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Rails 4.1.12 (June 25, 2015)

  • Raises the right exception when declares a has many through association with missing source.

    Mauro George

  • Revert behavior of db:schema:load back to loading the full environment. This ensures that initializers are run.

    Fixes #19545.

    Yves Senn

  • Rename :class to :anonymous_class in association options.

    Fixes #19659.

    Andrew White

  • Fix referencing wrong table aliases while joining tables of has many through association (only when calling calculation methods).

    Fixes #19276.


Rails 4.1.11 (June 16, 2015)

  • No changes.

Rails 4.1.10 (March 19, 2015)

  • Fixed ActiveRecord::Relation#becomes! and changed_attributes issues for type column

    Fixes #17139.

    Miklos Fazekas

  • A NullRelation should represent nothing. This fixes a bug where Comment.where(post_id: Post.none) returned a non-empty result.

    Closes #15176.

    Matthew Draper, Yves Senn

  • Respect custom primary keys for associations when calling Relation#where

    Fixes #18813.

    Sean Griffin

  • Fixed ActiveRecord::Relation#group method when argument is SQL reserved key word:

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • Fixed setting of foreign_key for through associations while building of new record.

    Fixes #12698.

    Ivan Antropov

  • Fixed automatic inverse_of for models nested in module.

    Andrew McCloud

  • Fix reaping_frequency option when the value is a string.

    This usually happens when it is configured using DATABASE_URL.


Rails 4.1.9 (January 6, 2015)

  • db:schema:load and db:structure:load no longer purge the database before loading the schema. This is left for the user to do. db:test:prepare will still purge the database.

    Closes #17945.

    Yves Senn

  • Bring back db:test:prepare to synchronize the test database schema.

    Manual synchronization using bin/rake db:test:prepare is required when a migration is rolled-back, edited and reapplied.

    ActiveRecord::Base.maintain_test_schema now uses db:test:prepare to synchronize the schema. Plugins can use this task as a hook to provide custom behavior after the schema has been loaded.

    NOTE: test:prepare runs before the schema was synchronized.

    Fixes #17171, #15787.

    Yves Senn

  • Renaming a table in pg also renames the primary key index.

    Fixes #12856

    Sean Griffin

  • Make it possible to access fixtures excluded by a default_scope.

    Yves Senn

  • timestamps and add_timestamps passes additional options along. (like null: false)

    Closes #17624.

    Yves Senn

Rails 4.1.8 (November 16, 2014)

  • Cache CollectionAssociation#reader proxies separately before and after the owner has been saved so that the proxy is not cached without the owner's id.

    Ben Woosley

  • Fix preloading of associations which unscope a default scope.

    Fixes #11036.

    Byron Bischoff

  • Do not use RENAME INDEX syntax for MariaDB 10.0.

    Fixes #15931.

    Jeff Browning

  • Allow included modules to override association methods.

    Fixes #16684.

    Yves Senn

  • Schema loading rake tasks (like db:schema:load and db:setup) maintain the database connection to the current environment.

    Fixes #16757.

    Joshua Cody, Yves Senn

  • db:purge with MySQL respects Rails.env.

    Yves Senn

  • Fixed automatic maintaining test schema to properly handle sql structure schema format.

    Fixes #15394.

    Wojciech Wnętrzak

  • Fix has_many :through relation merging failing when dynamic conditions are passed as a lambda with an arity of one.

    Fixes #16128.

    Agis Anastasopoulos

Rails (November 19, 2014)

  • No changes.

Rails 4.1.7 (October 29, 2014)

  • No changes.

Rails 4.1.6 (September 11, 2014)

  • Fixed a regression where whitespaces were stripped from DISTINCT queries in PostgreSQL.

    Agis Anastasopoulos

    Fixes #16623.

  • Fixed an issue where custom accessor methods (such as those generated by enum) with the same name as a global method are incorrectly overridden when subclassing.

    Fixes #16288.

  • Baseclass becomes! subclass.

    Before this change, a record which changed its STI type, could not be found when updated. Setting update_record to the base class, ensures the record can be found.

    Fixes #14785.

    Matthew Draper, Earl St Sauver, Edo Balvers

  • Fix regression on after_commit that didnt fire when having nested transactions.

    Fixes #16425.


  • Define id_was to get the previous value of the primary key.

    Currently when we call id_was and we have a custom primary key name Active Record will return the current value of the primary key. This make impossible to correctly do an update operation if you change the id.

    Fixes #16413.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Fix the schema dump generated for tables without constraints and with primary key with default value of custom PostgreSQL function result.

    Fixes #16111.

    Andrey Novikov

  • Restore 4.0 behavior for using serialize attributes with JSON as coder.

    With 4.1.x, serialize started returning a string when JSON was passed as the second attribute. It will now return a hash as per previous versions.


    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      serialize :comment, JSON
    class Comment
      include ActiveModel::Model
      attr_accessor :category, :text
    post = Post.create!
    post.comment = "Animals", text: "This is a comment about squirrels.")!
    # 4.0
    post.comment # => {"category"=>"Animals", "text"=>"This is a comment about squirrels."}
    # 4.1 before
    post.comment # => "#<Comment:0x007f80ab48ff98>"
    # 4.1 after
    post.comment # => {"category"=>"Animals", "text"=>"This is a comment about squirrels."}

    When using JSON as the coder in serialize, Active Record will use the new ActiveRecord::Coders::JSON coder which delegates its dump/load to ActiveSupport::JSON.encode/decode. This ensures special objects are dumped correctly using the #as_json hook.

    To keep the previous behaviour, supply a custom coder instead (example).

    Fixes #15594.

    Jenn Cooper

  • Fixed error in reset_counters when associations have select scope. (Call to count generates invalid SQL.)

    Cade Truitt

  • After a successful reload, new_record? is always false.

    Fixes #12101.

    Matthew Draper

  • Correctly extract IPv6 addresses from DATABASE_URI: the square brackets are part of the URI structure, not the actual host.

    Fixes #15705.

    Andy Bakun, Aaron Stone

  • Don't error when quoting user defined types in PostgreSQL.

    Fixes #15697.

    Sean Griffin

  • Ensure both parent IDs are set on join records when both sides of a through association are new.

    Sean Griffin

  • Pluck now works when selecting columns from different tables with the same name.

    Fixes #15649.

    Sean Griffin

  • ActiveRecord::FinderMethods.find with block can handle proc parameter as Enumerable#find does.

    Fixes #15382.

    James Yang

  • ActiveRecord::SchemaMigration has no primary key regardless of the primary_key_prefix_type configuration.

    Fixes #15051.

    JoseLuis Torres, Yves Senn

  • rake db:migrate:status works with legacy migration numbers like 00018_xyz.rb.

    Fixes #15538.

    Yves Senn

  • Fixed columns_for_distinct of postgresql adapter to work correctly with orders without sort direction modifiers.

    Nikolay Kondratyev

  • Keep PostgreSQL hstore and json attributes as Hash in @attributes. Fixes duplication in combination with store_accessor.

    Fixes #15369.

    Yves Senn

  • rake railties:install:migrations respects the order of railties.

    Arun Agrawal

Rails 4.1.5 (August 18, 2014)

  • No changes.

Rails 4.1.4 (July 2, 2014)

  • Fix regression added from the latest security fix.

    Sean Griffin, Matthew Draper

Rails 4.1.3 (July 2, 2014)

  • Fix SQL Injection Vulnerability in 'range' quoting.

    Fixes CVE-2014-3483

    Rafael Mendonça França

Rails 4.1.2 (June 26, 2014)

  • Fix regression on eager loading association based on SQL query rather than existing column.

    Fixes #15480.

    Lauro Caetano, Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Fix redefine a has_and_belongs_to_many inside inherited class Fixing regression case, where redefining the same has_an_belongs_to_many definition into a subclass would raise.

    Fixes #14983.


  • Fix has_and_belongs_to_many public reflection. When defining a has_and_belongs_to_many, internally we convert that to two has_many. But as reflections is a public API, people expect to see the right macro.

    Fixes #14682.


  • Fixed serialization for records with an attribute named format.

    Fixes #15188.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Fixed serialized fields returning serialized data after being updated with update_column.

    Simon Hørup Eskildsen

  • When a group is set, sum, size, average, minimum and maximum on a NullRelation should return a Hash.

    Kuldeep Aggarwal

  • Fixed polymorphic eager loading when using a String as foreign key.

    Fixes #14734.

    Lauro Caetano

  • Fixed the inferred table name of a has_and_belongs_to_many auxiliar table inside a schema.

    Fixes #14824

    Eric Chahin

  • Fix bug that added table_name_prefix and table_name_suffix to extension names in PostgreSQL when migrating.

    Joao Carlos

  • Floats with limit >= 25 that get turned into doubles in MySQL no longer have their limit dropped from the schema.

    Fixes #14135.

    Aaron Nelson

  • Fix how to calculate associated class name when using namespaced has_and_belongs_to_many association.

    Fixes #14709.

    Kassio Borges

  • ActiveRecord::Relation::Merger#filter_binds now compares equivalent symbols and strings in column names as equal.

    This fixes a rare case in which more bind values are passed than there are placeholders for them in the generated SQL statement, which can make PostgreSQL throw a StatementInvalid exception.

    Nat Budin

  • Fix stored_attributes to correctly merge the details of stored attributes defined in parent classes.

    Fixes #14672.

    Brad Bennett, Jessica Yao, Lakshmi Parthasarathy

  • change_column_default allows [] as argument to change_column_default.

    Fixes #11586.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix PostgreSQLAdapter::OID::Float#type_cast to convert Infinity and NaN PostgreSQL values into a native Ruby Float::INFINITY and Float::NAN


    # Before
    Point.create(value: 1.0/0)
    Point.last.value # => 0.0
    # After
    Point.create(value: 1.0/0)
    Point.last.value # => Infinity

    Innokenty Mikhailov

  • Allow the PostgreSQL adapter to handle bigserial primary key types again.

    Fixes #10410.

    Patrick Robertson

  • Fixed has_and_belongs_to_many's CollectionAssociation size calculation.

    has_and_belongs_to_many should fall back to using the normal CollectionAssociation's size calculation if the collection is not cached or loaded.

    Fixes #14913 and #14914.

    Fred Wu

  • Revert the behaviour of ActiveRecord::Relation#join changed through 4.0 => 4.1 to 4.0.

    In 4.1.0 Relation#join is delegated to Arel#SelectManager. In 4.0 series it is delegated to Array#join.

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • Log nil binary column values correctly.

    When an object with a binary column is updated with a nil value in that column, the SQL logger would throw an exception when trying to log that nil value. This only occurs when updating a record that already has a non-nil value in that column since an initial nil value isn't included in the SQL anyway (at least, when dirty checking is enabled.) The column's new value will now be logged as <NULL binary data> to parallel the existing <N bytes of binary data> for non-nil values.

    James Coleman

  • Stringify all variables keys of MySQL connection configuration.

    When sql_mode variable for MySQL adapters set in configuration as String was ignored and overwritten by strict mode option.

    Fixes #14895.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Ensure SQLite3 statements are closed on errors.

    Fixes #13631.

    Timur Alperovich

  • Fix excluding lower bounds of PostgreSQL date and int ranges.

    River MacLeod, Yves Senn

  • When using a custom join_table name on a habtm, rails was not saving it on Reflections. This causes a problem when rails loads fixtures, because it uses the reflections to set database with fixtures.

    Fixes #14845.

    Kassio Borges

  • ActiveRecord::Base.no_touching no longer triggers callbacks or start empty transactions.

    Fixes #14841.

    Lucas Mazza

  • Fix name collision with Array#select! with Relation#select!.

    Fixes #14752.

    Earl St Sauver

  • Fixed unexpected behavior for has_many :through associations going through a scoped has_many.

    If a has_many association is adjusted using a scope, and another has_many :through uses this association, then the scope adjustment is unexpectedly neglected.

    Fixes #14537.

    Jan Habermann

  • When a destroyed record is duped, the dup is not destroyed?.

    Kuldeep Aggarwal

  • Fixed has_many association to make it support irregular inflections.

    Fixes #8928.

    arthurnn, Javier Goizueta

  • Calling delete_all on an unloaded CollectionProxy no longer generates a SQL statement containing each id of the collection:


    DELETE FROM `model` WHERE `model`.`parent_id` = 1
    AND `model`.`id` IN (1, 2, 3...)


    DELETE FROM `model` WHERE `model`.`parent_id` = 1

    Eileen M. Uchitelle, Aaron Patterson

  • Fixed a problem where count used with a grouping was not returning a Hash.

    Fixes #14721.

    Eric Chahin

  • Do not quote uuid default value on change_column.

    Fixes #14604.

    Eric Chahin

  • The comparison between Relation and CollectionProxy should be consistent.


    author.posts == Post.where(author_id:
    # => true
    Post.where(author_id: == author.posts
    # => true

    Fixes #13506.

    Lauro Caetano

  • PostgreSQL adapter only warns once for every missing OID per connection.

    Fixes #14275.

    Matthew Draper, Yves Senn

  • Fixed error for aggregate methods (empty?, any?, count) with select which created invalid SQL.

    Fixes #13648.

    Simon Woker

  • Fix insertion of records via has_many :through association with scope.

    Fixes #3548.

    Ivan Antropov

  • Make possible to have an association called records.

    Fixes #11645.


  • to_sql on an association now matches the query that is actually executed, where it could previously have incorrectly accrued additional conditions (e.g. as a result of a previous query). CollectionProxy now always defers to the association scope's arel method so the (incorrect) inherited one should be entirely concealed.

    Fixes #14003.

    Jefferson Lai

  • Fixed error when using with_options with lambda.

    Fixes #9805.

    Lauro Caetano

  • Fixed error when specifying a non-empty default value on a PostgreSQL array column.

    Fixes #10613.

    Luke Steensen

  • Fixed error where .persisted? throws SystemStackError for an unsaved model with a custom primary key that didn't save due to validation error.

    Fixes #14393.

    Chris Finne

  • rake db:structure:dump only dumps schema information if the schema migration table exists.

    Fixes #14217.

    Yves Senn

  • Add support for Relation be passed as parameter on QueryCache#select_all.

    Fixes #14361.


  • Only save has_one associations if record has changes. Previously after save related callbacks, such as #after_commit, were triggered when the has_one object did not get saved to the db.

    Alan Kennedy

Rails 4.1.1 (May 6, 2014)

  • No changes.

Rails 4.1.0 (April 8, 2014)

  • Fixed a problem where an enum would overwrite values of another enum with the same name in an unrelated class.

    Fixes #14607.

    Evan Whalen

  • Block a few default Class methods as scope name.

    For instance, this will raise:

    scope :public, -> { where(status: 1) }


  • Deprecate SQLite database URLs containing an authority.

    The current "correct" spellings for in-memory, relative, and absolute URLs, respectively, are:


    The previous spelling (sqlite3:///relative/path) continues to work as it did in Rails 4.0, but with a deprecation warning: in the next release, that spelling will instead be interpreted as an absolute path.

    Matthew Draper

  • where.not adds references for includes like normal where calls do.

    Fixes #14406.

    Yves Senn

  • includes is able to detect the right preloading strategy when string joins are involved.

    Fixes #14109.

    Aaron Patterson, Yves Senn

  • Fixed error with validation with enum fields for records where the value for any enum attribute is always evaluated as 0 during uniqueness validation.

    Fixes #14172.

    Vilius Luneckas Ahmed AbouElhamayed

  • before_add callbacks are fired before the record is saved on has_and_belongs_to_many assocations and on has_many :through associations. Before this change, before_add callbacks would be fired before the record was saved on has_and_belongs_to_many associations, but not on has_many :through associations.

    Fixes #14144.

  • Fixed STI classes not defining an attribute method if there is a conflicting private method defined on its ancestors.

    Fixes #11569.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Default scopes are no longer overriden by chained conditions.

    Before this change when you defined a default_scope in a model it was overriden by chained conditions in the same field. Now it is merged like any other scope.


    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope { where state: 'pending' }
      scope :active, -> { where state: 'active' }
      scope :inactive, -> { where state: 'inactive' }
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'pending'
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'active'
    User.where(state: 'inactive')
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'inactive'


    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope { where state: 'pending' }
      scope :active, -> { where state: 'active' }
      scope :inactive, -> { where state: 'inactive' }
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'pending'
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'pending' AND "users"."state" = 'active'
    User.where(state: 'inactive')
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'pending' AND "users"."state" = 'inactive'

    To get the previous behavior it is needed to explicitly remove the default_scope condition using unscoped, unscope, rewhere or except.


    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope { where state: 'pending' }
      scope :active, -> { unscope(where: :state).where(state: 'active') }
      scope :inactive, -> { rewhere state: 'inactive' }
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'pending'
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'active'
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" WHERE "users"."state" = 'inactive'
  • Perform necessary deeper encoding when hstore is inside an array.

    Fixes #11135.

    Josh Goodall, Genadi Samokovarov

  • Properly detect if a connection is still active before using it in multi-threaded environments.

    Fixes #12867.

    Kevin Casey, Matthew Draper, William (B.J.) Snow Orvis

  • When inverting add_index use the index name if present instead of the columns.

    If there are two indices with matching columns and one of them is explicitly named then reverting the migration adding the named one would instead drop the unnamed one.

    The inversion of add_index will now drop the index by its name if it is present.

    Hubert Dąbrowski

  • Add flag to disable schema dump after migration.

    Add a config parameter on Active Record named dump_schema_after_migration which is true by default. Now schema dump does not happen at the end of migration rake task if dump_schema_after_migration is false.

    Emil Soman

  • find_in_batches, find_each, Result#each and Enumerable#index_by now return an Enumerator that can calculate its size.

    See also #13938.

    Marc-André Lafortune

  • Make sure transaction state gets reset after a commit operation on the record.

    If a new transaction was open inside a callback, the record was loosing track of the transaction level state, and it was leaking that state.

    Fixes #12566.


  • Pass has_and_belongs_to_many :autosave option to the underlying has_many :through association.

    Fixes #13923.

    Yves Senn

  • PostgreSQL implementation of SchemaStatements#index_name_exists?.

    The database agnostic implementation does not detect with indexes that are not supported by the ActiveRecord schema dumper. For example, expressions indexes would not be detected.

    Fixes #11018.

    Jonathan Baudanza

  • Parsing PostgreSQL arrays with empty strings now works correctly.

    Previously, if you tried to parse {"1","","2","","3"} the result would be ["1","2","3"], removing the empty strings from the array, which would be incorrect. Now it will correctly produce ["1","","2","","3"] as the result of parsing the above PostgreSQL array.

    Fixes #13907.

    Maurício Linhares

  • Associations now raise ArgumentError on name conflicts.

    Dangerous association names conflicts include instance or class methods already defined by ActiveRecord::Base.


    class Car < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :errors
    # Will raise ArgumentError.

    Fixes #13217.

    Lauro Caetano

  • Fix regressions on select_* methods. When select_* methods receive a Relation object, they should be able to get the arel/binds from it. Also fix regressions on select_rows that was ignoring the binds.

    Fixes #7538, #12017, #13731, #12056.


  • Active Record objects can now be correctly dumped, loaded and dumped again without issues.

    Previously, if you did YAML.dump, YAML.load and then YAML.dump again in an Active Record model that used serialization it would fail at the last dump due to the fields not being correctly serialized before being dumped to YAML. Now it is possible to dump and load the same object as many times as needed without any issues.

    Fixes #13861.

    Maurício Linhares

  • find_in_batches now returns an Enumerator when called without a block, so that it can be chained with other Enumerable methods.

    Marc-André Lafortune

  • enum now raises on "dangerous" name conflicts.

    Dangerous name conflicts includes instance or class method conflicts with methods defined within ActiveRecord::Base but not its ancestors, as well as conflicts with methods generated by other enums on the same class.

    Fixes #13389.

    Godfrey Chan

  • scope now raises on "dangerous" name conflicts.

    Similar to dangerous attribute methods, a scope name conflict is dangerous if it conflicts with an existing class method defined within ActiveRecord::Base but not its ancestors.

    See also #13389.

    Godfrey Chan, Philippe Creux

  • Correctly send an user provided statement to a lock!() call.

    person.lock! 'FOR SHARE NOWAIT'
    # Before: SELECT * ... LIMIT 1 FOR UPDATE

    Fixes #13788.

    Maurício Linhares

  • Handle aliased attributes select(), order() and reorder().

    Tsutomu Kuroda

  • Reset the collection association when calling reset on it.


    post.comments.loaded? # => true
    post.comments.loaded? # => true


    post.comments.loaded? # => true
    post.comments.loaded? # => false

    Fixes #13777.

    Kelsey Schlarman

  • Make enum fields work as expected with the ActiveModel::Dirty API.

    Before this change, using the dirty API would have surprising results:

    conversation =
    conversation.status = :active
    conversation.status = :archived
    conversation.status_was # => 0

    After this change, the same code would result in:

    conversation =
    conversation.status = :active
    conversation.status = :archived
    conversation.status_was # => "active"

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • has_one and belongs_to accessors don't add ORDER BY to the queries anymore.

    Since Rails 4.0, we add an ORDER BY in the first method to ensure consistent results among different database engines. But for singular associations this behavior is not needed since we will have one record to return. As this ORDER BY option can lead some performance issues we are removing it for singular associations accessors.

    Fixes #12623.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Prepend table name for column names passed to Relation#select.

    # Before: => SELECT id FROM "posts"
    # After: => SELECT "posts"."id" FROM "posts"

    Yves Senn

  • Fail early with "Primary key not included in the custom select clause" in find_in_batches.

    Before this patch, the exception was raised after the first batch was yielded to the block. This means that you only get it, when you hit the batch_size treshold. This could shadow the issue in development.

    Alexander Balashov

  • Ensure second through fifth methods act like the first finder.

    The famous ordinal Array instance methods defined in ActiveSupport (first, second, third, fourth, and fifth) are now available as full-fledged finders in ActiveRecord. The biggest benefit of this is ordering of the records returned now defaults to the table's primary key in ascending order.

    Fixes #13743.


    # Before
    # => 'SELECT  "users".* FROM "users"'
    # After
    # => SELECT  "users".* FROM "users"   ORDER BY "users"."id" ASC LIMIT 1 OFFSET 1'
    # Before
    # => 'SELECT "users".* FROM "users"  LIMIT -1 OFFSET 3' # sqlite3 gem
    # => 'SELECT "users".* FROM "users"  OFFSET 3' # pg gem
    # => 'SELECT `users`.* FROM `users`  LIMIT 18446744073709551615 OFFSET 3' # mysql2 gem
    # After
    # => SELECT  "users".* FROM "users"   ORDER BY "users"."id" ASC LIMIT 1 OFFSET 4'

    Jason Meller

  • ActiveRecord states are now correctly restored after a rollback for models that did not define any transactional callbacks (i.e. after_commit, after_rollback or after_create).

    Fixes #13744.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Make touch fire the after_commit and after_rollback callbacks.

    Harry Brundage

  • Enable partial indexes for sqlite >= 3.8.0.


    Cody Cutrer

  • Don't try to get the subclass if the inheritance column doesn't exist

    The subclass_from_attrs method is called even if the column specified by the inheritance_column setting doesn't exist. This prevents setting associations via the attributes hash if the association name clashes with the value of the setting, typically :type. This worked previously in Rails 3.2.

    Ujjwal Thaakar

  • Enum mappings are now exposed via class methods instead of constants.


    class Conversation < ActiveRecord::Base
      enum status: [ :active, :archived ]


    Conversation::STATUS # => { "active" => 0, "archived" => 1 }


    Conversation.statuses # => { "active" => 0, "archived" => 1 }

    Godfrey Chan

  • Set NameError#name when STI-class-lookup fails.

    Chulki Lee

  • Fix bug in becomes! when changing from the base model to a STI sub-class.

    Fixes #13272.

    the-web-dev, Yves Senn

  • Currently Active Record can be configured via the environment variable DATABASE_URL or by manually injecting a hash of values which is what Rails does, reading in database.yml and setting Active Record appropriately. Active Record expects to be able to use DATABASE_URL without the use of Rails, and we cannot rip out this functionality without deprecating. This presents a problem though when both config is set, and a DATABASE_URL is present. Currently the DATABASE_URL should "win" and none of the values in database.yml are used. This is somewhat unexpected, if one were to set values such as pool in the production: group of database.yml they are ignored.

    There are many ways that Active Record initiates a connection today:

    • Stand Alone (without rails)

      • rake db:<tasks>
      • ActiveRecord.establish_connection
    • With Rails

      • rake db:<tasks>
      • rails <server> | <console>
      • rails dbconsole

    Now all of these behave exactly the same way. The best way to do this is to put all of this logic in one place so it is guaranteed to be used.

    Here is the matrix of how this behavior works:

    No database.yml
    => Error
    database.yml present
    => Use database.yml configuration
    No database.yml
    DATABASE_URL present
    => use DATABASE_URL configuration
    database.yml present
    DATABASE_URL present
    => Merged into `url` sub key. If both specify `url` sub key, the `database.yml` `url`
       sub key "wins". If other paramaters `adapter` or `database` are specified in YAML,
       they are discarded as the `url` sub key "wins".

    Current implementation uses ActiveRecord::Base.configurations to resolve and merge all connection information before returning. This is achieved through a utility class: ActiveRecord::ConnectionHandling::MergeAndResolveDefaultUrlConfig.

    To understand the exact behavior of this class, it is best to review the behavior in activerecord/test/cases/connection_adapters/connection_handler_test.rb.

    Richard Schneeman

  • Make change_column_null revertable. Fixes #13576.

    Yves Senn, Nishant Modak, Prathamesh Sonpatki

  • Don't create/drop the test database if RAILS_ENV is specified explicitly.

    Previously, when the environment was development, we would always create or drop both the test and development databases.

    Now, if RAILS_ENV is explicitly defined as development, we don't create the test database.

    Damien Mathieu

  • Initialize version on Migration objects so that it can be used in a migration, and it will be included in the announce message.

    Dylan Thacker-Smith

  • change_table now uses the current adapter's update_table_definition method to retrieve a specific table definition. This ensures that change_table and create_table will use similar objects.

    Fixes #13577, #13503.

    Nishant Modak, Prathamesh Sonpatki, Rafael Mendonça França

  • Fixed ActiveRecord::Store nil conversion TypeError when using YAML coder. In case the YAML passed as paramter is nil, uses an empty string.

    Fixes #13570.

    Thales Oliveira

  • Deprecate unused ActiveRecord::Base.symbolized_base_class and ActiveRecord::Base.symbolized_sti_name without replacement.

    Yves Senn

  • Since the test_help.rb file in Railties now automatically maintains your test schema, the rake db:test:* tasks are deprecated. This doesn't stop you manually running other tasks on your test database if needed:

    rake db:schema:load RAILS_ENV=test

    Jon Leighton

  • Fix presence validator for association when the associated record responds to to_a.


  • Fixed regression on preload/includes with multiple arguments failing in certain conditions, raising a NoMethodError internally by calling reflect_on_association for NilClass:Class.

    Fixes #13437.

    Vipul A M, khustochka

  • Add the ability to nullify the enum column.


     class Conversation < ActiveRecord::Base
       enum gender: [:female, :male]
     Conversation::GENDER # => { female: 0, male: 1 }
     # conversation.update! gender: 0
     conversation.female? # => true
     conversation.gender  # => "female"
     # conversation.update! gender: nil
     conversation.gender = nil
     conversation.gender.nil? # => true
     conversation.gender      # => nil

    Amr Tamimi

  • Connection specification now accepts a "url" key. The value of this key is expected to contain a database URL. The database URL will be expanded into a hash and merged.

    Richard Schneeman

  • An ArgumentError is now raised on a call to Relation#where.not(nil).


    # Before
    # => 'SELECT `users`.* FROM `users`  WHERE (NOT (NULL))'
    # After
    # => ArgumentError, 'Invalid argument for .where.not(), got nil.'

    Kuldeep Aggarwal

  • Deprecated use of string argument as a configuration lookup in ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection. Instead, a symbol must be given.

    José Valim

  • Fixed update_column, update_columns, and update_all to correctly serialize values for array, hstore and json column types in PostgreSQL.

    Fixes #12261.

    Tadas Tamosauskas, Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Do not consider PostgreSQL array columns as number or text columns.

    The code uses these checks in several places to know what to do with a particular column, for instance AR attribute query methods has a branch like this:

    if column.number?

    This should never be true for array columns, since it would be the same as running [].zero?, which results in a NoMethodError exception.

    Fixing this by ensuring that array columns in PostgreSQL never return true for number?/text? checks.

    Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • When connecting to a non-existant database, the error: ActiveRecord::NoDatabaseError will now be raised. When being used with Rails the error message will include information on how to create a database: rake db:create. Supported adapters: postgresql, mysql, mysql2, sqlite3

    Richard Schneeman

  • Do not raise 'cannot touch on a new record object' exception on destroying already destroyed belongs_to association with touch: true option.

    Fixes #13445.


    # Given Comment has belongs_to :post, touch: true
    comment.destroy # no longer raises an error

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Fix a bug when assigning an array containing string numbers to a PostgreSQL integer array column.

    Fixes #13444.


    # Given Book#ratings is of type :integer, array: true [1, 2]) # worked before ['1', '2']) # now works as well

    Damien Mathieu

  • Fix PostgreSQL insert to properly extract table name from multiline string SQL.

    Previously, executing an insert SQL in PostgreSQL with a command like this:

    insert into articles(

    would not work because the adapter was unable to extract the correct articles table name.

    Kuldeep Aggarwal

  • Correctly escape PostgreSQL arrays.

    Fixes: CVE-2014-0080

  • Relation no longer has mutator methods like #map! and #delete_if. Convert to an Array by calling #to_a before using these methods.

    It intends to prevent odd bugs and confusion in code that call mutator methods directly on the Relation.


    # Instead of this
    Author.where(name: 'Hank Moody').compact!
    # Now you have to do this
    authors = Author.where(name: 'Hank Moody').to_a

    Lauro Caetano

  • Better support for where() conditions that use a belongs_to association name.

    Using the name of an association in where previously worked only if the value was a single ActiveRecord::Base object. e.g.

    Post.where(author: Author.first)

    Any other values, including nil, would cause invalid SQL to be generated. This change supports arguments in the where query conditions where the key is a belongs_to association name and the value is nil, an Array of ActiveRecord::Base objects, or an ActiveRecord::Relation object.

    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :author

    nil value finds records where the association is not set:

    Post.where(author: nil)
    # SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."author_id" IS NULL

    Array values find records where the association foreign key matches the ids of the passed ActiveRecord models, resulting in the same query as Post.where(author_id: [1,2]):

    authors_array = [Author.find(1), Author.find(2)]
    Post.where(author: authors_array)
    # SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."author_id" IN (1, 2)

    ActiveRecord::Relation values find records using the same query as Post.where(author_id: Author.where(last_name: "Emde"))

    Post.where(author: Author.where(last_name: "Emde"))
    # SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts"
    # WHERE "posts"."author_id" IN (
    #   SELECT "authors"."id" FROM "authors"
    #   WHERE "authors"."last_name" = 'Emde')

    Polymorphic belongs_to associations will continue to be handled appropriately, with the polymorphic association_type field added to the query to match the base class of the value. This feature previously only worked when the value was a single ActveRecord::Base.

    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :author, polymorphic: true
    Post.where(author: Author.where(last_name: "Emde"))
    # Generates a query similar to:
    Post.where(author_id: Author.where(last_name: "Emde"), author_type: "Author")

    Martin Emde

  • Respect temporary option when dropping tables with MySQL.

    Normal DROP TABLE also works, but commits the transaction.

    drop_table :temporary_table, temporary: true

    Cody Cutrer

  • Add option to create tables from a query.

    create_table(:long_query, temporary: true,
      as: "SELECT * FROM orders INNER JOIN line_items ON")


      SELECT * FROM orders INNER JOIN line_items ON

    Cody Cutrer

  • db:test:clone and db:test:prepare must load Rails environment.

    db:test:clone and db:test:prepare use ActiveRecord::Base. configurations, so we need to load the Rails environment, otherwise the config wont be in place.


  • Use the right column to type cast grouped calculations with custom expressions.

    Fixes #13230.


    # Before'0.01 * credit_limit')
    # => { '37signals' => '0.5' }
    # After'0.01 * credit_limit')
    # => { '37signals' => 0.5 }

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Polymorphic belongs_to associations with the touch: true option set update the timestamps of the old and new owner correctly when moved between owners of different types.


    class Rating < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :rateable, polymorphic: true, touch: true
    rating = Rating.create rateable: Song.find(1)
    rating.update_attributes rateable: Book.find(2) # => timestamps of Song(1) and Book(2) are updated

    Severin Schoepke

  • Improve formatting of migration exception messages: make them easier to read with line breaks before/after, and improve the error for pending migrations.

    John Bachir

  • Fix last with offset to return the proper record instead of always the last one.


    # => returns the 4th record from the end.

    Fixes #7441.

    kostya, Lauro Caetano

  • type_to_sql returns a String for unmapped columns. This fixes an error when using unmapped PostgreSQL array types.


    change_colum :table, :column, :bigint, array: true

    Fixes #13146.

    Jens Fahnenbruck, Yves Senn

  • Fix QueryCache to work with nested blocks, so that it will only clear the existing cache after leaving the outer block instead of clearing it right after the inner block is finished.

    Vipul A M

  • The ERB in fixture files is no longer evaluated in the context of the main object. Helper methods used by multiple fixtures should be defined on the class object returned by ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.context_class.

    Victor Costan

  • Previously, the has_one macro incorrectly accepted the counter_cache option, but never actually supported it. Now it will raise an ArgumentError when using has_one with counter_cache.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Implement rename_index natively for MySQL >= 5.7.

    Cody Cutrer

  • Fix bug when validating the uniqueness of an aliased attribute.

    Fixes #12402.

    Lauro Caetano

  • Update counter cache on a has_many relationship regardless of default scope.

    Fixes #12952.

    Uku Taht

  • rename_index adds the new index before removing the old one. This allows to rename indexes on columns with a foreign key and prevents the following error:

    Cannot drop index 'index_engines_on_car_id': needed in a foreign key constraint

    Cody Cutrer, Yves Senn

  • Raise ActiveRecord::RecordNotDestroyed when a replaced child marked with dependent: destroy fails to be destroyed.

    Fixes #12812.

    Brian Thomas Storti

  • Fix validation on uniqueness of empty association.

    Evgeny Li

  • Make ActiveRecord::Relation#unscope affect relations it is merged in to.

    Jon Leighton

  • Use strings to represent non-string order_values.

    Yves Senn

  • Checks to see if the record contains the foreign key to set the inverse automatically.

    Edo Balvers

  • Added ActiveRecord::Base.to_param for convenient "pretty" URLs derived from a model's attribute or method.


    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      to_param :name
    user = User.find_by(name: 'Fancy Pants')       # => 123
    user.to_param # => "123-fancy-pants"

    Javan Makhmali

  • Added ActiveRecord::Base.no_touching, which allows ignoring touch on models.


    Post.no_touching do

    Sam Stephenson, Damien Mathieu

  • Prevent the counter cache from being decremented twice when destroying a record on a has_many :through association.

    Fixes #11079.

    Dmitry Dedov

  • Unify boolean type casting for MysqlAdapter and Mysql2Adapter. type_cast will return 1 for true and 0 for false.

    Fixes #11119.

    Adam Williams, Yves Senn

  • Fix bug where has_one association record update result in crash, when replaced with itself.

    Fixes #12834.

    Denis Redozubov, Sergio Cambra

  • Log bind variables after they are type casted. This makes it more transparent what values are actually sent to the database.

    irb(main):002:0> Event.find("im-no-integer")
    # Before: ... WHERE "events"."id" = $1 LIMIT 1  [["id", "im-no-integer"]]
    # After: ... WHERE "events"."id" = $1 LIMIT 1  [["id", 0]]

    Yves Senn

  • Fix uninitialized constant TransactionState error when Marshall.load is used on an Active Record result.

    Fixes #12790.

    Jason Ayre

  • .unscope now removes conditions specified in default_scope.

    Jon Leighton

  • Added ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#rewhere which will overwrite an existing, named where condition.


    Post.where(trashed: true).where(trashed: false)                       #=> WHERE `trashed` = 1 AND `trashed` = 0
    Post.where(trashed: true).rewhere(trashed: false)                     #=> WHERE `trashed` = 0
    Post.where(active: true).where(trashed: true).rewhere(trashed: false) #=> WHERE `active` = 1 AND `trashed` = 0


  • Extend ActiveRecord::Base#cache_key to take an optional list of timestamp attributes of which the highest will be used.


    # last_reviewed_at will be used, if that's more recent than updated_at, or vice versa
    Person.find(5).cache_key(:updated_at, :last_reviewed_at)


  • Added ActiveRecord::Base#enum for declaring enum attributes where the values map to integers in the database, but can be queried by name.


    class Conversation < ActiveRecord::Base
      enum status: [:active, :archived]
    Conversation::STATUS # => { active: 0, archived: 1 }
    # conversation.update! status: 0! # => true
    conversation.status  # => "active"
    # conversation.update! status: 1
    conversation.archived? # => true
    conversation.status    # => "archived"
    # conversation.update! status: 1
    conversation.status = :archived


  • ActiveRecord::Base#attribute_for_inspect now truncates long arrays (more than 10 elements).

    Jan Bernacki

  • Allow for the name of the schema_migrations table to be configured.

    Jerad Phelps

  • Do not add to scope includes values from through associations. Fixed bug when providing includes in through association scope, and fetching targets.


    class Vendor < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :relationships, -> { includes(:user) }
      has_many :users, through: :relationships
    vendor = Vendor.first
    # Before
    vendor.users.to_a # => Raises exception: not found `:user` for `User`
    # After
    vendor.users.to_a # => No exception is raised

    Fixes #12242, #9517, #10240.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Type cast json values on write, so that the value is consistent with reading from the database.


    x = tags: {"string" => "foo", :symbol => :bar}
    # Before:
    x.tags # => {"string" => "foo", :symbol => :bar}
    # After:
    x.tags # => {"string" => "foo", "symbol" => "bar"}

    Severin Schoepke

  • ActiveRecord::Store works together with PostgreSQL hstore columns.

    Fixes #12452.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix bug where ActiveRecord::Store used a global Hash to keep track of all registered stored_attributes. Now every subclass of ActiveRecord::Base has it's own Hash.

    Yves Senn

  • Save has_one association when primary key is manually set.

    Fixes #12302.

    Lauro Caetano

  • Allow any version of BCrypt when using has_secure_password.

    Mike Perham

  • Sub-query generated for Relation passed as array condition did not take in account bind values and have invalid syntax.

    Generate sub-query with inline bind values.

    Fixes #12586.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Fix a bug where rake db:structure:load crashed when the path contained spaces.

    Kevin Mook

  • ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#unscope unscopes negative equality

    Allows you to call #unscope on a relation with negative equality operators, i.e. Arel::Nodes::NotIn and Arel::Nodes::NotEqual that have been generated through the use of where.not.

    Eric Hankins

  • Raise an exception when model without primary key calls .find_with_ids.

    Shimpei Makimoto

  • Make Relation#empty? use exists? instead of count.

    Szymon Nowak

  • rake db:structure:dump no longer crashes when the port was specified as Fixnum.

    Kenta Okamoto

  • NullRelation#pluck takes a list of columns

    The method signature in NullRelation was updated to mimic that in Calculations.

    Derek Prior

  • scope_chain should not be mutated for other reflections.

    Currently scope_chain uses same array for building different scope_chain for different associations. During processing these arrays are sometimes mutated and because of in-place mutation the changed scope_chain impacts other reflections.

    Fix is to dup the value before adding to the scope_chain.

    Fixes #3882.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Prevent the inversed association from being reloaded on save.

    Fixes #9499.

    Dmitry Polushkin

  • Generate subquery for Relation if it passed as array condition for where method.


    # Before
    Blog.where('id in (?)', Blog.where(id: 1))
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"  WHERE "blogs"."id" = 1
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"  WHERE (id IN (1))
    # After
    Blog.where('id in (?)', Blog.where(id: 1).select(:id))
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"
    #     WHERE "blogs"."id" IN (SELECT "blogs"."id" FROM "blogs"  WHERE "blogs"."id" = 1)

    Fixes #12415.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • For missed association exception message which is raised in ActiveRecord::Associations::Preloader class added owner record class name in order to simplify to find problem code.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • has_and_belongs_to_many is now transparently implemented in terms of has_many :through. Behavior should remain the same, if not, it is a bug.

  • create_savepoint, rollback_to_savepoint and release_savepoint accept a savepoint name.

    Yves Senn

  • Make next_migration_number accessible for third party generators.

    Yves Senn

  • Objects instantiated using a null relationship will now retain the attributes of the where clause.

    Fixes #11676, #11675, #11376.

    Paul Nikitochkin, Peter Brown, Nthalk

  • Fixed ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionAssociation#find when using has_many association with :inverse_of and finding an array of one element, it should return an array of one element too.


  • Callbacks on has_many should access the in memory parent if a inverse_of is set.


  • ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters.string_to_time respects string with timezone (e.g. Wed, 04 Sep 2013 20:30:00 JST).

    Fixes #12278.


  • Calling update_attributes will now throw an ArgumentError whenever it gets a nil argument. More specifically, it will throw an error if the argument that it gets passed does not respond to to stringify_keys.


    @my_comment.update_attributes(nil)  # => raises ArgumentError

    John Wang

  • Deprecate quoted_locking_column method, which isn't used anywhere.


  • Migration dump UUID default functions to schema.rb.

    Fixes #10751.


  • Fixed a bug in ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionAssociation#find_by_scan when using has_many association with :inverse_of option and UUID primary key.

    Fixes #10450.


  • Fix: joins association, with defined in the scope block constraints by using several where constraints and at least of them is not Arel::Nodes::Equality, generates invalid SQL expression.

    Fixes #11963.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • CollectionAssociation#first/#last (e.g. has_many) use a LIMITed query to fetch results rather than loading the entire collection.

    Lann Martin

  • Make possible to run SQLite rake tasks without the Rails constant defined.

    Damien Mathieu

  • Allow Relation#from to accept other relations with bind values.

    Ryan Wallace

  • Fix inserts with prepared statements disabled.

    Fixes #12023.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Setting a has_one association on a new record no longer causes an empty transaction.

    Dylan Thacker-Smith

  • Fix AR::Relation#merge sometimes failing to preserve readonly(false) flag.


  • Re-use order argument pre-processing for reorder.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Fix PredicateBuilder so polymorphic association keys in where clause can accept objects other than direct descendants of ActiveRecord::Base (decorated models, for example).

    Mikhail Dieterle

  • PostgreSQL adapter recognizes negative money values formatted with parentheses (eg. ($1.25) # => -1.25)). Fixes #11899.

    Yves Senn

  • Stop interpreting SQL 'string' columns as :string type because there is no common STRING datatype in SQL.

    Ben Woosley

  • ActiveRecord::FinderMethods#exists? returns true/false in all cases.

    Xavier Noria

  • Assign inet/cidr attribute with nil value for invalid address.


    record =
    record.logged_in_from_ip # is type of an inet or a cidr
    # Before:
    record.logged_in_from_ip = 'bad ip address' # raise exception
    # After:
    record.logged_in_from_ip = 'bad ip address' # do not raise exception
    record.logged_in_from_ip # => nil
    record.logged_in_from_ip_before_type_cast # => 'bad ip address'

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • add_to_target now accepts a second optional skip_callbacks argument

    If truthy, it will skip the :before_add and :after_add callbacks.

    Ben Woosley

  • Fix interactions between :before_add callbacks and nested attributes assignment of has_many associations, when the association was not yet loaded:

    • A :before_add callback was being called when a nested attributes assignment assigned to an existing record.

    • Nested Attributes assignment did not affect the record in the association target when a :before_add callback triggered the loading of the association

    Jörg Schray

  • Allow enable_extension migration method to be revertible.

    Eric Tipton

  • Type cast hstore values on write, so that the value is consistent with reading from the database.


    x = tags: {"bool" => true, "number" => 5}
    # Before:
    x.tags # => {"bool" => true, "number" => 5}
    # After:
    x.tags # => {"bool" => "true", "number" => "5"}

    Yves Senn , Severin Schoepke

  • Fix multidimensional PostgreSQL arrays containing non-string items.

    Yves Senn

  • Fixes bug when using includes combined with select, the select statement was overwritten.

    Fixes #11773.

    Edo Balvers

  • Load fixtures from linked folders.

    Kassio Borges

  • Create a directory for sqlite3 file if not present on the system.

    Richard Schneeman

  • Removed redundant override of xml column definition for PostgreSQL, in order to use xml column type instead of text.

    Paul Nikitochkin, Michael Nikitochkin

  • Revert ActiveRecord::Relation#order change that make new order prepend the old one.


    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY created_at desc, name asc


    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY name asc, created_at desc

    This also affects order defined in default_scope or any kind of associations.

  • Add ability to define how a class is converted to Arel predicates. For example, adding a very vendor specific regex implementation:

    regex_handler = proc do |column, value|'~', column, value.source)
    ActiveRecord::PredicateBuilder.register_handler(Regexp, regex_handler)

    Sean Griffin & @joannecheng

  • Don't allow quote_value to be called without a column.

    Some adapters require column information to do their job properly. By enforcing the provision of the column for this internal method we ensure that those using adapters that require column information will always get the proper behavior.

    Ben Woosley

  • When using optimistic locking, update was not passing the column to quote_value to allow the connection adapter to properly determine how to quote the value. This was affecting certain databases that use specific column types.

    Fixes #6763.

    Alfred Wong

  • rescue from all exceptions in ConnectionManagement#call

    Fixes #11497.

    As ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::ConnectionManagement middleware does not rescue from Exception (but only from StandardError), the Connection Pool quickly runs out of connections when multiple erroneous Requests come in right after each other.

    Rescuing from all exceptions and not just StandardError, fixes this behaviour.

    Vipul A M

  • change_column for PostgreSQL adapter respects the :array option.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecation warning from attribute_missing for attributes that are columns.

    Arun Agrawal

  • Remove extra decrement of transaction deep level.

    Fixes #4566.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Reset @column_defaults when assigning locking_column. We had a potential problem. For example:

    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base self.column_defaults # if we call this unintentionally before setting locking_column ... self.locking_column = 'my_locking_column' end

    Post.column_defaults["my_locking_column"] => nil # expected value is 0 !


  • Remove extra select and update queries on save/touch/destroy ActiveRecord model with belongs to reflection with option touch: true.

    Fixes #11288.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Remove deprecated nil-passing to the following SchemaCache methods: primary_keys, tables, columns and columns_hash.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecated block filter from ActiveRecord::Migrator#migrate.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecated String constructor from ActiveRecord::Migrator.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecated scope use without passing a callable object.

    Arun Agrawal

  • Remove deprecated transaction_joinable= in favor of begin_transaction with :joinable option.

    Arun Agrawal

  • Remove deprecated decrement_open_transactions.

    Arun Agrawal

  • Remove deprecated increment_open_transactions.

    Arun Agrawal

  • Remove deprecated PostgreSQLAdapter#outside_transaction? method. You can use #transaction_open? instead.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecated ActiveRecord::Fixtures.find_table_name in favor of ActiveRecord::Fixtures.default_fixture_model_name.

    Vipul A M

  • Removed deprecated columns_for_remove from SchemaStatements.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Remove deprecated SchemaStatements#distinct.

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Move deprecated ActiveRecord::TestCase into the rails test suite. The class is no longer public and is only used for internal Rails tests.

    Yves Senn

  • Removed support for deprecated option :restrict for :dependent in associations.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed support for deprecated delete_sql in associations.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed support for deprecated insert_sql in associations.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed support for deprecated finder_sql in associations.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Support array as root element in JSON fields.

    Alexey Noskov & Francesco Rodriguez

  • Removed support for deprecated counter_sql in associations.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Do not invoke callbacks when delete_all is called on collection.

    Method delete_all should not be invoking callbacks and this feature was deprecated in Rails 4.0. This is being removed. delete_all will continue to honor the :dependent option. However if :dependent value is :destroy then the :delete_all deletion strategy for that collection will be applied.

    User can also force a deletion strategy by passing parameter to delete_all. For example you can do @post.comments.delete_all(:nullify).

    Neeraj Singh

  • Calling default_scope without a proc will now raise ArgumentError.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed deprecated method type_cast_code from Column.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed deprecated options delete_sql and insert_sql from HABTM association.

    Removed deprecated options finder_sql and counter_sql from collection association.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Remove deprecated ActiveRecord::Base#connection method. Make sure to access it via the class.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecation warning for auto_explain_threshold_in_seconds.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove deprecated :distinct option from Relation#count.

    Yves Senn

  • Removed deprecated methods partial_updates, partial_updates? and partial_updates=.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed deprecated method scoped.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Removed deprecated method default_scopes?.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Remove implicit join references that were deprecated in 4.0.


    # before with implicit joins
    Comment.where('posts.author_id' => 7)
    # after
    Comment.references(:posts).where('posts.author_id' => 7)

    Yves Senn

  • Apply default scope when joining associations. For example:

    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope -> { where published: true }
    class Comment
      belongs_to :post

    When calling Comment.joins(:post), we expect to receive only comments on published posts, since that is the default scope for posts.

    Before this change, the default scope from Post was not applied, so we'd get comments on unpublished posts.

    Jon Leighton

  • Remove activerecord-deprecated_finders as a dependency.

    Łukasz Strzałkowski

  • Remove Oracle / Sqlserver / Firebird database tasks that were deprecated in 4.0.


  • find_each now returns an Enumerator when called without a block, so that it can be chained with other Enumerable methods.

    Ben Woosley

  • ActiveRecord::Result.each now returns an Enumerator when called without a block, so that it can be chained with other Enumerable methods.

    Ben Woosley

  • Flatten merged join_values before building the joins.

    While joining_values special treatment is given to string values. By flattening the array it ensures that string values are detected as strings and not arrays.

    Fixes #10669.

    Neeraj Singh and iwiznia

  • Do not load all child records for inverse case.

    currently post.comments.find( would load all comments for the given post to set the inverse association.

    This has a huge performance penalty. Because if post has 100k records and all these 100k records would be loaded in memory even though the comment id was supplied.

    Fix is to use in-memory records only if loaded? is true. Otherwise load the records using full sql.

    Fixes #10509.

    Neeraj Singh

  • inspect on Active Record model classes does not initiate a new connection. This means that calling inspect, when the database is missing, will no longer raise an exception. Fixes #10936.


    Author.inspect # => "Author(no database connection)"

    Yves Senn

  • Handle single quotes in PostgreSQL default column values. Fixes #10881.

    Dylan Markow

  • Log the sql that is actually sent to the database.

    If I have a query that produces sql WHERE "users"."name" = 'a b' then in the log all the whitespace is being squeezed. So the sql that is printed in the log is WHERE "users"."name" = 'a b'.

    Do not squeeze whitespace out of sql queries. Fixes #10982.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Fixture setup no longer depends on ActiveRecord::Base.configurations. This is relevant when ENV["DATABASE_URL"] is used in place of a database.yml.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix mysql2 adapter raises the correct exception when executing a query on a closed connection.

    Yves Senn

  • Ambiguous reflections are on :through relationships are no longer supported. For example, you need to change this:

    class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :posts
      has_many :taggings, through: :posts
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_one :tagging
      has_many :taggings
    class Tagging < ActiveRecord::Base

    To this:

    class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :posts
      has_many :taggings, through: :posts, source: :tagging
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_one :tagging
      has_many :taggings
    class Tagging < ActiveRecord::Base

    Aaron Patterson

  • Remove column restrictions for count, let the database raise if the SQL is invalid. The previous behavior was untested and surprising for the user. Fixes #5554.

    Example:"name, username").count
    # Before => SELECT count(*) FROM users
    # After => ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid
    # you can still use `count(:all)` to perform a query unrelated to the
    # selected columns"name, username").count(:all) # => SELECT count(*) FROM users

    Yves Senn

  • Rails now automatically detects inverse associations. If you do not set the :inverse_of option on the association, then Active Record will guess the inverse association based on heuristics.

    Note that automatic inverse detection only works on has_many, has_one, and belongs_to associations. Extra options on the associations will also prevent the association's inverse from being found automatically.

    The automatic guessing of the inverse association uses a heuristic based on the name of the class, so it may not work for all associations, especially the ones with non-standard names.

    You can turn off the automatic detection of inverse associations by setting the :inverse_of option to false like so:

    class Taggable < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :tag, inverse_of: false

    John Wang

  • Fix add_column with array option when using PostgreSQL. Fixes #10432.

    Adam Anderson

  • Usage of implicit_readonly is being removed. Please use readonlymethod explicitly to mark records asreadonly. Fixes #10615.


    user = User.joins(:todos).select("users.*, todos.title as todos_title").readonly(true).first
    user.todos_title = 'clean pet'! # will raise error

    Yves Senn

  • Fix the :primary_key option for has_many associations.

    Fixes #10693.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix bug where tiny types are incorrectly coerced as boolean when the length is more than 1.

    Fixes #10620.

    Aaron Patterson

  • Also support extensions in PostgreSQL 9.1. This feature has been supported since 9.1.


  • Deprecate ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#distinct, as it is no longer used by internals.

    Ben Woosley

  • Fix pending migrations error when loading schema and ActiveRecord::Base.table_name_prefix is not blank.

    Call assume_migrated_upto_version on connection to prevent it from first being picked up in method_missing.

    In the base class, Migration, method_missing expects the argument to be a table name, and calls proper_table_name on the arguments before sending to connection. If table_name_prefix or table_name_suffix is used, the schema version changes to prefix_version_suffix, breaking rake test:prepare.

    Fixes #10411.

    Kyle Stevens

  • Method read_attribute_before_type_cast should accept input as symbol.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Confirm a record has not already been destroyed before decrementing counter cache.

    Ben Tucker

  • Fixed a bug in ActiveRecord#sanitize_sql_hash_for_conditions in which self.class is an argument to PredicateBuilder#build_from_hash causing PredicateBuilder to call non-existent method Class#reflect_on_association.

    Zach Ohlgren

  • While removing index if column option is missing then raise IrreversibleMigration exception.

    Following code should raise IrreversibleMigration. But the code was failing since options is an array and not a hash.

    def change
      change_table :users do |t|
        t.remove_index [:name, :email]

    Fix was to check if the options is a Hash before operating on it.

    Fixes #10419.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Do not overwrite manually built records during one-to-one nested attribute assignment

    For one-to-one nested associations, if you build the new (in-memory) child object yourself before assignment, then the NestedAttributes module will not overwrite it, e.g.:

    class Member < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_one :avatar
      accepts_nested_attributes_for :avatar
      def avatar
        super || build_avatar(width: 200)
    member =
    member.avatar_attributes = {icon: 'sad'}
    member.avatar.width # => 200

    Olek Janiszewski

  • fixes bug introduced by #3329. Now, when autosaving associations, deletions happen before inserts and saves. This prevents a 'duplicate unique value' database error that would occur if a record being created had the same value on a unique indexed field as that of a record being destroyed.

    Johnny Holton

  • Handle aliased attributes in ActiveRecord::Relation.

    When using symbol keys, ActiveRecord will now translate aliased attribute names to the actual column name used in the database:

    With the model

    class Topic
      alias_attribute :heading, :title

    The call

    Topic.where(heading: 'The First Topic')

    should yield the same result as

    Topic.where(title: 'The First Topic')

    This also applies to ActiveRecord::Relation::Calculations calls such as Model.sum(:aliased) and Model.pluck(:aliased).

    This will not work with SQL fragment strings like Model.sum('DISTINCT aliased').

    Godfrey Chan

  • Mute psql output when running rake db:schema:load.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Trigger a save on has_one association=(associate) when the associate contents have changed.

    Fixes #8856.

    Chris Thompson

  • Abort a rake task when missing db/structure.sql like db:schema:load task.


  • rake:db:test:prepare falls back to original environment after execution.

    Slava Markevich

Please check 4-0-stable for previous changes.