Skip to content
Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?
Go to file
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
# This pod file is used in Debian to generate C<raku> man page when
# building C<rakudo> package. At that stage only Perl5 C<pod2man>
# program is available. So this file must follow Perl5's pod syntax.
# See
# for more information.
=head1 NAME
raku - Rakudo Raku Compiler
=encoding UTF-8
raku [switches] [--] [programfile] [arguments]
With no arguments, enters a REPL. With a C<[programfile]> or the C<-e>
option, compiles the given program and by default also executes the
compiled code.
-c check syntax only (runs BEGIN and CHECK blocks)
--doc extract documentation and print it as text
-e program one line of program, strict is enabled by default
-h, --help display this help text
-n run program once for each line of input
-p same as -n, but also print $_ at the end of lines
-I path adds the path to the module search path
-M module loads the module prior to running the program
--target=[stage] specify compilation stage to emit
--optimize=[level] use the given level of optimization (0..3)
--encoding=[mode] specify string encoding mode
-o, --output=[name] specify name of output file
-v, --version display version information
--stagestats display time spent in the compilation stages
--ll-exception display a low level backtrace on errors
--profile write profile information as HTML file (MoarVM)
--profile-filename provide a different filename (also allows .json)
--doc=[module] Use Pod::To::[module] to render inline documentation.
--full-cleanup try to free all memory and exit cleanly (MoarVM)
--debug-port=port listen for incoming debugger connections (MoarVM)
--debug-suspend pause execution at the entry point (MoarVM)
--tracing output a line to stderr on every interpreter instr (only
if enabled in MoarVM)
Note that only boolean single-letter options may be bundled.
The supported values for C<--target> are:
Target Backend Description
====== ======= ===========
parse all a representation of the parse tree
ast all an abstract syntax tree (before optimizations)
optimize all an abstract syntax tree (after optimizations)
mbc MoarVM MoarVM byte code
jar JVM JVM archive
For C<--profile-filename>, specifying a name ending in C<.json> will write a raw
JSON profile dump. The default if this is omitted is C<profile-I<[timestamp]>.html>.
Rakudo's behavior can be tweaked by a (growing) number of environment variables;
this section attempts to document all those currently in use. They are
interpreter specific in all cases, except where some use conventional names
such as C<PATH>.
The underlying virtual machine is also sensitive to a series of environment
variables; they are listed L<in this wiki
=head2 Module loading
=item C<RAKUDOLIB>, C<RAKULIB> (I<Str>; F<src/core/>)
C<RAKUDOLIB> and C<RAKULIB> append a comma-delimited list of paths to the
search list for modules. C<RAKUDOLIB> is evaluated first. B<NOTE:> These env
vars were added in the Rakudo compiler in version 2020.05. The deprecated older
env var C<PERL6LIB> is still available.
=item C<RAKUDO_MODULE_DEBUG> (I<Bool>; F<src/Perl6/ModuleLoader.nqp>)
If true, causes the module loader to print debugging information to standard
=head2 Error message verbosity and strictness
If present, the C<print_exception> routine
will use a class of that name to process the exception for output. Rakudo
currently ships with C<Exceptions::JSON> (invoked by setting this variable to
C<JSON>), to override the default output. B<NOTE:> This env var was added in
version 6.e. Early implementation has been available in Rakudo compiler
as of version 2019.12, and before that it was available as
=item C<RAKUDO_NO_DEPRECATIONS> (I<Bool>; F<src/core.c/Deprecations.pm6>)
If true, suppresses deprecation warnings triggered by the C<is DEPRECATED>
=item C<RAKUDO_DEPRECATIONS_FATAL> (I<Bool>; F<src/core.c/Deprecations.pm6>)
If true, deprecation warnings become thrown exceptions.
=item C<RAKUDO_VERBOSE_STACKFRAME> (I<UInt>; F<src/core.c/Backtrace.pm6>)
Displays source code in stack frames surrounded by the specified number of
lines of context; for instance C<RAKUDO_VERBOSE_STACKFRAME = 1> will use one
context line.
=item C<RAKUDO_BACKTRACE_SETTING> (I<Bool>; F<src/core.c/Backtrace.pm6>)
Controls whether C<.setting> files are included in backtraces.
=head2 Affecting precompilation
=item C<RAKUDO_PREFIX> (I<Str>; F<src/core.c/CompUnit/RepositoryRegistry.pm6>)
When this is set, Rakudo will look for the standard repositories (perl, vendor,
site) in the specified directory. This is intended as an escape hatch for
build-time bootstrapping issues, where Rakudo may be built as an unprivileged
user without write access to the runtime paths in NQP's config.
=item C<RAKUDO_PRECOMP_DIST> (F<src/core.c/CompUnit/PrecompilationRepository.pm6>)
=item C<RAKUDO_PRECOMP_LOADING> (F<src/core.c/CompUnit/PrecompilationRepository.pm6>)
=item C<RAKUDO_PRECOMP_WITH> (F<src/core.c/CompUnit/PrecompilationRepository.pm6>)
These are internal variables for passing serialized state to precompilation jobs
in child processes. Please do not set them manually.
If set to 1, diagnostic information about the precompilation process is
=head2 Line editor
This specifies the preferred line editor to use; valid values are C<Readline>,
C<Linenoise>, C<LineEditor>, and C<none>. A value of C<none> is useful if you
want to avoid the recommendation message upon REPL startup.
If set to 1, will disable multiline input for the REPL.
This specifies the location of the history file used by the line editor; the
default is C<~/.raku/rakudo-history>. Before Rakudo version 2020.02 the
default was C<~/.perl6/rakudo-history>. If the older default file exists and
the newer one does not, it will be automatically migrated.
=head2 Other
This specifies the default number of characters to read on an
L«C<IO::Handle>|/type/IO::Handle» by setting the
L«C<$*DEFAULT-READ-ELEMS>|/language/variables#$*DEFAULT-READ-ELEMS» dynamic
=item C<RAKUDO_ERROR_COLOR> (I<Bool>; F<src/core.c/Exception.pm6>)
Controls whether to emit ANSI codes for error highlighting. Defaults to true
if unset, except on Windows.
=item C<RAKUDO_MAX_THREADS> (I<UInt>; F<src/core.c/ThreadPoolScheduler.pm6>)
Indicates the maximum number of threads used by default when creating a
C<ThreadPoolScheduler>. Defaults to 64.
=item C<TMPDIR>, C<TEMP>, C<TMP> (I<Str>; F<src/core.c/IO/Spec/>)
The C<IO::Spec::Unix.tmpdir> method will return C<$TMPDIR> if it points to a
directory with full access permissions for the current user, with a fallback
default of C<'/tmp'>.
C<IO::Spec::Cygwin> and C<IO::Spec::Win32> use more Windows-appropriate lists
which also include the C<%TEMP%> and C<%TMP%> environment variables.
=item C<PATH>, C<Path> (I<Str>; F<src/core.c/IO/Spec/>)
The C<IO::Spec::Unix.path> method splits C<$PATH> as a
shell would; i.e. as a colon-separated list. C<IO::Spec::Cygwin> inherits this
from C<IO::Spec::Unix>. C<IO::Spec::Win32.path> will read the first defined of
either C<%PATH%> or C<%Path%> as a semicolon-delimited list.
Indicates the period in which the telemetry snapper will take a snapshot.
Defaults to .1 for 10 snapshots per second.
Allows to override the Raku installation path. Defaults to
C<[rakudo_executable_dir]/../share/perl6> in relocatable builds and the
absolute path to that folder in non-relocatable builds.
=item C<NQP_HOME>
Allows to override the NQP installation path. Defaults to
C<[rakudo_executable_dir]/../share/nqp> in relocatable builds and the absolute
path to that folder in non-relocatable builds.
=head2 Non-console applications
On Windows programs are compiled to either be I<console> applications or
I<non-console> applications. I<Console> applications always open a console
window. There is no straightforward way to suppress this window.
Rakudo provides a separate set of executables suffixed with a C<'w'>
(C<rakuw.exe>, C<rakudow.exe>, ...) that are compiled as I<non-console>
applications. These do not spawn this console window.
B<WARNING> By default these I<non-console> applications will silently swallow
everything that is printed to C<STDOUT> and C<STDERR>.
To receive the output of the program it suffices to redirect it externally:
rakuw.exe script.raku >stdout.txt 2>stderr.txt
=head1 AUTHORS
Written by the Rakudo contributors, see the CREDITS file.
This manual page was written by Reini Urban, Moritz Lenz and the Rakudo
# vim: expandtab softtabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 ft=perl6