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Merge docrails.

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commit c70b993a9e01547de88417cb8fa95b48acbed2db 1 parent 549b18c
@lifo lifo authored
Showing with 4,401 additions and 2,526 deletions.
  1. +3 −3 actionpack/lib/action_controller/base.rb
  2. +5 −2 railties/doc/README_FOR_APP
  3. +28 −5 railties/doc/guides/html/2_2_release_notes.html
  4. +27 −18 railties/doc/guides/html/actioncontroller_basics.html
  5. +487 −5 railties/doc/guides/html/activerecord_validations_callbacks.html
  6. +39 −33 railties/doc/guides/html/caching_with_rails.html
  7. +434 −0 railties/doc/guides/html/command_line.html
  8. +438 −0 railties/doc/guides/html/configuring.html
  9. +672 −480 railties/doc/guides/html/creating_plugins.html
  10. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/html/debugging_rails_applications.html
  11. +137 −67 railties/doc/guides/html/finders.html
  12. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/html/getting_started_with_rails.html
  13. +13 −0 railties/doc/guides/html/layouts_and_rendering.html
  14. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/html/migrations.html
  15. +39 −9 railties/doc/guides/html/routing_outside_in.html
  16. +335 −206 railties/doc/guides/html/testing_rails_applications.html
  17. +15 −4 railties/doc/guides/source/2_2_release_notes.txt
  18. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/http_auth.txt
  19. +4 −4 railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/methods.txt
  20. +7 −3 railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/params.txt
  21. +1 −1  railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/request_response_objects.txt
  22. +7 −7 railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/session.txt
  23. +1 −1  railties/doc/guides/source/actioncontroller_basics/streaming.txt
  24. +381 −2 railties/doc/guides/source/activerecord_validations_callbacks.txt
  25. +40 −34 railties/doc/guides/source/caching_with_rails.txt
  26. +147 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/command_line.txt
  27. +69 −71 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/acts_as_yaffle.txt
  28. +0 −861 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/basics.markdown
  29. +59 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/controllers.txt
  30. +123 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/core_ext.txt
  31. +8 −8 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/custom_route.txt
  32. +1 −0  railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/gem.txt
  33. +39 −19 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/{custom_generator.txt → generator_method.txt}
  34. +51 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/helpers.txt
  35. +38 −70 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/index.txt
  36. +97 −30 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/migration_generator.txt
  37. +76 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/models.txt
  38. +2 −55 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/odds_and_ends.txt
  39. +0 −169 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/preparation.txt
  40. +0 −103 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/string_to_squawk.txt
  41. +230 −0 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/test_setup.txt
  42. +0 −61 railties/doc/guides/source/creating_plugins/view_helper.txt
  43. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/source/debugging_rails_applications.txt
  44. +55 −29 railties/doc/guides/source/finders.txt
  45. +2 −2 railties/doc/guides/source/getting_started_with_rails.txt
  46. +3 −0  railties/doc/guides/source/layouts_and_rendering.txt
  47. +1 −1  railties/doc/guides/source/migrations/foreign_keys.txt
  48. +1 −1  railties/doc/guides/source/migrations/scheming.txt
  49. +27 −11 railties/doc/guides/source/routing_outside_in.txt
  50. +249 −141 railties/doc/guides/source/testing_rails_applications.txt
View
6 actionpack/lib/action_controller/base.rb
@@ -1029,10 +1029,10 @@ def default_url_options(options = nil)
#
# * <tt>Hash</tt> - The URL will be generated by calling url_for with the +options+.
# * <tt>Record</tt> - The URL will be generated by calling url_for with the +options+, which will reference a named URL for that record.
- # * <tt>String starting with protocol:// (like http://)</tt> - Is passed straight through as the target for redirection.
- # * <tt>String not containing a protocol</tt> - The current protocol and host is prepended to the string.
+ # * <tt>String</tt> starting with <tt>protocol://</tt> (like <tt>http://</tt>) - Is passed straight through as the target for redirection.
+ # * <tt>String</tt> not containing a protocol - The current protocol and host is prepended to the string.
# * <tt>:back</tt> - Back to the page that issued the request. Useful for forms that are triggered from multiple places.
- # Short-hand for redirect_to(request.env["HTTP_REFERER"])
+ # Short-hand for <tt>redirect_to(request.env["HTTP_REFERER"])</tt>
#
# Examples:
# redirect_to :action => "show", :id => 5
View
7 railties/doc/README_FOR_APP
@@ -1,2 +1,5 @@
-Use this README file to introduce your application and point to useful places in the API for learning more.
-Run "rake doc:app" to generate API documentation for your models, controllers, helpers, and libraries.
+To build the guides:
+
+* Install source-highlighter (http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite/source-highlight.html)
+* Install the mizuho gem (http://github.com/FooBarWidget/mizuho/tree/master)
+* Run `rake guides` from the railties directory
View
33 railties/doc/guides/html/2_2_release_notes.html
@@ -243,6 +243,8 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
<li><a href="#_method_arrays_for_member_or_collection_routes">Method Arrays for Member or Collection Routes</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#_resources_with_specific_actions">Resources With Specific Actions</a></li>
+
<li><a href="#_other_action_controller_changes">Other Action Controller Changes</a></li>
</ul>
@@ -525,7 +527,7 @@ <h2 id="_active_record">5. Active Record</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p>There are two big additions to talk about here: transactional migrations and pooled database transactions. There's also a new (and cleaner) syntax for join table conditions, as well as a number of smaller improvements.</p></div>
<h3 id="_transactional_migrations">5.1. Transactional Migrations</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Historically, multiple-step Rails migrations have been a source of trouble. If something went wrong during a migration, everything before the error changed the database and everything after the error wasn't applied. Also, the migration version was stored as having been executed, which means that it couldn't be simply rerun by <tt>rake db:migrate:redo</tt> after you fix the problem. Transactional migrations change this by wrapping migration steps in a DDL transaction, so that if any of them fail, the entire migration is undone. In Rails 2.2, transactional migrations are supported <strong>on PostgreSQL only</strong>. The code is extensible to other database types in the future.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Historically, multiple-step Rails migrations have been a source of trouble. If something went wrong during a migration, everything before the error changed the database and everything after the error wasn't applied. Also, the migration version was stored as having been executed, which means that it couldn't be simply rerun by <tt>rake db:migrate:redo</tt> after you fix the problem. Transactional migrations change this by wrapping migration steps in a DDL transaction, so that if any of them fail, the entire migration is undone. In Rails 2.2, transactional migrations are supported on PostgreSQL out of the box. The code is extensible to other database types in the future - and IBM has already extended it to support the DB2 adapter.</p></div>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
@@ -542,6 +544,11 @@ <h3 id="_transactional_migrations">5.1. Transactional Migrations</h3>
<a href="http://adam.blog.heroku.com/past/2008/9/3/ddl_transactions/">DDL Transactions</a>
</p>
</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<a href="http://db2onrails.com/2008/11/08/a-major-milestone-for-db2-on-rails/">A major milestone for DB2 on Rails</a>
+</p>
+</li>
</ul></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
@@ -693,9 +700,9 @@ <h3 id="_other_activerecord_changes">5.6. Other ActiveRecord Changes</h3>
</div>
<h2 id="_action_controller">6. Action Controller</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>On the controller side, there are a couple of changes that will help tidy up your routes.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>On the controller side, there are several changes that will help tidy up your routes. There are also some internal changes in the routing engine to lower memory usage on complex applications.</p></div>
<h3 id="_shallow_route_nesting">6.1. Shallow Route Nesting</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Shallow route nesting provides a solution to the well-known difficulty of using deeply-nested resources. With shallow nesting, you need only supply enough information to uniquely identify the resource that you want to work with - but you <em>can</em> supply more information.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Shallow route nesting provides a solution to the well-known difficulty of using deeply-nested resources. With shallow nesting, you need only supply enough information to uniquely identify the resource that you want to work with.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -756,8 +763,24 @@ <h3 id="_method_arrays_for_member_or_collection_routes">6.2. Method Arrays for M
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Action Controller now offers good support for HTTP conditional GET requests, as well as some other additions.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_other_action_controller_changes">6.3. Other Action Controller Changes</h3>
+<h3 id="_resources_with_specific_actions">6.3. Resources With Specific Actions</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>By default, when you use <tt>map.resources</tt> to create a route, Rails generates routes for seven default actions (index, show, create, new, edit, update, and destroy). But each of these routes takes up memory in your application, and causes Rails to generate additional routing logic. Now you can use the <tt>:only</tt> and <tt>:except</tt> options to fine-tune the routes that Rails will generate for resources. You can supply a single action, an array of actions, or the special <tt>:all</tt> or <tt>:none</tt> options. These options are inherited by nested resources.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>map<span style="color: #990000">.</span>resources <span style="color: #990000">:</span>photos<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[:</span>index<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>show<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
+map<span style="color: #990000">.</span>resources <span style="color: #990000">:</span>products<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>except <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>destroy
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+Lead Contributor: <a href="http://experthuman.com/">Tom Stuart</a>
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<h3 id="_other_action_controller_changes">6.4. Other Action Controller Changes</h3>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
View
45 railties/doc/guides/html/actioncontroller_basics.html
@@ -349,7 +349,7 @@ <h2 id="_what_does_a_controller_do">1. What Does a Controller do?</h2>
</div>
<h2 id="_methods_and_actions">2. Methods and Actions</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>A controller is a Ruby class which inherits from ApplicationController and has methods just like any other class. Usually these methods correspond to actions in MVC, but they can just as well be helpful methods which can be called by actions. When your application receives a request, the routing will determine which controller and action to run. Then Rails creates an instance of that controller and runs the method corresponding to the action (the method with the same name as the action).</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>A controller is a Ruby class which inherits from ApplicationController and has methods just like any other class. When your application receives a request, the routing will determine which controller and action to run, then Rails creates an instance of that controller and runs the public method with the same name as the action.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ <h2 id="_methods_and_actions">2. Methods and Actions</h2>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> new
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
- <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># These methods are responsible for producing output</span></span>
+ <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># Action methods are responsible for producing output</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> edit
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
@@ -373,8 +373,8 @@ <h2 id="_methods_and_actions">2. Methods and Actions</h2>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Private methods in a controller are also used as filters, which will be covered later in this guide.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>As an example, if the user goes to <tt>/clients/new</tt> in your application to add a new client, Rails will create a ClientsController instance will be created and run the <tt>new</tt> method. Note that the empty method from the example above could work just fine because Rails will by default render the <tt>new.html.erb</tt> view unless the action says otherwise. The <tt>new</tt> method could make available to the view a <tt>@client</tt> instance variable by creating a new Client:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>There's no rule saying a method on a controller has to be an action; they may well be used for other purposes such as filters, which will be covered later in this guide.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>As an example, if a user goes to <tt>/clients/new</tt> in your application to add a new client, Rails will create an instance of ClientsController and run the <tt>new</tt> method. Note that the empty method from the example above could work just fine because Rails will by default render the <tt>new.html.erb</tt> view unless the action says otherwise. The <tt>new</tt> method could make available to the view a <tt>@client</tt> instance variable by creating a new Client:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -431,6 +431,14 @@ <h3 id="_hash_and_array_parameters">3.1. Hash and Array Parameters</h3>
<div class="content">
<pre><tt>GET /clients?ids[]=1&amp;ids[]=2&amp;ids[]=3</tt></pre>
</div></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">The actual URL in this example will be encoded as "/clients?ids%5b%5d=1&amp;ids%5b%5d=2&amp;ids%5b%5b=3" as [ and ] are not allowed in URLs. Most of the time you don't have to worry about this because the browser will take care of it for you, and Rails will decode it back when it receives it, but if you ever find yourself having to send those requests to the server manually you have to keep this in mind.</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
<div class="para"><p>The value of <tt>params[:ids]</tt> will now be <tt>["1", "2", "3"]</tt>. Note that parameter values are always strings; Rails makes no attempt to guess or cast the type.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>To send a hash you include the key name inside the brackets:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -442,7 +450,8 @@ <h3 id="_hash_and_array_parameters">3.1. Hash and Array Parameters</h3>
&lt;input type="text" name="client[address][city]" value="Carrot City" /&gt;
&lt;/form&gt;</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The value of <tt>params[:client]</tt> when this form is submitted will be <tt>{:name &#8658; "Acme", :phone &#8658; "12345", :address &#8658; {:postcode &#8658; "12345", :city &#8658; "Carrot City"}}</tt>. Note the nested hash in <tt>params[:client][:address]</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The value of <tt>params[:client]</tt> when this form is submitted will be <tt>{"name" &#8658; "Acme", "phone" &#8658; "12345", "address" &#8658; {"postcode" &#8658; "12345", "city" &#8658; "Carrot City"}}</tt>. Note the nested hash in <tt>params[:client][:address]</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Note that the params hash is actually an instance of HashWithIndifferentAccess from Active Support which is a subclass of Hash which lets you use symbols and strings interchangeably as keys.</p></div>
<h3 id="_routing_parameters">3.2. Routing Parameters</h3>
<div class="para"><p>The <tt>params</tt> hash will always contain the <tt>:controller</tt> and <tt>:action</tt> keys, but you should use the methods <tt>controller_name</tt> and <tt>action_name</tt> instead to access these values. Any other parameters defined by the routing, such as <tt>:id</tt> will also be available. As an example, consider a listing of clients where the list can show either active or inactive clients. We can add a route which captures the <tt>:status</tt> parameter in a "pretty" URL:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -461,18 +470,18 @@ <h3 id="_tt_default_url_options_tt">3.3. <tt>default_url_options</tt></h3>
<div class="content">
<pre><tt>class ApplicationController &lt; ActionController::Base
- #The options parameter is the hash passed in to url_for
+ #The options parameter is the hash passed in to +url_for+
def default_url_options(options)
{:locale =&gt; I18n.locale}
end
end</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>These options will be used as a starting-point when generating, so it's possible they'll be overridden by url_for. Because this method is defined in the controller, you can define it on ApplicationController so it would be used for all URL generation, or you could define it on only one controller for all URLs generated there.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>These options will be used as a starting-point when generating, so it's possible they'll be overridden by <tt>url_for</tt>. Because this method is defined in the controller, you can define it on ApplicationController so it would be used for all URL generation, or you could define it on only one controller for all URLs generated there.</p></div>
</div>
<h2 id="_session">4. Session</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>Your application has a session for each user in which you can store small amounts of data that will be persisted between requests. The session is only available in the controller and can use one of a number of different storage mechanisms:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Your application has a session for each user in which you can store small amounts of data that will be persisted between requests. The session is only available in the controller and the view and can use one of a number of different storage mechanisms:</p></div>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
@@ -481,12 +490,12 @@ <h2 id="_session">4. Session</h2>
</li>
<li>
<p>
-DRBStore - Stores the data on a DRb client.
+DRbStore - Stores the data on a DRb server.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
-MemCacheStore - Stores the data in MemCache.
+MemCacheStore - Stores the data in a memcache.
</p>
</li>
<li>
@@ -495,8 +504,8 @@ <h2 id="_session">4. Session</h2>
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>All session stores store either the session ID or the entire session in a cookie - Rails does not allow the session ID to be passed in any other way. Most stores also use this key to locate the session data on the server.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The default and recommended store, the Cookie Store, does not store session data on the server, but in the cookie itself. The data is cryptographically signed to make it tamper-proof, but it is not encrypted, so anyone with access to it can read its contents but not edit it. It can only store about 4kB of data - much less than the others - but this is usually enough. Storing large amounts of data is discouraged no matter which session store your application uses. You should especially avoid storing complex objects (anything other than basic Ruby objects, the primary example being model instances) in the session, as the server might not be able to reassemble them between requests, which will result in an error. The Cookie Store has the added advantage that it does not require any setting up beforehand - Rails will generate a "secret key" which will be used to sign the cookie when you create the application.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>All session stores use a cookie - this is required and Rails does not allow any part of the session to be passed in any other way (e.g. you can't use the query string to pass a session ID) because of security concerns (it's easier to hijack a session when the ID is part of the URL).</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Most stores use a cookie to store the session ID which is then used to look up the session data on the server. The default and recommended store, the CookieStore, does not store session data on the server, but in the cookie itself. The data is cryptographically signed to make it tamper-proof, but it is not encrypted, so anyone with access to it can read its contents but not edit it (Rails will not accept it if it has been edited). It can only store about 4kB of data - much less than the others - but this is usually enough. Storing large amounts of data is discouraged no matter which session store your application uses. You should especially avoid storing complex objects (anything other than basic Ruby objects, the most common example being model instances) in the session, as the server might not be able to reassemble them between requests, which will result in an error. The CookieStore has the added advantage that it does not require any setting up beforehand - Rails will generate a "secret key" which will be used to sign the cookie when you create the application.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>Read more about session storage in the <a href="../security.html">Security Guide</a>.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>If you need a different session storage mechanism, you can change it in the <tt>config/environment.rb</tt> file:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -547,7 +556,7 @@ <h3 id="_accessing_the_session">4.2. Accessing the Session</h3>
<td class="icon">
<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
</td>
-<td class="content">There are two <tt>session</tt> methods, the class and the instance method. The class method which is described above is used to turn the session on and off while the instance method described below is used to access session values. The class method is used outside of method definitions while the instance methods is used inside methods, in actions or filters.</td>
+<td class="content">There are two <tt>session</tt> methods, the class and the instance method. The class method which is described above is used to turn the session on and off while the instance method described below is used to access session values.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="para"><p>Session values are stored using key/value pairs like a hash:</p></div>
@@ -623,7 +632,7 @@ <h3 id="_the_flash">4.3. The flash</h3>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The <tt>destroy</tt> action redirects to the application's <tt>root_url</tt>, where the message will be displayed. Note that it's entirely up to the next action to decide what, if anything, it will do with what the previous action put in the flash. It's conventional to a display eventual errors or notices from the flash in the application's layout:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The <tt>destroy</tt> action redirects to the application's <tt>root_url</tt>, where the message will be displayed. Note that it's entirely up to the next action to decide what, if anything, it will do with what the previous action put in the flash. It's conventional to display eventual errors or notices from the flash in the application's layout:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><tt>&lt;html&gt;
@@ -916,7 +925,7 @@ <h2 id="_the_tt_request_tt_and_tt_response_tt_objects">9. The <tt>request</tt> a
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p>In every controller there are two accessor methods pointing to the request and the response objects associated with the request cycle that is currently in execution. The <tt>request</tt> method contains an instance of AbstractRequest and the <tt>response</tt> method returns a <tt>response</tt> object representing what is going to be sent back to the client.</p></div>
<h3 id="_the_tt_request_tt_object">9.1. The <tt>request</tt> Object</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>The request object contains a lot of useful information about the request coming in from the client. To get a full list of the available methods, refer to the <a href="http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionController/AbstractRequest.html">API documentation</a>. Among the properties that you can access on this object:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The request object contains a lot of useful information about the request coming in from the client. To get a full list of the available methods, refer to the <a href="http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActionController/AbstractRequest.html">API documentation</a>. Among the properties that you can access on this object are:</p></div>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
@@ -1030,7 +1039,7 @@ <h2 id="_http_basic_authentication">10. HTTP Basic Authentication</h2>
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> AdminController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ApplicationController
- USERNAME<span style="color: #990000">,</span> PASSWORD <span style="color: #990000">=</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"humbaba"</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"f59a4805511bf4bb61978445a5380c6c"</span>
+ USERNAME<span style="color: #990000">,</span> PASSWORD <span style="color: #990000">=</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"humbaba"</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"5baa61e4c9b93f3f0682250b6cf8331b7ee68fd8"</span>
before_filter <span style="color: #990000">:</span>authenticate
@@ -1038,7 +1047,7 @@ <h2 id="_http_basic_authentication">10. HTTP Basic Authentication</h2>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> authenticate
authenticate_or_request_with_http_basic <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">|</span>username<span style="color: #990000">,</span> password<span style="color: #990000">|</span>
- username <span style="color: #990000">==</span> USERNAME <span style="color: #990000">&amp;&amp;</span> Digest<span style="color: #990000">::</span>MD5<span style="color: #990000">.</span>hexdigest<span style="color: #990000">(</span>password<span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="color: #990000">==</span> PASSWORD
+ username <span style="color: #990000">==</span> USERNAME <span style="color: #990000">&amp;&amp;</span> Digest<span style="color: #990000">::</span>SHA1<span style="color: #990000">.</span>hexdigest<span style="color: #990000">(</span>password<span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="color: #990000">==</span> PASSWORD
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
@@ -1095,7 +1104,7 @@ <h3 id="_sending_files">11.1. Sending Files</h3>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>This will read and stream the file 4Kb at the time, avoiding loading the entire file into memory at once. You can turn off streaming with the <tt>stream</tt> option or adjust the block size with the <tt>buffer_size</tt> option.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>This will read and stream the file 4Kb at the time, avoiding loading the entire file into memory at once. You can turn off streaming with the <tt>:stream</tt> option or adjust the block size with the <tt>:buffer_size</tt> option.</p></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
View
492 railties/doc/guides/html/activerecord_validations_callbacks.html
@@ -199,10 +199,72 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
<h2>Chapters</h2>
<ol>
<li>
- <a href="#_active_record_validations">Active Record Validations</a>
+ <a href="#_motivations_to_validate_your_active_record_objects">Motivations to validate your Active Record objects</a>
</li>
<li>
- <a href="#_credits">Credits</a>
+ <a href="#_how_it_works">How it works</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_when_does_validation_happens">When does validation happens?</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_meaning_of_em_valid_em">The meaning of <em>valid</em></a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_the_declarative_validation_helpers">The declarative validation helpers</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_acceptance_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_acceptance_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_associated_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_associated</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_confirmation_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_confirmation_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_each_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_each</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_exclusion_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_exclusion_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_format_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_format_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_inclusion_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_inclusion_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_length_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_length_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_numericallity_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_presence_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_uniqueness_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_uniqueness_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_common_validation_options">Common validation options</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_allow_nil_tt_option">The <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_message_tt_option">The <tt>:message</tt> option</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_on_tt_option">The <tt>:on</tt> option</a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_conditional_validation">Conditional validation</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_using_a_symbol_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">Using a symbol with the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_using_a_string_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">Using a string with the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_using_a_proc_object_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">Using a Proc object with the <tt>:if</tt> and :<tt>unless</tt> options</a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_writing_your_own_validation_methods">Writing your own validation methods</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="#_changelog">Changelog</a>
@@ -250,13 +312,433 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
-<h2 id="_active_record_validations">1. Active Record Validations</h2>
+<h2 id="_motivations_to_validate_your_active_record_objects">1. Motivations to validate your Active Record objects</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>The main reason for validating your objects before they get into the database is to ensure that only valid data is recorded. It's important to be sure that an email address column only contains valid email addresses, or that the customer's name column will never be empty. Constraints like that keep your database organized and helps your application to work properly.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>There are several ways to validate the data that goes to the database, like using database native constraints, implementing validations only at the client side or implementing them directly into your models. Each one has pros and cons:</p></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+Using database constraints and/or stored procedures makes the validation mechanisms database-dependent and may turn your application into a hard to test and mantain beast. However, if your database is used by other applications, it may be a good idea to use some constraints also at the database level.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Implementing validations only at the client side can be problematic, specially with web-based applications. Usually this kind of validation is done using javascript, which may be turned off in the user's browser, leading to invalid data getting inside your database. However, if combined with server side validation, client side validation may be useful, since the user can have a faster feedback from the application when trying to save invalid data.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Using validation directly into your Active Record classes ensures that only valid data gets recorded, while still keeping the validation code in the right place, avoiding breaking the MVC pattern. Since the validation happens on the server side, the user cannot disable it, so it's also safer. It may be a hard and tedious work to implement some of the logic involved in your models' validations, but fear not: Active Record gives you the hability to easily create validations, using several built-in helpers while still allowing you to create your own validation methods.
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+</div>
+<h2 id="_how_it_works">2. How it works</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<h3 id="_when_does_validation_happens">2.1. When does validation happens?</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>There are two kinds of Active Record objects: those that correspond to a row inside your database and those who do not. When you create a fresh object, using the <tt>new</tt> method, that object does not belong to the database yet. Once you call <tt>save</tt> upon that object it'll be recorded to it's table. Active Record uses the <tt>new_record?</tt> instance method to discover if an object is already in the database or not. Consider the following simple and very creative Active Record class:</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>We can see how it works by looking at the following script/console output:</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>&gt;&gt; p = Person.new(:name =&gt; "John Doe", :birthdate =&gt; Date.parse("09/03/1979"))
+=&gt; #&lt;Person id: nil, name: "John Doe", birthdate: "1979-09-03", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil&gt;
+&gt;&gt; p.new_record?
+=&gt; true
+&gt;&gt; p.save
+=&gt; true
+&gt;&gt; p.new_record?
+=&gt; false</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Saving new records means sending an SQL insert operation to the database, while saving existing records (by calling either <tt>save</tt>, <tt>update_attribute</tt> or <tt>update_attributes</tt>) will result in a SQL update operation. Active Record will use this facts to perform validations upon your objects, avoiding then to be recorded to the database if their inner state is invalid in some way. You can specify validations that will be beformed every time a object is saved, just when you're creating a new record or when you're updating an existing one.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_meaning_of_em_valid_em">2.2. The meaning of <em>valid</em></h3>
+<div class="para"><p>For verifying if an object is valid, Active Record uses the <tt>valid?</tt> method, which basically looks inside the object to see if it has any validation errors. These errors live in a collection that can be accessed through the <tt>errors</tt> instance method. The proccess is really simple: If the <tt>errors</tt> method returns an empty collection, the object is valid and can be saved. Each time a validation fails, an error message is added to the <tt>errors</tt> collection.</p></div>
+</div>
+<h2 id="_the_declarative_validation_helpers">3. The declarative validation helpers</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>Active Record offers many pre-defined validation helpers that you can use directly inside your class definitions. These helpers create validations rules that are commonly used in most of the applications that you'll write, so you don't need to recreate it everytime, avoiding code duplication, keeping everything organized and boosting your productivity. Everytime a validation fails, an error message is added to the object's <tt>errors</tt> collection, this message being associated with the field being validated.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Each helper accepts an arbitrary number of attributes, received as symbols, so with a single line of code you can add the same kind of validation to several attributes.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>All these helpers accept the <tt>:on</tt> and <tt>:message</tt> options, which define when the validation should be applied and what message should be added to the <tt>errors</tt> collection when it fails, respectively. The <tt>:on</tt> option takes one the values <tt>:save</tt> (it's the default), <tt>:create</tt> or <tt>:update</tt>. There is a default error message for each one of the validation helpers. These messages are used when the <tt>:message</tt> option isn't used. Let's take a look at each one of the available helpers, listed in alphabetic order.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_acceptance_of_tt_helper">3.1. The <tt>validates_acceptance_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>Validates that a checkbox has been checked for agreement purposes. It's normally used when the user needs to agree with your application's terms of service, confirm reading some clauses or any similar concept. This validation is very specific to web applications and actually this <em>acceptance</em> does not need to be recorded anywhere in your database (if you don't have a field for it, the helper will just create a virtual attribute).</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_acceptance_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>terms_of_service
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_acceptance_of</tt> is "<em>must be accepted</em>"</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p><tt>validates_acceptance_of</tt> can receive an <tt>:accept</tt> option, which determines the value that will be considered acceptance. It defaults to "1", but you can change it.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_acceptance_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>terms_of_service<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>accept <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'yes'</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_associated_tt_helper">3.2. The <tt>validates_associated</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>You should use this helper when your model has associations with other models and they also need to be validated. When you try to save your object, <tt>valid?</tt> will be called upon each one of the associated objects.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Library <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ has_many <span style="color: #990000">:</span>books
+ validates_associated <span style="color: #990000">:</span>books
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>This validation will work with all the association types.</p></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/caution.png" alt="Caution" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">Pay attention not to use <tt>validates_associated</tt> on both ends of your associations, because this will lead to several recursive calls and blow up the method calls' stack.</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_associated</tt> is "<em>is invalid</em>". Note that the errors for each failed validation in the associated objects will be set there and not in this model.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_confirmation_of_tt_helper">3.3. The <tt>validates_confirmation_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>You should use this helper when you have two text fields that should receive exactly the same content, like when you want to confirm an email address or password. This validation creates a virtual attribute, using the name of the field that has to be confirmed with <em>_confirmation</em> appended.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_confirmation_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>In your view template you could use something like</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>&lt;%= text_field :person, :email %&gt;
+&lt;%= text_field :person, :email_confirmation %&gt;</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">This check is performed only if <tt>email_confirmation</tt> is not nil, and by default only on save. To require confirmation, make sure to add a presence check for the confirmation attribute (we'll take a look at <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> later on this guide):</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_confirmation_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email_confirmation
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_confirmation_of</tt> is "<em>doesn't match confirmation</em>"</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_each_tt_helper">3.4. The <tt>validates_each</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates attributes against a block. It doesn't have a predefined validation function. You should create one using a block, and every attribute passed to <tt>validates_each</tt> will be tested against it. In the following example, we don't want names and surnames to begin with lower case.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_each <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>surname <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">|</span>model<span style="color: #990000">,</span> attr<span style="color: #990000">,</span> value<span style="color: #990000">|</span>
+ model<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(</span>attr<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'Must start with upper case'</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> value <span style="color: #990000">=~</span> <span style="color: #FF6600">/^[a-z]/</span>
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The block receives the model, the attribute's name and the attribute's value. If your validation fails, you can add an error message to the model, therefore making it invalid.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_exclusion_of_tt_helper">3.5. The <tt>validates_exclusion_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that the attributes' values are not included in a given set. In fact, this set can be any enumerable object.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> MovieFile <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_exclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>format<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>mov avi<span style="color: #990000">),</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Extension %s is not allowed"</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The <tt>validates_exclusion_of</tt> helper has an option <tt>:in</tt> that receives the set of values that will not be accepted for the validated attributes. The <tt>:in</tt> option has an alias called <tt>:within</tt> that you can use for the same purpose, if you'd like to. In the previous example we used the <tt>:message</tt> option to show how we can personalize it with the current attribute's value, through the <tt>%s</tt> format mask.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_exclusion_of</tt> is "<em>is not included in the list</em>".</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_format_of_tt_helper">3.6. The <tt>validates_format_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates the attributes's values by testing if they match a given pattern. This pattern must be specified using a Ruby regular expression, which must be passed through the <tt>:with</tt> option.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Product <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_format_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>description<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>with <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF6600">/^[a-zA-Z]+$/</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Only letters allowed"</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_format_of</tt> is "<em>is invalid</em>".</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_inclusion_of_tt_helper">3.7. The <tt>validates_inclusion_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that the attributes' values are included in a given set. In fact, this set can be any enumerable object.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Coffee <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_inclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>size<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>small medium large<span style="color: #990000">),</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"%s is not a valid size"</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The <tt>validates_inclusion_of</tt> helper has an option <tt>:in</tt> that receives the set of values that will be accepted. The <tt>:in</tt> option has an alias called <tt>:within</tt> that you can use for the same purpose, if you'd like to. In the previous example we used the <tt>:message</tt> option to show how we can personalize it with the current attribute's value, through the <tt>%s</tt> format mask.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_inclusion_of</tt> is "<em>is not included in the list</em>".</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_length_of_tt_helper">3.8. The <tt>validates_length_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates the length of your attribute's value. It can receive a variety of different options, so you can specify length contraints in different ways.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_length_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>minimum <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #993399">2</span>
+ validates_length_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>bio<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>maximum <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #993399">500</span>
+ validates_length_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>password<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #993399">6</span><span style="color: #990000">..</span><span style="color: #993399">20</span>
+ validates_length_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>registration_number<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>is <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #993399">6</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The possible length constraint options are:</p></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+<tt>:minimum</tt> - The attribute cannot have less than the specified length.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<tt>:maximum</tt> - The attribute cannot have more than the specified length.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<tt>:in</tt> (or <tt>:within</tt>) - The attribute length must be included in a given interval. The value for this option must be a Ruby range.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<tt>:is</tt> - The attribute length must be equal to a given value.
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error messages depend on the type of length validation being performed. You can personalize these messages, using the <tt>:wrong_length</tt>, <tt>:too_long</tt> and <tt>:too_short</tt> options and the <tt>%d</tt> format mask as a placeholder for the number corresponding to the length contraint being used. You can still use the <tt>:message</tt> option to specify an error message.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_length_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>bio<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>too_long <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"you're writing too much. %d characters is the maximum allowed."</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper has an alias called <tt>validates_size_of</tt>, it's the same helper with a different name. You can use it if you'd like to.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_numericallity_of_tt_helper">3.9. The <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that your attributes have only numeric values. By default, it will match an optional sign followed by a integral or floating point number. Using the <tt>:integer_only</tt> option set to true, you can specify that only integral numbers are allowed.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>If you use <tt>:integer_only</tt> set to <tt>true</tt>, then it will use the <tt><span>/\A[+\-]?\d+\Z/</span></tt> regular expression to validate the attribute's value. Otherwise, it will try to convert the value using <tt>Kernel.Float</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Player <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>points
+ validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>games_played<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>integer_only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> is "<em>is not a number</em>".</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_presence_of_tt_helper">3.10. The <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that the attributes are not empty. It uses the <tt>blank?</tt> method to check if the value is either <tt>nil</tt> or an empty string (if the string has only spaces, it will still be considered empty).</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>login<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">If you want to be sure that an association is present, you'll need to test if the foreign key used to map the association is present, and not the associated object itself.</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> LineItem <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ belongs_to <span style="color: #990000">:</span>order
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>order_id
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">If you want to validate the presence of a boolean field (where the real values are true and false), you will want to use validates_inclusion_of :field_name, :in &#8658; [true, false] This is due to the way Object#blank? handles boolean values. false.blank? # &#8658; true</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> is "<em>can't be empty</em>".</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_uniqueness_of_tt_helper">3.11. The <tt>validates_uniqueness_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that the attribute's value is unique right before the object gets saved. It does not create a uniqueness constraint directly into your database, so it may happen that two different database connections create two records with the same value for a column that you wish were unique. To avoid that, you must create an unique index in your database.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Account <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The validation happens by performing a SQL query into the model's table, searching for a record where the attribute that must be validated is equal to the value in the object being validated.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>There is a <tt>:scope</tt> option that you can use to specify other attributes that must be used to define uniqueness:</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Holiday <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>scope <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>year<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Should happen once per year"</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>There is also a <tt>:case_sensitive</tt> option that you can use to define if the uniqueness contraint will be case sensitive or not. This option defaults to true.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>case_sensitive <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">false</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_uniqueness_of</tt> is "<em>has already been taken</em>".</p></div>
+</div>
+<h2 id="_common_validation_options">4. Common validation options</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>There are some common options that all the validation helpers can use. Here they are, except for the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options, which we'll cover right at the next topic.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_allow_nil_tt_option">4.1. The <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>You may use the <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option everytime you just want to trigger a validation if the value being validated is not <tt>nil</tt>. You may be asking yourself if it makes any sense to use <tt>:allow_nil</tt> and <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> together. Well, it does. Remember, validation will be skipped only for <tt>nil</tt> attributes, but empty strings are not considered <tt>nil</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Coffee <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_inclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>size<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>small medium large<span style="color: #990000">),</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"%s is not a valid size"</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>allow_nil <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_message_tt_option">4.2. The <tt>:message</tt> option</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>As stated before, the <tt>:message</tt> option lets you specify the message that will be added to the <tt>errors</tt> collection when validation fails. When this option is not used, Active Record will use the respective default error message for each validation helper.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_on_tt_option">4.3. The <tt>:on</tt> option</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>As stated before, the <tt>:on</tt> option lets you specify when the validation should happen. The default behaviour for all the built-in validation helpers is to be ran on save (both when you're creating a new record and when you're updating it). If you want to change it, you can use <tt>:on =<span>&gt;</span> :create</tt> to run the validation only when a new record is created or <tt>:on =<span>&gt;</span> :update</tt> to run the validation only when a record is updated.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to update email with a duplicated value</span></span>
+ validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>age<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>update <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to create the record with a 'non-numerical age'</span></span>
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>save <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; that's the default</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<h2 id="_conditional_validation">5. Conditional validation</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>Sometimes it will make sense to validate an object just when a given predicate is satisfied. You can do that by using the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options, which can take a symbol, a string or a Ruby Proc. You may use the <tt>:if</tt> option when you want to specify when the validation <strong>should</strong> happen. If you want to specify when the validation <strong>should not</strong> happen, then you may use the <tt>:unless</tt> option.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_using_a_symbol_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">5.1. Using a symbol with the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>You can associated the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options with a symbol corresponding to the name of a method that will get called right before validation happens. This is the most commonly used option.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Order <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>card_number<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>paid_with_card?
+
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> paid_with_card?
+ payment_type <span style="color: #990000">==</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"card"</span>
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<h3 id="_using_a_string_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">5.2. Using a string with the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>You can also use a string that will be evaluated using <tt>:eval</tt> and needs to contain valid Ruby code. You should use this option only when the string represents a really short condition.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>surname<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"name.nil?"</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<h3 id="_using_a_proc_object_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">5.3. Using a Proc object with the <tt>:if</tt> and :<tt>unless</tt> options</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>Finally, it's possible to associate <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> with a Ruby Proc object which will be called. Using a Proc object can give you the hability to write a condition that will be executed only when the validation happens and not when your code is loaded by the Ruby interpreter. This option is best suited when writing short validation methods, usually one-liners.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Account <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validates_confirmation_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>password<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Proc<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span> <span style="color: #990000">|</span>a<span style="color: #990000">|</span> a<span style="color: #990000">.</span>password<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="color: #FF0000">}</span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
</div>
-<h2 id="_credits">2. Credits</h2>
+<h2 id="_writing_your_own_validation_methods">6. Writing your own validation methods</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>When the built-in validation helpers are not enough for your needs, you can write your own validation methods, by implementing one or more of the <tt>validate</tt>, <tt>validate_on_create</tt> or <tt>validate_on_update</tt> methods. As the names of the methods states, the right method to implement depends on when you want the validations to be ran. The meaning of valid is still the same: to make an object invalid you just need to add a message to it's <tt>errors</tt> collection.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Invoice <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> validate_on_create
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>If your validation rules are too complicated and you want to break it in small methods, you can implement all of them and call one of <tt>validate</tt>, <tt>validate_on_create</tt> or <tt>validate_on_update</tt> methods, passing it the symbols for the methods' names.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Invoice <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
+ validate <span style="color: #990000">:</span>expiration_date_cannot_be_in_the_past<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>discount_cannot_be_more_than_total_value
+
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> expiration_date_cannot_be_in_the_past
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> discount_cannot_be_greater_than_total_value
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>discount<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be greater than total value"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span> discount <span style="color: #990000">&lt;=</span> total_value
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
</div>
-<h2 id="_changelog">3. Changelog</h2>
+<h2 id="_changelog">7. Changelog</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p><a href="http://rails.lighthouseapp.com/projects/16213/tickets/26-active-record-validations-and-callbacks">http://rails.lighthouseapp.com/projects/16213/tickets/26-active-record-validations-and-callbacks</a></p></div>
</div>
View
72 railties/doc/guides/html/caching_with_rails.html
@@ -235,48 +235,54 @@ <h2 id="_basic_caching">1. Basic Caching</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p>This is an introduction to the three types of caching techniques that Rails
provides by default without the use of any third party plugins.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>To get started make sure Base.perform_caching is set to true for your
-environment.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>To get started make sure config.action_controller.perform_caching is set
+to true for your environment. This flag is normally set in the
+corresponding config/environments/*.rb and caching is disabled by default
+there for development and test, and enabled for production.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>Base<span style="color: #990000">.</span>perform_caching <span style="color: #990000">=</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
+<pre><tt>config<span style="color: #990000">.</span>action_controller<span style="color: #990000">.</span>perform_caching <span style="color: #990000">=</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<h3 id="_page_caching">1.1. Page Caching</h3>
<div class="para"><p>Page caching is a Rails mechanism which allows the request for a generated
page to be fulfilled by the webserver, without ever having to go through the
-Rails stack at all. Obviously, this is super fast. Unfortunately, it can't be
+Rails stack at all. Obviously, this is super-fast. Unfortunately, it can't be
applied to every situation (such as pages that need authentication) and since
the webserver is literally just serving a file from the filesystem, cache
expiration is an issue that needs to be dealt with.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>So, how do you enable this super-fast cache behavior? Simple, let's say you
-have a controller called ProductController and a <em>list</em> action that lists all
+have a controller called ProductsController and a <em>list</em> action that lists all
the products</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductsController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
- cache_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
+ caches_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>index
- <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> list<span style="color: #990000">;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+ <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> index<span style="color: #990000">;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The first time anyone requestsion products/list, Rails will generate a file
-called list.html and the webserver will then look for that file before it
-passes the next request for products/list to your Rails application.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The first time anyone requests products/index, Rails will generate a file
+called index.html and the webserver will then look for that file before it
+passes the next request for products/index to your Rails application.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>By default, the page cache directory is set to Rails.public_path (which is
-usually set to RAILS_ROOT + "/public") and this can be configured by changing
-the configuration setting Base.cache_public_directory</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The page caching mechanism will automatically add a .html exxtension to
+usually set to RAILS_ROOT + "/public") and this can be configured by
+changing the configuration setting ActionController::Base.page_cache_directory. Changing the
+default from /public helps avoid naming conflicts, since you may want to
+put other static html in /public, but changing this will require web
+server reconfiguration to let the web server know where to serve the
+cached files from.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The Page Caching mechanism will automatically add a .html exxtension to
requests for pages that do not have an extension to make it easy for the
webserver to find those pages and this can be configured by changing the
-configuration setting Base.page_cache_extension</p></div>
+configuration setting ActionController::Base.page_cache_extension.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>In order to expire this page when a new product is added we could extend our
example controler like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -284,9 +290,9 @@ <h3 id="_page_caching">1.1. Page Caching</h3>
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductsController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
- cache_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
+ caches_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> list<span style="color: #990000">;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
@@ -299,11 +305,11 @@ <h3 id="_page_caching">1.1. Page Caching</h3>
<div class="para"><p>If you want a more complicated expiration scheme, you can use cache sweepers
to expire cached objects when things change. This is covered in the section on Sweepers.</p></div>
<h3 id="_action_caching">1.2. Action Caching</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>One of the issues with page caching is that you cannot use it for pages that
+<div class="para"><p>One of the issues with Page Caching is that you cannot use it for pages that
require to restrict access somehow. This is where Action Caching comes in.
Action Caching works like Page Caching except for the fact that the incoming
web request does go from the webserver to the Rails stack and Action Pack so
-that before_filters can be run on it before the cache is served, so that
+that before filters can be run on it before the cache is served, so that
authentication and other restrictions can be used while still serving the
result of the output from a cached copy.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>Clearing the cache works in the exact same way as with Page Caching.</p></div>
@@ -314,10 +320,10 @@ <h3 id="_action_caching">1.2. Action Caching</h3>
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductsController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
before_filter <span style="color: #990000">:</span>authenticate<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="color: #990000">]</span>
- cache_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
+ caches_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
caches_action <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> list<span style="color: #990000">;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
@@ -336,7 +342,7 @@ <h3 id="_action_caching">1.2. Action Caching</h3>
layout so that dynamic information in the layout such as logged in user info
or the number of items in the cart can be left uncached. This feature is
available as of Rails 2.2.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>[More: more examples? Walk-through of action caching from request to response?
+<div class="para"><p>[More: more examples? Walk-through of Action Caching from request to response?
Description of Rake tasks to clear cached files? Show example of
subdomain caching? Talk about :cache_path, :if and assing blocks/Procs
to expire_action?]</p></div>
@@ -346,13 +352,13 @@ <h3 id="_fragment_caching">1.3. Fragment Caching</h3>
applications usually build pages with a variety of components not all of which
have the same caching characteristics. In order to address such a dynamically
created page where different parts of the page need to be cached and expired
-differently Rails provides a mechanism called Fragment caching.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Fragment caching allows a fragment of view logic to be wrapped in a cache
+differently Rails provides a mechanism called Fragment Caching.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Fragment Caching allows a fragment of view logic to be wrapped in a cache
block and served out of the cache store when the next request comes in.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>As an example, if you wanted to show all the orders placed on your website in
-real time and didn't want to cache that part of the page, but did want to
-cache the part of the page which lists all products available, you could use
-this piece of code:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>As an example, if you wanted to show all the orders placed on your website
+in real time and didn't want to cache that part of the page, but did want
+to cache the part of the page which lists all products available, you
+could use this piece of code:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -371,7 +377,7 @@ <h3 id="_fragment_caching">1.3. Fragment Caching</h3>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>The cache block in our example will bind to the action that called it and is
written out to the same place as the Action Cache, which means that if you
-want to cache multiple fragments per action, you should provide an action_path to the cache call:</p></div>
+want to cache multiple fragments per action, you should provide an action_suffix to the cache call:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -439,10 +445,10 @@ <h3 id="_sweepers">1.4. Sweepers</h3>
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductsController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
before_filter <span style="color: #990000">:</span>authenticate<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="color: #990000">]</span>
- cache_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
+ caches_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
caches_action <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit
cache_sweeper <span style="color: #990000">:</span>store_sweeper<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="color: #990000">]</span>
@@ -468,10 +474,10 @@ <h3 id="_sql_caching">1.5. SQL Caching</h3>
by Lorenzo Bettini
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
+<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> ProductsController <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController
before_filter <span style="color: #990000">:</span>authenticate<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="color: #990000">]</span>
- cache_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
+ caches_page <span style="color: #990000">:</span>list
caches_action <span style="color: #990000">:</span>edit
cache_sweeper <span style="color: #990000">:</span>store_sweeper<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="color: #990000">]</span>
View
434 railties/doc/guides/html/command_line.html
@@ -0,0 +1,434 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
+<head>
+ <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
+ <title>A Guide to The Rails Command Line</title>
+ <!--[if lt IE 8]>
+ <script src="http://ie7-js.googlecode.com/svn/version/2.0(beta3)/IE8.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
+ <![endif]-->
+ <link href="stylesheets/base.css" media="screen" rel="Stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+ <link href="stylesheets/forms.css" media="screen" rel="Stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+ <link href="stylesheets/more.css" media="screen" rel="Stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+ <style type="text/css">
+ div#container {
+ max-width: 900px;
+ padding-bottom: 3em;
+}
+
+div#content {
+ margin-left: 200px;
+}
+
+div#container.notoc {
+ max-width: 600px;
+}
+
+.notoc div#content {
+ margin-left: 0;
+}
+
+pre {
+ line-height: 1.4em;
+}
+
+#content p tt {
+ background: #eeeeee;
+ border: solid 1px #cccccc;
+ padding: 3px;
+}
+
+dt {
+ font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+#content dt tt {
+ font-size: 10pt;
+}
+
+dd {
+ margin-left: 3em;
+}
+
+#content dt tt, #content pre tt {
+ background: none;
+ padding: 0;
+ border: 0;
+}
+
+#content .olist ol {
+ margin-left: 2em;
+}
+
+#header {
+ position: relative;
+ max-width: 840px;
+ margin-left: auto;
+ margin-right: auto;
+}
+
+#header.notoc {
+ max-width: 580px;
+}
+
+#logo {
+ position: absolute;
+ left: 10px;
+ top: 10px;
+ width: 110px;
+ height: 140px;
+}
+
+div#header h1#site_title {
+ background: url('images/ruby_on_rails_by_mike_rundle2.gif') top left no-repeat;
+ position: absolute;
+ width: 392px;
+ height: 55px;
+ left: 145px;
+ top: 20px;
+ margin: 0;
+ padding: 0;
+}
+
+#site_title span {
+ display: none;
+}
+
+#site_title_tagline {
+ display: none;
+}
+
+ul#navMain {
+ position: absolute;
+ margin: 0;
+ padding: 0;
+ top: 97px;
+ left: 145px;
+}
+
+.left-floaty, .right-floaty {
+ padding: 15px;
+}
+
+.admonitionblock,
+.tableblock {
+ margin-left: 1em;
+ margin-right: 1em;
+ margin-top: 0.25em;
+ margin-bottom: 1em;
+}
+
+.admonitionblock .icon {
+ padding-right: 8px;
+}
+
+.admonitionblock .content {
+ border: solid 1px #ffda78;
+ background: #fffebd;
+ padding: 10px;
+ padding-top: 8px;
+ padding-bottom: 8px;
+}
+
+.admonitionblock .title {
+ font-size: 140%;
+ margin-bottom: 0.5em;
+}
+
+.tableblock table {
+ border: solid 1px #aaaaff;
+ background: #f0f0ff;
+}
+
+.tableblock th {
+ background: #e0e0e0;
+}
+
+.tableblock th,
+.tableblock td {
+ padding: 3px;
+ padding-left: 5px;
+ padding-right: 5px;
+}
+
+.sidebarblock {
+ margin-top: 0.25em;
+ margin: 1em;
+ border: solid 1px #ccccbb;
+ padding: 8px;
+ background: #ffffe0;
+}
+
+.sidebarblock .sidebar-title {
+ font-size: 140%;
+ font-weight: 600;
+ margin-bottom: 0.3em;
+}
+
+.sidebarblock .sidebar-content > .para:last-child > p {
+ margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+.sidebarblock .sidebar-title a {
+ text-decoration: none;
+}
+
+.sidebarblock .sidebar-title a:hover {
+ text-decoration: underline;
+}
+
+ </style>
+</head>
+<body>
+ <div id="header" >
+ <div id="logo">
+ <a href="index.html" title="Ruby on Rails"><img src="images/rails_logo_remix.gif" alt="Rails" height="140" width="110" /></a>
+ </div>
+
+ <h1 id="site_title"><span>Ruby on Rails</span></h1>
+ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application development</h2>
+
+ <ul id="navMain">
+ <li class="first-child"><a href="http://www.rubyonrails.org/" title="Ruby on Rails" class="ruby_on_rails">Ruby on Rails</a></li>
+ <li><a class="manuals" href="index.html" title="Manuals Index">Guides Index</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </div>
+
+ <div id="container">
+
+ <div id="sidebar">
+ <h2>Chapters</h2>
+ <ol>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_command_line_basics">Command Line Basics</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_rails">rails</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_server">server</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_generate">generate</a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ </ol>
+ </div>
+
+ <div id="content">
+ <h1>A Guide to The Rails Command Line</h1>
+ <div id="preamble">
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>Rails comes with every command line tool you'll need to</p></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+Create a Rails application
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Generate models, controllers, database migrations, and unit tests
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Start a development server
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Mess with objects through an interactive shell
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+Profile and benchmark your new creation
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="para"><p>&#8230; and much, much more! (Buy now!)</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>This tutorial assumes you have basic Rails knowledge from reading the Getting Started with Rails Guide.</p></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<h2 id="_command_line_basics">1. Command Line Basics</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>There are a few commands that are absolutely critical to your everyday usage of Rails. In the order of how much you'll probably use them are:</p></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+console
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+server
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+rake
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+generate
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+rails
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Let's create a simple Rails application to step through each of these commands in context.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_rails">1.1. rails</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>The first thing we'll want to do is create a new Rails application by running the <tt>rails</tt> command after installing Rails.</p></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">You know you need the rails gem installed by typing <tt>gem install rails</tt> first, right? Okay, okay, just making sure.</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>$ rails commandsapp
+
+ create
+ create app/controllers
+ create app/helpers
+ create app/models
+ <span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+ create log/production<span style="color: #990000">.</span>log
+ create log/development<span style="color: #990000">.</span>log
+ create log/test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>log
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Rails will set you up with what seems like a huge amount of stuff for such a tiny command! You've got the entire Rails directory structure now with all the code you need to run our simple application right out of the box.</p></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">This output will seem very familiar when we get to the <tt>generate</tt> command. Creepy foreshadowing!</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<h3 id="_server">1.2. server</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>Let's try it! The <tt>server</tt> command launches a small web server written in Ruby named WEBrick which was also installed when you installed Rails. You'll use this any time you want to view your work through a web browser.</p></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">WEBrick isn't your only option for serving Rails. We'll get to that in a later section. [XXX: which section]</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="para"><p>Here we'll flex our <tt>server</tt> command, which without any prodding of any kind will run our new shiny Rails app:</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>$ cd commandsapp
+$ <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/server
+<span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Booting WEBrick<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Rails <span style="color: #993399">2.2</span><span style="color: #990000">.</span><span style="color: #993399">0</span> application started on http<span style="color: #990000">://</span><span style="color: #993399">0.0</span><span style="color: #990000">.</span><span style="color: #993399">0.0</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">3000</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Ctrl-C to shutdown server<span style="color: #990000">;</span> call with --help <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">for</span></span> options
+<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #993399">2008</span>-<span style="color: #993399">11</span>-<span style="color: #993399">04</span> <span style="color: #993399">10</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">11</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">38</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> INFO WEBrick <span style="color: #993399">1.3</span><span style="color: #990000">.</span><span style="color: #993399">1</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #993399">2008</span>-<span style="color: #993399">11</span>-<span style="color: #993399">04</span> <span style="color: #993399">10</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">11</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">38</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> INFO ruby <span style="color: #993399">1.8</span><span style="color: #990000">.</span><span style="color: #993399">5</span> <span style="color: #990000">(</span><span style="color: #993399">2006</span>-<span style="color: #993399">12</span>-<span style="color: #993399">04</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span>i486-linux<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #993399">2008</span>-<span style="color: #993399">11</span>-<span style="color: #993399">04</span> <span style="color: #993399">10</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">11</span><span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="color: #993399">38</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> INFO WEBrick<span style="color: #990000">::</span>HTTPServer<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900">#start: pid=18994 port=3000</span></span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>WHOA. With just three commands we whipped up a Rails server listening on port 3000. Go! Go right now to your browser and go to <a href="http://localhost:3000">http://localhost:3000</a>. I'll wait.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>See? Cool! It doesn't do much yet, but we'll change that.</p></div>
+<h3 id="_generate">1.3. generate</h3>
+<div class="para"><p>The <tt>generate</tt> command uses templates to create a whole lot of things. You can always find out what's available by running <tt>generate</tt> by itself. Let's do that:</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>$ <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate
+Usage<span style="color: #990000">:</span> <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate generator <span style="color: #990000">[</span>options<span style="color: #990000">]</span> <span style="color: #990000">[</span>args<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
+
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+
+Installed Generators
+ Builtin<span style="color: #990000">:</span> controller<span style="color: #990000">,</span> integration_test<span style="color: #990000">,</span> mailer<span style="color: #990000">,</span> migration<span style="color: #990000">,</span> model<span style="color: #990000">,</span> observer<span style="color: #990000">,</span> performance_test<span style="color: #990000">,</span> plugin<span style="color: #990000">,</span> resource<span style="color: #990000">,</span> scaffold<span style="color: #990000">,</span> session_migration
+
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">You can install more generators through generator gems, portions of plugins you'll undoubtedly install, and you can even create your own!</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="para"><p>Using generators will save you a large amount of time by writing <strong>boilerplate code</strong> for you &#8212; necessary for the darn thing to work, but not necessary for you to spend time writing. That's what we have computers for, right?</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Let's make our own controller with the controller generator. But what command should we use? Let's ask the generator:</p></div>
+<div class="admonitionblock">
+<table><tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
+</td>
+<td class="content">All Rails console utilities have help text. For commands that require a lot of input to run correctly, you can just try the command without any parameters (like <tt>rails</tt> or <tt>./script/generate</tt>). For others, you can try adding <tt>&#8212;help</tt> or <tt>-h</tt> to the end, as in <tt>./script/server &#8212;help</tt>.</td>
+</tr></table>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>$ <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate controller
+Usage<span style="color: #990000">:</span> <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate controller ControllerName <span style="color: #990000">[</span>options<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
+
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+<span style="color: #990000">...</span>
+
+Example<span style="color: #990000">:</span>
+ `<span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate controller CreditCard open debit credit close`
+
+ Credit card controller with URLs like /credit_card/debit<span style="color: #990000">.</span>
+ Controller<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/controllers/credit_card_controller<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ Views<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/views/credit_card/debit<span style="color: #990000">.</span>html<span style="color: #990000">.</span>erb <span style="color: #990000">[...]</span>
+ Helper<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/helpers/credit_card_helper<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ Test<span style="color: #990000">:</span> test/functional/credit_card_controller_test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+
+Modules Example<span style="color: #990000">:</span>
+ `<span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate controller <span style="color: #FF0000">'admin/credit_card'</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">suspend</span></span> late_fee`
+
+ Credit card admin controller with URLs /admin/credit_card/suspend<span style="color: #990000">.</span>
+ Controller<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/controllers/admin/credit_card_controller<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ Views<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/views/admin/credit_card/debit<span style="color: #990000">.</span>html<span style="color: #990000">.</span>erb <span style="color: #990000">[...]</span>
+ Helper<span style="color: #990000">:</span> app/helpers/admin/credit_card_helper<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ Test<span style="color: #990000">:</span> test/functional/admin/credit_card_controller_test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Ah, the controller generator is expecting parameters in the form of <tt>generate controller ControllerName action1 action2</tt>. Let's make a <tt>Greetings</tt> controller with an action of <strong>hello</strong>, which will say something nice to us.</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
+by Lorenzo Bettini
+http://www.lorenzobettini.it
+http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
+<pre><tt>$ <span style="color: #990000">.</span>/script/generate controller Greeting hello
+ exists app/controllers<span style="color: #990000">/</span>
+ exists app/helpers<span style="color: #990000">/</span>
+ create app/views/greeting
+ exists test/functional<span style="color: #990000">/</span>
+ create app/controllers/greetings_controller<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ create test/functional/greetings_controller_test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ create app/helpers/greetings_helper<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+ create app/views/greetings/hello<span style="color: #990000">.</span>html<span style="color: #990000">.</span>erb
+</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Look there! Now what all did this generate? It looks like it made sure a bunch of directories were in our application, and created a controller file, a functional test file, a helper for the view, and a view file. All from one command!</p></div>
+</div>
+
+ </div>
+ </div>
+</body>
+</html>
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+<body>
+ <div id="header" >
+ <div id="logo">
+ <a href="index.html" title="Ruby on Rails"><img src="images/rails_logo_remix.gif" alt="Rails" height="140" width="110" /></a>
+ </div>
+
+ <h1 id="site_title"><span>Ruby on Rails</span></h1>
+ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application development</h2>
+
+ <ul id="navMain">
+ <li class="first-child"><a href="http://www.rubyonrails.org/" title="Ruby on Rails" class="ruby_on_rails">Ruby on Rails</a></li>
+ <li><a class="manuals" href="index.html" title="Manuals Index">Guides Index</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </div>
+
+ <div id="container">
+
+ <div id="sidebar">
+ <h2>Chapters</h2>
+ <ol>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_locations_for_initialization_code">Locations for Initialization Code</a>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_using_a_preinitializer">Using a Preinitializer</a>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_configuring_rails_components">Configuring Rails Components</a>
+ <ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_active_record">Configuring Active Record</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_action_controller">Configuring Action Controller</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_action_view">Configuring Action View</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_action_mailer">Configuring Action Mailer</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_active_resource">Configuring Active Resource</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="#_configuring_active_support">Configuring Active Support</a></li>
+
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_using_initializers">Using Initializers</a>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_using_an_after_initializer">Using an After-Initializer</a>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <a href="#_changelog">Changelog</a>
+ </li>
+ </ol>
+ </div>
+
+ <div id="content">
+ <h1>Configuring Rails Applications</h1>
+ <div id="preamble">
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="para"><p>This guide covers the configuration and initialization features available to Rails applications. By referring to this guide, you will be able to:</p></div>
+<div class="ilist"><ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+Adjust the behavior of your Rails applications