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Copyright (C) 2001-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
See the end of the file for license conditions.

This directory contains Calc, an advanced desk calculator for GNU

"Calc"  Copyright (C) 1990-1993, 2001-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Written by:
	Dave Gillespie
	c/o Synaptics, Inc.
	2698 Orchard Parkway
	San Jose CA 95134, uunet!synaptx!daveg

Currently maintained by:
     Jay Belanger <>

From the introduction to the manual:

  "Calc" is an advanced calculator and mathematical tool that runs as
  part of the GNU Emacs environment.  Very roughly based on the HP-28/48
  series of calculators, its many features include:

    * Choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry of calculations.

    * Arbitrary precision integers and floating-point numbers.

    * Arithmetic on rational numbers, complex numbers (rectangular and
      polar), error forms with standard deviations, open and closed
      intervals, vectors and matrices, dates and times, infinities,
      sets, quantities with units, and algebraic formulas.

    * Mathematical operations such as logarithms and trigonometric functions.

    * Programmer's features (bitwise operations, non-decimal numbers).

    * Financial functions such as future value and internal rate of return.

    * Number theoretical features such as prime factorization and
      arithmetic modulo M for any M.

    * Algebraic manipulation features, including symbolic calculus.

    * Moving data to and from regular editing buffers.

    * "Embedded mode" for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly
      inside any editing buffer.

    * Graphics using GNUPLOT, a versatile (and free) plotting program.

    * Easy programming using keyboard macros, algebraic formulas,
      algebraic rewrite rules, or extended Emacs Lisp.

Calc is written entirely in Emacs Lisp, for maximum portability.

I am anxious to hear about your experiences using Calc.  Send mail to
"".  A bug report is most useful if you include the
exact input and output that occurred, any modes in effect (such as the
current precision), and so on.  If you find Calc is difficult to operate
in any way, or if you have other suggestions, don't hesitate to let me
know.  If you find errors (including simple typos) in the manual, let
me know.  Even if you find no bugs at all I would love to hear your

Summary of changes to "Calc"
------- -- ------- --  ----

Emacs 24.3

Algebraic simplification mode is now the default.
To restrict to the limited simplifications given by the former
default simplification mode, use `m I'.

Emacs 24.1

* Support for musical notes added.

* Support for logarithmic units added.

* Calc no longer uses the tex prefix for TeX specific unit 
names when using TeX or LaTeX mode.

* Added option to highlight selections using faces.

* Gave `calc-histogram' the option of using a vector to determine the bins.

* Added "O" option prefix.

* Used "O" prefix to "d r" (`calc-radix') to turn on twos-complement mode.

Emacs 23.2

* Added twos-complement display.

Emacs 23.1:

* Gave `j *' (cal-sel-mult-both-sides) an option to expand the

* Use `calc-embedded-word-regexp' for finding words in
  `calc-embedded-word' in place of delimiters.

* Remove version numbering; use Emacs version for reference.

* Added support for using registers.

* Added support for Yacas, Maxima and Giac languages.

* Added a menu.

* Added logistic non-linear curves to curve-fitting.

* Added option of plotting data points and curve when curve-fitting.

* Made unit conversions exact when possible.

* Lowered the precedence of negation.

Version 2.1:

* New matrix mode for square matrices.  Improved handling of
  non-commutative products.

* New functions: powerexpand and ldiv.

* Added new functions: sec, csc, cot, sech, csch, coth.

* 0^0 now evaluates to 1.

* Added a new language mode for LaTeX.

* Calc now tries to use an appropriate language mode in embedded mode.

* Calc now restores original modes when leaving embedded mode.

* User settable variables which are not set with keystrokes are now

* Made ~/.calc.el the default Calc settings file.

* Miscellaneous updates and bugfixes.

Version 2.02f:

 * Fixed a bug which broke `I', `H', `K' prefix keys in recent Emacs.

 * Fixed a bug in calc.texinfo which prevented "make tex2" from working.

 * Updated `C-y' (calc-yank) to understand Emacs 19 generalized kill ring.

 * Added a copy of "calccard.tex", the Calc quick reference card.

Version 2.02e:

 * Fixed an installation bug caused by recent changes to `write-region'.

Version 2.02d:

 * Fixed a minor installation problem with a Emacs 19.29 byte-compiler bug.

 * Removed archaic "macedit" package (superseded by "edmacro").

Version 2.02c:

 * Patch to port Calc to Lucid Emacs 19; still works with GNU 18 and GNU 19.

 * Fixed a bug that broke `C-x C-c' after Calc graphics had been used.

Version 2.02b:

 * Minor patch to port Calc to GNU Emacs 19.  Will be superseded by Calc 3.00.

Version 2.02:

 * Revamped the manual a bit; rearranged some sections.

 * Added marginal notes for Key/Function Index refs in printed manual.

 * Changed `M-# r' to deal more gracefully with blank lines.

 * Made reductions like `V R +' and `M-# :' considerably faster.

 * Improved parsing and display of cases like "[a + b]".

 * Added `t +' and `t -' for doing business date arithmetic.

 * Added "syntax tables," the opposite of compositions.

 * Added another Rewrites Tutorial exercise.

 * Added the "vmatches" function.

 * Added the `Modes' variable and `m g' command.

 * Improved `u s' to cancel, e.g., "11 mph hr / yd" to get a number.

 * Added "quick units" commands "u 0" through "u 9".

 * Moved `M-%' to calc.el to avoid autoloading problems.

 * Added `M-=' during algebraic entry, acts like `RET ='.

 * Made `LFD' prevent evaluation when finishing a calc-edit command.

 * Changed calc-store commands to use `t .' mode for trail display.

 * Improved integrator to understand forms involving "erf".

 * Fixed parser to make sense of "[1....1e2]" input.

 * Fixed FORTRAN parser to treat a(i,j) as a_i_j if a is declared matrix.

 * Got rid of some version number stamps to reduce size of patches.

 * Fixed a bug in defmath treating "<=" and ">=" predicates.

 * Fixed a bug in which Calc crashed multiplying two date forms.

 * Fixed a bug in line breaker that crashed for large, nested formulas.

 * Fixed a bug using ` to edit string("foo").

 * Fixed a bug where `M-# y' in Big mode copied stack level number.

 * Fixed a bug where `g O' used wrong default directory, no completion.

 * Fixed a bug where "foo_bar(i)" parsed in C mode but showed as foo#bar.

 * Fixed several bugs where large calculations got "computation too long."

Version 2.01:

 * Added percentage commands `M-%', `b %', and `c %'.

 * Changed Big mode to force radix-10 in superscripts.

 * Improved display of fractions in various language modes.

 * Changed `a n' to work properly with equations and inequalities.

 * The problem with cross references to Index nodes in TeX has been fixed.

 * Fixed a bug where recursive esc-maps make calc-ext/-aent unloadable.

 * Fixed a bug in `M-# k', then `OFF' right away, with fresh Emacs.

 * Fixed a bug in which "S_i_j" was formatted wrong after `j s'.

 * Fixed a bug in which `h k u c' positioned cursor on wrong line.

 * Fixed a bug where `z ?' crashed if `z %' was defined.

 * Fixed a bug in `j O' (calc-select-once-maybe).

 * Fixed "make private" not to ask "Delete excess versions" and crash.

Version 2.00:

 * First complete posting of Calc since 1.01.

 * Most parts of Calc have seen changes since version 1.07.  See
   section "New for Calc 2.00" in the manual for a summary.  In
   the FTP version of the Calc distribution, the file README.prev
   contains a detailed change history from 1.00 up to 2.00.

This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <>.
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