
# the faster C-based MySQL/Ruby adapter (available both as a gem and from http://www.tmtm.org/en/mysql/ruby/).
#
# Options:
#
# * <tt>:host</tt> - Defaults to "localhost".
# * <tt>:port</tt> - Defaults to 3306.
# * <tt>:socket</tt> - Defaults to "/tmp/mysql.sock".
# * <tt>:username</tt> - Defaults to "root"
# * <tt>:password</tt> - Defaults to nothing.
# * <tt>:database</tt> - The name of the database. No default, must be provided.
# * <tt>:encoding</tt> - (Optional) Sets the client encoding by executing "SET NAMES <encoding>" after connection.
# * <tt>:reconnect</tt> - Defaults to false (See MySQL documentation: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/auto-reconnect.html).
# * <tt>:sslca</tt> - Necessary to use MySQL with an SSL connection.
# * <tt>:sslkey</tt> - Necessary to use MySQL with an SSL connection.
# * <tt>:sslcert</tt> - Necessary to use MySQL with an SSL connection.
# * <tt>:sslcapath</tt> - Necessary to use MySQL with an SSL connection.
# * <tt>:sslcipher</tt> - Necessary to use MySQL with an SSL connection.
#
class MysqlAdapter < AbstractAdapter
##
# :singleton-method:
# By default, the MysqlAdapter will consider all columns of type <tt>tinyint(1)</tt>
# as boolean. If you wish to disable this emulation (which was the default
# behavior in versions 0.13.1 and earlier) you can add the following line
# to your application.rb file:
#
# ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::MysqlAdapter.emulate_booleans = false
cattr_accessor :emulate_booleans
self.emulate_booleans = true
ADAPTER_NAME = 'MySQL'.freeze
LOST_CONNECTION_ERROR_MESSAGES = [
"Server shutdown in progress",
"Broken pipe",
"Lost connection to MySQL server during query",
"MySQL server has gone away" ]
QUOTED_TRUE, QUOTED_FALSE = '1'.freeze, '0'.freeze
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES = {
:primary_key => "int(11) DEFAULT NULL auto_increment PRIMARY KEY".freeze,
:string => { :name => "varchar", :limit => 255 },
:text => { :name => "text" },
:integer => { :name => "int", :limit => 4 },
:float => { :name => "float" },
:decimal => { :name => "decimal" },
:datetime => { :name => "datetime" },
:timestamp => { :name => "datetime" },
:time => { :name => "time" },
:date => { :name => "date" },
:binary => { :name => "blob" },
:boolean => { :name => "tinyint", :limit => 1 }
}
def initialize(connection, logger, connection_options, config)
super(connection, logger)
@connection_options, @config = connection_options, config
@quoted_column_names, @quoted_table_names = {}, {}
connect
end
def adapter_name #:nodoc:
ADAPTER_NAME
end
def supports_migrations? #:nodoc:
true
end
def supports_primary_key? #:nodoc:
true
end
def supports_savepoints? #:nodoc:
true
end
def native_database_types #:nodoc:
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES
end
# QUOTING ==================================================
def quote(value, column = nil)
if value.kind_of?(String) && column && column.type == :binary && column.class.respond_to?(:string_to_binary)
s = column.class.string_to_binary(value).unpack("H*")[0]
"x'#{s}'"
elsif value.kind_of?(BigDecimal)
value.to_s("F")
else
super
end
end
def quote_column_name(name) #:nodoc:
@quoted_column_names[name] ||= "`#{name.to_s.gsub('`', '``')}`"
end
def quote_table_name(name) #:nodoc:
@quoted_table_names[name] ||= quote_column_name(name).gsub('.', '`.`')
end
def quote_string(string) #:nodoc:
@connection.quote(string)
end
def quoted_true
QUOTED_TRUE
end
def quoted_false
QUOTED_FALSE
end
# REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY ====================================
def disable_referential_integrity #:nodoc:
old = select_value("SELECT @@FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS")
begin
update("SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = 0")
yield
ensure
update("SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = #{old}")
end
end
# CONNECTION MANAGEMENT ====================================
def active?
if @connection.respond_to?(:stat)
@connection.stat
else
@connection.query 'select 1'
end
# mysql-ruby doesn't raise an exception when stat fails.
if @connection.respond_to?(:errno)
@connection.errno.zero?
else
true
end
rescue Mysql::Error
false
end
def reconnect!
disconnect!
connect
end
def disconnect!
@connection.close rescue nil
end
def reset!
if @connection.respond_to?(:change_user)
# See http://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=33540 -- the workaround way to
# reset the connection is to change the user to the same user.
@connection.change_user(@config[:username], @config[:password], @config[:database])
configure_connection
end
end
# DATABASE STATEMENTS ======================================
def select_rows(sql, name = nil)
@connection.query_with_result = true
result = execute(sql, name)
rows = []
result.each { |row| rows << row }
result.free
@connection.more_results && @connection.next_result # invoking stored procedures with CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS requires this to tidy up else connection will be dropped
rows
end
# Executes an SQL query and returns a MySQL::Result object. Note that you have to free
# the Result object after you're done using it.
def execute(sql, name = nil) #:nodoc:
if name == :skip_logging
@connection.query(sql)
else
log(sql, name) { @connection.query(sql) }
end
rescue ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid => exception
if exception.message.split(":").first =~ /Packets out of order/
raise ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid, "'Packets out of order' error was received from the database. Please update your mysql bindings (gem install mysql) and read http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/password-hashing.html for more information. If you're on Windows, use the Instant Rails installer to get the updated mysql bindings."
else
raise
end
end
def insert_sql(sql, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil) #:nodoc:
super sql, name
id_value || @connection.insert_id
end
alias :create :insert_sql
def update_sql(sql, name = nil) #:nodoc:
super
@connection.affected_rows
end
def begin_db_transaction #:nodoc:
execute "BEGIN"
rescue Exception
# Transactions aren't supported
end
def commit_db_transaction #:nodoc:
execute "COMMIT"
rescue Exception
# Transactions aren't supported
end
def rollback_db_transaction #:nodoc:
execute "ROLLBACK"
rescue Exception
# Transactions aren't supported
end
def create_savepoint
execute("SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
def rollback_to_savepoint
execute("ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
def release_savepoint
execute("RELEASE SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
def add_limit_offset!(sql, options) #:nodoc:
limit, offset = options[:limit], options[:offset]
if limit && offset
sql << " LIMIT #{offset.to_i}, #{sanitize_limit(limit)}"
elsif limit
sql << " LIMIT #{sanitize_limit(limit)}"
elsif offset
sql << " OFFSET #{offset.to_i}"
end
sql
end
# SCHEMA STATEMENTS ========================================
def structure_dump #:nodoc:
if supports_views?
sql = "SHOW FULL TABLES WHERE Table_type = 'BASE TABLE'"
else
sql = "SHOW TABLES"
end
select_all(sql).map do |table|
table.delete('Table_type')
select_one("SHOW CREATE TABLE #{quote_table_name(table.to_a.first.last)}")["Create Table"] + ";\n\n"
end.join("")
end
def recreate_database(name, options = {}) #:nodoc:
drop_database(name)
create_database(name, options)
end
# Create a new MySQL database with optional <tt>:charset</tt> and <tt>:collation</tt>.
# Charset defaults to utf8.
#
# Example:
# create_database 'charset_test', :charset => 'latin1', :collation => 'latin1_bin'
# create_database 'matt_development'
# create_database 'matt_development', :charset => :big5
def create_database(name, options = {})
if options[:collation]
execute "CREATE DATABASE `#{name}` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `#{options[:charset] || 'utf8'}` COLLATE `#{options[:collation]}`"
else
execute "CREATE DATABASE `#{name}` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `#{options[:charset] || 'utf8'}`"
end
end
def drop_database(name) #:nodoc:
execute "DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS `#{name}`"
end
def current_database
select_value 'SELECT DATABASE() as db'
end
# Returns the database character set.
def charset
show_variable 'character_set_database'
end
# Returns the database collation strategy.
def collation
show_variable 'collation_database'
end
def tables(name = nil, database = nil) #:nodoc:
tables = []
sql = "SHOW TABLES "
sql << "IN #{quote_table_name(database)} " if database
result = execute(sql, 'SCHEMA')
result.each { |field| tables << field[0] }
result.free
tables
end
def table_exists?(name)
return true if super
name = name.to_s
schema, table = name.split('.', 2)
unless table # A table was provided without a schema
table = schema
schema = nil
end
tables(nil, schema).include? table
end
def drop_table(table_name, options = {})
super(table_name, options)
end
def indexes(table_name, name = nil)#:nodoc:
indexes = []
current_index = nil
result = execute("SHOW KEYS FROM #{quote_table_name(table_name)}", name)
result.each do |row|
if current_index != row[2]
next if row[2] == "PRIMARY" # skip the primary key
current_index = row[2]
indexes << IndexDefinition.new(row[0], row[2], row[1] == "0", [], [])
end
indexes.last.columns << row[4]
indexes.last.lengths << row[7]
end
result.free
indexes
end
def columns(table_name, name = nil)#:nodoc:
sql = "SHOW FIELDS FROM #{quote_table_name(table_name)}"
columns = []
result = execute(sql, :skip_logging)
result.each { |field| columns << MysqlColumn.new(field[0], field[4], field[1], field[2] == "YES") }
result.free
columns
end
def create_table(table_name, options = {}) #:nodoc:
super(table_name, options.reverse_merge(:options => "ENGINE=InnoDB"))
end
def rename_table(table_name, new_name)
execute "RENAME TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} TO #{quote_table_name(new_name)}"
end
def add_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {})
add_column_sql = "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} ADD #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{type_to_sql(type, options[:limit], options[:precision], options[:scale])}"
add_column_options!(add_column_sql, options)
add_column_position!(add_column_sql, options)
execute(add_column_sql)
end
def change_column_default(table_name, column_name, default) #:nodoc:
column = column_for(table_name, column_name)
change_column table_name, column_name, column.sql_type, :default => default
end
def change_column_null(table_name, column_name, null, default = nil)
column = column_for(table_name, column_name)
unless null || default.nil?
execute("UPDATE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} SET #{quote_column_name(column_name)}=#{quote(default)} WHERE #{quote_column_name(column_name)} IS NULL")
end
change_column table_name, column_name, column.sql_type, :null => null
end
def change_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {}) #:nodoc:
column = column_for(table_name, column_name)
unless options_include_default?(options)
options[:default] = column.default
end
unless options.has_key?(:null)
options[:null] = column.null
end
change_column_sql = "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} CHANGE #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{type_to_sql(type, options[:limit], options[:precision], options[:scale])}"
add_column_options!(change_column_sql, options)
add_column_position!(change_column_sql, options)
execute(change_column_sql)
end
def rename_column(table_name, column_name, new_column_name) #:nodoc:
options = {}
if column = columns(table_name).find { |c| c.name == column_name.to_s }
options[:default] = column.default
options[:null] = column.null
else
raise ActiveRecordError, "No such column: #{table_name}.#{column_name}"
end
current_type = select_one("SHOW COLUMNS FROM #{quote_table_name(table_name)} LIKE '#{column_name}'")["Type"]
rename_column_sql = "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} CHANGE #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{quote_column_name(new_column_name)} #{current_type}"
add_column_options!(rename_column_sql, options)
execute(rename_column_sql)
end
# Maps logical Rails types to MySQL-specific data types.
def type_to_sql(type, limit = nil, precision = nil, scale = nil)
case type.to_s
when 'integer'
case limit
when 1; 'tinyint'
when 2; 'smallint'
when 3; 'mediumint'
when nil, 4, 11; 'int(11)' # compatibility with MySQL default
when 5..8; 'bigint'
else raise(ActiveRecordError, "No integer type has byte size #{limit}")
end
when 'text'
case limit
when 0..0xff; 'tinytext'
when nil, 0x100..0xffff; 'text'
when 0x10000..0xffffff; 'mediumtext'
when 0x1000000..0xffffffff; 'longtext'
else raise(ActiveRecordError, "No text type has character length #{limit}")
end
else
super
end
end
def add_column_position!(sql, options)
if options[:first]
sql << " FIRST"
elsif options[:after]
sql << " AFTER #{quote_column_name(options[:after])}"
end
end
# SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'name'
def show_variable(name)
variables = select_all("SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '#{name}'")
variables.first['Value'] unless variables.empty?
end
# Returns a table's primary key and belonging sequence.
def pk_and_sequence_for(table) #:nodoc:
keys = []
result = execute("describe #{quote_table_name(table)}")
result.each_hash do |h|
keys << h["Field"]if h["Key"] == "PRI"
end
result.free
keys.length == 1 ? [keys.first, nil] : nil
end
# Returns just a table's primary key
def primary_key(table)
pk_and_sequence = pk_and_sequence_for(table)
pk_and_sequence && pk_and_sequence.first
end
def case_sensitive_equality_operator
"= BINARY"
end
def limited_update_conditions(where_sql, quoted_table_name, quoted_primary_key)
where_sql
end
protected
def quoted_columns_for_index(column_names, options = {})
length = options[:length] if options.is_a?(Hash)
quoted_column_names = case length
when Hash
column_names.map {|name| length[name] ? "#{quote_column_name(name)}(#{length[name]})" : quote_column_name(name) }
when Fixnum
column_names.map {|name| "#{quote_column_name(name)}(#{length})"}
else
column_names.map {|name| quote_column_name(name) }
end
end
def translate_exception(exception, message)
return super unless exception.respond_to?(:errno)
case exception.errno
when 1062
RecordNotUnique.new(message, exception)
when 1452
InvalidForeignKey.new(message, exception)
else
super
end
end
private
def connect
encoding = @config[:encoding]
if encoding
@connection.options(Mysql::SET_CHARSET_NAME, encoding) rescue nil
end
if @config[:sslca] || @config[:sslkey]
@connection.ssl_set(@config[:sslkey], @config[:sslcert], @config[:sslca], @config[:sslcapath], @config[:sslcipher])
end
@connection.options(Mysql::OPT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, @config[:connect_timeout]) if @config[:connect_timeout]
@connection.options(Mysql::OPT_READ_TIMEOUT, @config[:read_timeout]) if @config[:read_timeout]
@connection.options(Mysql::OPT_WRITE_TIMEOUT, @config[:write_timeout]) if @config[:write_timeout]
@connection.real_connect(*@connection_options)
# reconnect must be set after real_connect is called, because real_connect sets it to false internally
@connection.reconnect = !!@config[:reconnect] if @connection.respond_to?(:reconnect=)
configure_connection
end
def configure_connection
encoding = @config[:encoding]
execute("SET NAMES '#{encoding}'", :skip_logging) if encoding
# By default, MySQL 'where id is null' selects the last inserted id.
# Turn this off. http://dev.rubyonrails.org/ticket/6778
execute("SET SQL_AUTO_IS_NULL=0", :skip_logging)
end
def select(sql, name = nil)
@connection.query_with_result = true
result = execute(sql, name)
rows = []
result.each_hash { |row| rows << row }
result.free
@connection.more_results && @connection.next_result # invoking stored procedures with CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS requires this to tidy up else connection will be dropped
rows
end
def supports_views?
version[0] >= 5
end
def version
@version ||= @connection.server_info.scan(/^(\d+)\.(\d+)\.(\d+)/).flatten.map { |v| v.to_i }
end
def column_for(table_name, column_name)
unless column = columns(table_name).find { |c| c.name == column_name.to_s }
raise "No such column: #{table_name}.#{column_name}"
end
column
end
end
end
end
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