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require 'thread'

module ActiveRecord
  # See ActiveRecord::Transactions::ClassMethods for documentation.
  module Transactions
    extend ActiveSupport::Concern

    class TransactionError < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
    end

    included do
      define_callbacks :commit, :rollback, :terminator => "result == false", :scope => [:kind, :name]
    end

    # = Active Record Transactions
    #
    # Transactions are protective blocks where SQL statements are only permanent
    # if they can all succeed as one atomic action. The classic example is a
    # transfer between two accounts where you can only have a deposit if the
    # withdrawal succeeded and vice versa. Transactions enforce the integrity of
    # the database and guard the data against program errors or database
    # break-downs. So basically you should use transaction blocks whenever you
    # have a number of statements that must be executed together or not at all.
    #
    # For example:
    #
    # ActiveRecord::Base.transaction do
    # david.withdrawal(100)
    # mary.deposit(100)
    # end
    #
    # This example will only take money from David and give it to Mary if neither
    # +withdrawal+ nor +deposit+ raise an exception. Exceptions will force a
    # ROLLBACK that returns the database to the state before the transaction
    # began. Be aware, though, that the objects will _not_ have their instance
    # data returned to their pre-transactional state.
    #
    # == Different Active Record classes in a single transaction
    #
    # Though the transaction class method is called on some Active Record class,
    # the objects within the transaction block need not all be instances of
    # that class. This is because transactions are per-database connection, not
    # per-model.
    #
    # In this example a +balance+ record is transactionally saved even
    # though +transaction+ is called on the +Account+ class:
    #
    # Account.transaction do
    # balance.save!
    # account.save!
    # end
    #
    # The +transaction+ method is also available as a model instance method.
    # For example, you can also do this:
    #
    # balance.transaction do
    # balance.save!
    # account.save!
    # end
    #
    # == Transactions are not distributed across database connections
    #
    # A transaction acts on a single database connection. If you have
    # multiple class-specific databases, the transaction will not protect
    # interaction among them. One workaround is to begin a transaction
    # on each class whose models you alter:
    #
    # Student.transaction do
    # Course.transaction do
    # course.enroll(student)
    # student.units += course.units
    # end
    # end
    #
    # This is a poor solution, but fully distributed transactions are beyond
    # the scope of Active Record.
    #
    # == +save+ and +destroy+ are automatically wrapped in a transaction
    #
    # Both +save+ and +destroy+ come wrapped in a transaction that ensures
    # that whatever you do in validations or callbacks will happen under its
    # protected cover. So you can use validations to check for values that
    # the transaction depends on or you can raise exceptions in the callbacks
    # to rollback, including <tt>after_*</tt> callbacks.
    #
    # As a consequence changes to the database are not seen outside your connection
    # until the operation is complete. For example, if you try to update the index
    # of a search engine in +after_save+ the indexer won't see the updated record.
    # The +after_commit+ callback is the only one that is triggered once the update
    # is committed. See below.
    #
    # == Exception handling and rolling back
    #
    # Also have in mind that exceptions thrown within a transaction block will
    # be propagated (after triggering the ROLLBACK), so you should be ready to
    # catch those in your application code.
    #
    # One exception is the <tt>ActiveRecord::Rollback</tt> exception, which will trigger
    # a ROLLBACK when raised, but not be re-raised by the transaction block.
    #
    # *Warning*: one should not catch <tt>ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid</tt> exceptions
    # inside a transaction block. <tt>ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid</tt> exceptions indicate that an
    # error occurred at the database level, for example when a unique constraint
    # is violated. On some database systems, such as PostgreSQL, database errors
    # inside a transaction cause the entire transaction to become unusable
    # until it's restarted from the beginning. Here is an example which
    # demonstrates the problem:
    #
    # # Suppose that we have a Number model with a unique column called 'i'.
    # Number.transaction do
    # Number.create(:i => 0)
    # begin
    # # This will raise a unique constraint error...
    # Number.create(:i => 0)
    # rescue ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid
    # # ...which we ignore.
    # end
    #
    # # On PostgreSQL, the transaction is now unusable. The following
    # # statement will cause a PostgreSQL error, even though the unique
    # # constraint is no longer violated:
    # Number.create(:i => 1)
    # # => "PGError: ERROR: current transaction is aborted, commands
    # # ignored until end of transaction block"
    # end
    #
    # One should restart the entire transaction if an
    # <tt>ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid</tt> occurred.
    #
    # == Nested transactions
    #
    # +transaction+ calls can be nested. By default, this makes all database
    # statements in the nested transaction block become part of the parent
    # transaction. For example, the following behavior may be surprising:
    #
    # User.transaction do
    # User.create(:username => 'Kotori')
    # User.transaction do
    # User.create(:username => 'Nemu')
    # raise ActiveRecord::Rollback
    # end
    # end
    #
    # creates both "Kotori" and "Nemu". Reason is the <tt>ActiveRecord::Rollback</tt>
    # exception in the nested block does not issue a ROLLBACK. Since these exceptions
    # are captured in transaction blocks, the parent block does not see it and the
    # real transaction is committed.
    #
    # In order to get a ROLLBACK for the nested transaction you may ask for a real
    # sub-transaction by passing <tt>:requires_new => true</tt>. If anything goes wrong,
    # the database rolls back to the beginning of the sub-transaction without rolling
    # back the parent transaction. If we add it to the previous example:
    #
    # User.transaction do
    # User.create(:username => 'Kotori')
    # User.transaction(:requires_new => true) do
    # User.create(:username => 'Nemu')
    # raise ActiveRecord::Rollback
    # end
    # end
    #
    # only "Kotori" is created. (This works on MySQL and PostgreSQL, but not on SQLite3.)
    #
    # Most databases don't support true nested transactions. At the time of
    # writing, the only database that we're aware of that supports true nested
    # transactions, is MS-SQL. Because of this, Active Record emulates nested
    # transactions by using savepoints on MySQL and PostgreSQL. See
    # http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/savepoint.html
    # for more information about savepoints.
    #
    # === Callbacks
    #
    # There are two types of callbacks associated with committing and rolling back transactions:
    # +after_commit+ and +after_rollback+.
    #
    # +after_commit+ callbacks are called on every record saved or destroyed within a
    # transaction immediately after the transaction is committed. +after_rollback+ callbacks
    # are called on every record saved or destroyed within a transaction immediately after the
    # transaction or savepoint is rolled back.
    #
    # These callbacks are useful for interacting with other systems since you will be guaranteed
    # that the callback is only executed when the database is in a permanent state. For example,
    # +after_commit+ is a good spot to put in a hook to clearing a cache since clearing it from
    # within a transaction could trigger the cache to be regenerated before the database is updated.
    #
    # === Caveats
    #
    # If you're on MySQL, then do not use DDL operations in nested transactions
    # blocks that are emulated with savepoints. That is, do not execute statements
    # like 'CREATE TABLE' inside such blocks. This is because MySQL automatically
    # releases all savepoints upon executing a DDL operation. When +transaction+
    # is finished and tries to release the savepoint it created earlier, a
    # database error will occur because the savepoint has already been
    # automatically released. The following example demonstrates the problem:
    #
    # Model.connection.transaction do # BEGIN
    # Model.connection.transaction(:requires_new => true) do # CREATE SAVEPOINT active_record_1
    # Model.connection.create_table(...) # active_record_1 now automatically released
    # end # RELEASE savepoint active_record_1
    # # ^^^^ BOOM! database error!
    # end
    #
    # Note that "TRUNCATE" is also a MySQL DDL statement!
    module ClassMethods
      # See ActiveRecord::Transactions::ClassMethods for detailed documentation.
      def transaction(options = {}, &block)
        # See the ConnectionAdapters::DatabaseStatements#transaction API docs.
        connection.transaction(options, &block)
      end

      def after_commit(*args, &block)
        options = args.last
        if options.is_a?(Hash) && options[:on]
          options[:if] = Array.wrap(options[:if])
          options[:if] << "transaction_include_action?(:#{options[:on]})"
        end
        set_callback(:commit, :after, *args, &block)
      end

      def after_rollback(*args, &block)
        options = args.last
        if options.is_a?(Hash) && options[:on]
          options[:if] = Array.wrap(options[:if])
          options[:if] << "transaction_include_action?(:#{options[:on]})"
        end
        set_callback(:rollback, :after, *args, &block)
      end
    end

    # See ActiveRecord::Transactions::ClassMethods for detailed documentation.
    def transaction(options = {}, &block)
      self.class.transaction(options, &block)
    end

    def destroy #:nodoc:
      with_transaction_returning_status { super }
    end

    def save(*) #:nodoc:
      rollback_active_record_state! do
        with_transaction_returning_status { super }
      end
    end

    def save!(*) #:nodoc:
      with_transaction_returning_status { super }
    end

    # Reset id and @new_record if the transaction rolls back.
    def rollback_active_record_state!
      remember_transaction_record_state
      yield
    rescue Exception
      IdentityMap.remove(self) if IdentityMap.enabled?
      restore_transaction_record_state
      raise
    ensure
      clear_transaction_record_state
    end

    # Call the after_commit callbacks
    def committed! #:nodoc:
      run_callbacks :commit
    ensure
      clear_transaction_record_state
    end

    # Call the after rollback callbacks. The restore_state argument indicates if the record
    # state should be rolled back to the beginning or just to the last savepoint.
    def rolledback!(force_restore_state = false) #:nodoc:
      run_callbacks :rollback
    ensure
      IdentityMap.remove(self) if IdentityMap.enabled?
      restore_transaction_record_state(force_restore_state)
    end

    # Add the record to the current transaction so that the :after_rollback and :after_commit callbacks
    # can be called.
    def add_to_transaction
      if self.class.connection.add_transaction_record(self)
        remember_transaction_record_state
      end
    end

    # Executes +method+ within a transaction and captures its return value as a
    # status flag. If the status is true the transaction is committed, otherwise
    # a ROLLBACK is issued. In any case the status flag is returned.
    #
    # This method is available within the context of an ActiveRecord::Base
    # instance.
    def with_transaction_returning_status
      status = nil
      self.class.transaction do
        add_to_transaction
        status = yield
        raise ActiveRecord::Rollback unless status
      end
      status
    end

    protected

    # Save the new record state and id of a record so it can be restored later if a transaction fails.
    def remember_transaction_record_state #:nodoc:
      @_start_transaction_state ||= {}
      @_start_transaction_state[:id] = id if has_attribute?(self.class.primary_key)
      unless @_start_transaction_state.include?(:new_record)
        @_start_transaction_state[:new_record] = @new_record
      end
      unless @_start_transaction_state.include?(:destroyed)
        @_start_transaction_state[:destroyed] = @destroyed
      end
      @_start_transaction_state[:level] = (@_start_transaction_state[:level] || 0) + 1
    end

    # Clear the new record state and id of a record.
    def clear_transaction_record_state #:nodoc:
      if defined?(@_start_transaction_state)
        @_start_transaction_state[:level] = (@_start_transaction_state[:level] || 0) - 1
        remove_instance_variable(:@_start_transaction_state) if @_start_transaction_state[:level] < 1
      end
    end

    # Restore the new record state and id of a record that was previously saved by a call to save_record_state.
    def restore_transaction_record_state(force = false) #:nodoc:
      if defined?(@_start_transaction_state)
        @_start_transaction_state[:level] = (@_start_transaction_state[:level] || 0) - 1
        if @_start_transaction_state[:level] < 1
          restore_state = remove_instance_variable(:@_start_transaction_state)
          was_frozen = @attributes.frozen?
          @attributes = @attributes.dup if was_frozen
          @new_record = restore_state[:new_record]
          @destroyed = restore_state[:destroyed]
          if restore_state.has_key?(:id)
            self.id = restore_state[:id]
          else
            @attributes.delete(self.class.primary_key)
            @attributes_cache.delete(self.class.primary_key)
          end
          @attributes.freeze if was_frozen
        end
      end
    end

    # Determine if a record was created or destroyed in a transaction. State should be one of :new_record or :destroyed.
    def transaction_record_state(state) #:nodoc:
      @_start_transaction_state[state] if defined?(@_start_transaction_state)
    end

    # Determine if a transaction included an action for :create, :update, or :destroy. Used in filtering callbacks.
    def transaction_include_action?(action) #:nodoc:
      case action
      when :create
        transaction_record_state(:new_record)
      when :destroy
        destroyed?
      when :update
        !(transaction_record_state(:new_record) || destroyed?)
      end
    end
  end
end
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