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module ActiveRecord
module ConnectionAdapters
class PostgreSQLAdapter < AbstractAdapter
module DatabaseStatements
def explain(arel, binds = [])
sql = "EXPLAIN #{to_sql(arel, binds)}"
ExplainPrettyPrinter.new.pp(exec_query(sql, 'EXPLAIN', binds))
end
class ExplainPrettyPrinter # :nodoc:
# Pretty prints the result of a EXPLAIN in a way that resembles the output of the
# PostgreSQL shell:
#
# QUERY PLAN
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Nested Loop Left Join (cost=0.00..37.24 rows=8 width=0)
# Join Filter: (posts.user_id = users.id)
# -> Index Scan using users_pkey on users (cost=0.00..8.27 rows=1 width=4)
# Index Cond: (id = 1)
# -> Seq Scan on posts (cost=0.00..28.88 rows=8 width=4)
# Filter: (posts.user_id = 1)
# (6 rows)
#
def pp(result)
header = result.columns.first
lines = result.rows.map(&:first)
# We add 2 because there's one char of padding at both sides, note
# the extra hyphens in the example above.
width = [header, *lines].map(&:length).max + 2
pp = []
pp << header.center(width).rstrip
pp << '-' * width
pp += lines.map {|line| " #{line}"}
nrows = result.rows.length
rows_label = nrows == 1 ? 'row' : 'rows'
pp << "(#{nrows} #{rows_label})"
pp.join("\n") + "\n"
end
end
# Executes a SELECT query and returns an array of rows. Each row is an
# array of field values.
def select_rows(sql, name = nil)
select_raw(sql, name).last
end
# Executes an INSERT query and returns the new record's ID
def insert_sql(sql, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil)
unless pk
# Extract the table from the insert sql. Yuck.
table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
pk = primary_key(table_ref) if table_ref
end
if pk && use_insert_returning?
select_value("#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}")
elsif pk
super
last_insert_id_value(sequence_name || default_sequence_name(table_ref, pk))
else
super
end
end
def create
super.insert
end
# create a 2D array representing the result set
def result_as_array(res) #:nodoc:
# check if we have any binary column and if they need escaping
ftypes = Array.new(res.nfields) do |i|
[i, res.ftype(i)]
end
rows = res.values
return rows unless ftypes.any? { |_, x|
x == BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID || x == MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID
}
typehash = ftypes.group_by { |_, type| type }
binaries = typehash[BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []
monies = typehash[MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []
rows.each do |row|
# unescape string passed BYTEA field (OID == 17)
binaries.each do |index, _|
row[index] = unescape_bytea(row[index])
end
# If this is a money type column and there are any currency symbols,
# then strip them off. Indeed it would be prettier to do this in
# PostgreSQLColumn.string_to_decimal but would break form input
# fields that call value_before_type_cast.
monies.each do |index, _|
data = row[index]
# Because money output is formatted according to the locale, there are two
# cases to consider (note the decimal separators):
# (1) $12,345,678.12
# (2) $12.345.678,12
case data
when /^-?\D+[\d,]+\.\d{2}$/ # (1)
data.gsub!(/[^-\d.]/, '')
when /^-?\D+[\d.]+,\d{2}$/ # (2)
data.gsub!(/[^-\d,]/, '').sub!(/,/, '.')
end
end
end
end
# Queries the database and returns the results in an Array-like object
def query(sql, name = nil) #:nodoc:
log(sql, name) do
result_as_array @connection.async_exec(sql)
end
end
# Executes an SQL statement, returning a PGresult object on success
# or raising a PGError exception otherwise.
def execute(sql, name = nil)
log(sql, name) do
@connection.async_exec(sql)
end
end
def substitute_at(column, index)
Arel::Nodes::BindParam.new "$#{index + 1}"
end
def exec_query(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
log(sql, name, binds) do
result = without_prepared_statement?(binds) ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
exec_cache(sql, binds)
types = {}
fields = result.fields
fields.each_with_index do |fname, i|
ftype = result.ftype i
fmod = result.fmod i
types[fname] = OID::TYPE_MAP.fetch(ftype, fmod) { |oid, mod|
warn "unknown OID: #{fname}(#{oid}) (#{sql})"
OID::Identity.new
}
end
ret = ActiveRecord::Result.new(fields, result.values, types)
result.clear
return ret
end
end
def exec_delete(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
log(sql, name, binds) do
result = without_prepared_statement?(binds) ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
exec_cache(sql, binds)
affected = result.cmd_tuples
result.clear
affected
end
end
alias :exec_update :exec_delete
def sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
unless pk
# Extract the table from the insert sql. Yuck.
table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
pk = primary_key(table_ref) if table_ref
end
if pk && use_insert_returning?
sql = "#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}"
end
[sql, binds]
end
def exec_insert(sql, name, binds, pk = nil, sequence_name = nil)
val = exec_query(sql, name, binds)
if !use_insert_returning? && pk
unless sequence_name
table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
sequence_name = default_sequence_name(table_ref, pk)
return val unless sequence_name
end
last_insert_id_result(sequence_name)
else
val
end
end
# Executes an UPDATE query and returns the number of affected tuples.
def update_sql(sql, name = nil)
super.cmd_tuples
end
# Begins a transaction.
def begin_db_transaction
execute "BEGIN"
end
def begin_isolated_db_transaction(isolation)
begin_db_transaction
execute "SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL #{transaction_isolation_levels.fetch(isolation)}"
end
# Commits a transaction.
def commit_db_transaction
execute "COMMIT"
end
# Aborts a transaction.
def rollback_db_transaction
execute "ROLLBACK"
end
def outside_transaction?
message = "#outside_transaction? is deprecated. This method was only really used " \
"internally, but you can use #transaction_open? instead."
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn message
@connection.transaction_status == PGconn::PQTRANS_IDLE
end
def create_savepoint
execute("SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
def rollback_to_savepoint
execute("ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
def release_savepoint
execute("RELEASE SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end
end
end
end
end
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