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Reduce allocations when running AR callbacks. #17093

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@phiggins
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phiggins commented Sep 29, 2014

Inspired by @tenderlove's work in c363fff, this reduces the number of strings allocated when running callbacks for ActiveRecord instances. I measured that using this script:

require 'objspace'
require 'active_record'
require 'allocation_tracer'

ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection adapter: "sqlite3",
                                        database: ":memory:"

ActiveRecord::Base.connection.instance_eval do
  create_table(:articles) { |t| t.string :name }
end

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base; end
a = Article.create name: "foo"
a = Article.find a.id

N = 10
result = ObjectSpace::AllocationTracer.trace do
  N.times { Article.find a.id }
end

result.sort.each do |k,v|
  p k => v
end
puts "total: #{result.values.map(&:first).inject(:+)}"

When I run this against master and this branch I get this output:

pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ git checkout master
M Gemfile
Switched to branch 'master'
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ bundle exec ruby benchmark_allocation_with_callback_send.rb > allocations_before
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ git checkout remove-dynamic-send-on-built-in-callbacks
M Gemfile
Switched to branch 'remove-dynamic-send-on-built-in-callbacks'
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ bundle exec ruby benchmark_allocation_with_callback_send.rb > allocations_after
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ diff allocations_before allocations_after
39d38
<
{["/home/pete/projects/rails/activesupport/lib/active_support/callbacks.rb",
81]=>[40, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]}
42c41
< total: 630

---
> total: 590

In addition to this, there are two micro-optimizations present:

  • Using block.call if block vs yield if block_given? when the block was being captured already.
pete@balloon:~/projects$ cat benchmark_block_call_vs_yield.rb
require 'benchmark/ips'

def block_capture_with_yield &block
  yield if block_given?
end

def block_capture_with_call &block
  block.call if block
end

def no_block_capture
  yield if block_given?
end

Benchmark.ips do |b|
  b.report("block_capture_with_yield") { block_capture_with_yield }
  b.report("block_capture_with_call") { block_capture_with_call }
  b.report("no_block_capture") { no_block_capture }
end
pete@balloon:~/projects$ ruby benchmark_block_call_vs_yield.rb
Calculating -------------------------------------
block_capture_with_yield
                        124979 i/100ms
block_capture_with_call
                        138340 i/100ms
    no_block_capture    136827 i/100ms
-------------------------------------------------
block_capture_with_yield
                      5703108.9 (±2.4%) i/s -   28495212 in   4.999368s
block_capture_with_call
                      6840730.5 (±3.6%) i/s -   34169980 in   5.002649s
    no_block_capture  5821141.4 (±2.8%) i/s -   29144151 in   5.010580s
  • Defining and calling methods instead of using send.
pete@balloon:~/projects$ cat benchmark_method_call_vs_send.rb
require 'benchmark/ips'

class Foo
  def tacos
    nil
  end
end

my_foo = Foo.new

Benchmark.ips do |b|
  b.report('send') { my_foo.send('tacos') }
  b.report('call') { my_foo.tacos }
end
pete@balloon:~/projects$ ruby benchmark_method_call_vs_send.rb
Calculating -------------------------------------
                send     97736 i/100ms
                call    151142 i/100ms
-------------------------------------------------
                send  2683730.3 (±2.8%) i/s -   13487568 in   5.029763s
                call  8005963.9 (±2.7%) i/s -   40052630 in   5.006604s

The result of this is making typical ActiveRecord operations slightly faster:

https://gist.github.com/phiggins/e46e51dcc7edb45b5f98

Inspired by @tenderlove's work in
c363fff, this reduces the number of
strings allocated when running callbacks for ActiveRecord instances. I
measured that using this script:

```
require 'objspace'
require 'active_record'
require 'allocation_tracer'

ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection adapter: "sqlite3",
                                        database: ":memory:"

ActiveRecord::Base.connection.instance_eval do
  create_table(:articles) { |t| t.string :name }
end

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base; end
a = Article.create name: "foo"
a = Article.find a.id

N = 10
result = ObjectSpace::AllocationTracer.trace do
  N.times { Article.find a.id }
end

result.sort.each do |k,v|
  p k => v
end
puts "total: #{result.values.map(&:first).inject(:+)}"
```

When I run this against master and this branch I get this output:

```
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ git checkout master
M Gemfile
Switched to branch 'master'
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ bundle exec ruby benchmark_allocation_with_callback_send.rb > allocations_before
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ git checkout remove-dynamic-send-on-built-in-callbacks
M Gemfile
Switched to branch 'remove-dynamic-send-on-built-in-callbacks'
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ bundle exec ruby benchmark_allocation_with_callback_send.rb > allocations_after
pete@balloon:~/projects/rails/activerecord$ diff allocations_before allocations_after
39d38
<
{["/home/pete/projects/rails/activesupport/lib/active_support/callbacks.rb",
81]=>[40, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]}
42c41
< total: 630
---
> total: 590

```

In addition to this, there are two micro-optimizations present:

* Using `block.call if block` vs `yield if block_given?` when the block was being captured already.

```
pete@balloon:~/projects$ cat benchmark_block_call_vs_yield.rb
require 'benchmark/ips'

def block_capture_with_yield &block
  yield if block_given?
end

def block_capture_with_call &block
  block.call if block
end

def no_block_capture
  yield if block_given?
end

Benchmark.ips do |b|
  b.report("block_capture_with_yield") { block_capture_with_yield }
  b.report("block_capture_with_call") { block_capture_with_call }
  b.report("no_block_capture") { no_block_capture }
end
pete@balloon:~/projects$ ruby benchmark_block_call_vs_yield.rb
Calculating -------------------------------------
block_capture_with_yield
                        124979 i/100ms
block_capture_with_call
                        138340 i/100ms
    no_block_capture    136827 i/100ms
-------------------------------------------------
block_capture_with_yield
                      5703108.9 (±2.4%) i/s -   28495212 in   4.999368s
block_capture_with_call
                      6840730.5 (±3.6%) i/s -   34169980 in   5.002649s
    no_block_capture  5821141.4 (±2.8%) i/s -   29144151 in   5.010580s
```

* Defining and calling methods instead of using send.

```
pete@balloon:~/projects$ cat benchmark_method_call_vs_send.rb
require 'benchmark/ips'

class Foo
  def tacos
    nil
  end
end

my_foo = Foo.new

Benchmark.ips do |b|
  b.report('send') { my_foo.send('tacos') }
  b.report('call') { my_foo.tacos }
end
pete@balloon:~/projects$ ruby benchmark_method_call_vs_send.rb
Calculating -------------------------------------
                send     97736 i/100ms
                call    151142 i/100ms
-------------------------------------------------
                send  2683730.3 (±2.8%) i/s -   13487568 in   5.029763s
                call  8005963.9 (±2.7%) i/s -   40052630 in   5.006604s
```

The result of this is making typical ActiveRecord operations slightly faster:

https://gist.github.com/phiggins/e46e51dcc7edb45b5f98
@rafaelfranca

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rafaelfranca commented Sep 29, 2014

tenderlove added a commit that referenced this pull request Sep 29, 2014
…in-callbacks

Reduce allocations when running AR callbacks.
@tenderlove tenderlove merged commit a455e3f into rails:master Sep 29, 2014
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@phiggins phiggins deleted the phiggins:remove-dynamic-send-on-built-in-callbacks branch Oct 21, 2014
@@ -722,6 +725,12 @@ def define_callbacks(*names)
names.each do |name|
class_attribute "_#{name}_callbacks"
set_callbacks name, CallbackChain.new(name, options)

module_eval <<-RUBY, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1
def run_#{name}_callbacks(&block)

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@huoxito

huoxito Oct 23, 2014

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curious is this intended to be public api?

it might cause stack level too deep errors for applications upgrading to rails 4-2 with ar callbacks named similarly. e.g. run_touch_callbacks

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@rafaelfranca

rafaelfranca Oct 25, 2014

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No. I think we can safely rename it to _run_touch_callbacks

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rafaelfranca Oct 25, 2014

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I'll do it.

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