Pattern matching in JavaScript
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README.md

Pattern matching in JavaScript

Installation

npm install --save patjs
bower install --save pat

Getting Started

var pat = require("patjs");
var pow = pat()
  .caseof(Number, 0, function() { return 1; })
  .caseof(Number, Number, function(x, y) { 
    return x * pow(x, y - 1 ); 
  });

expect(pow(3, 2)).to.eql(9);

Dependencies

Lo-Dash

(Underscore might work also, but I haven't tested it)

Create a function which uses pat

Syntax 1: Give function as a parameter to pat

var one = function(n) { return n + " is one"; };
var notOne = function(n) { return n + " is not one"; };

var isOne = pat(notOne)
  .caseof(1, one);

expect(isOne(0)).to.eql("0 is not one");
expect(isOne(1)).to.eql("1 is one");

Syntax 2: Otherwise

var one = function(n) { return n + " is one"; };
var notOne = function(n) { return n + " is not one"; };

var isOne = pat()
  .caseof(1, one)
  .otherwise(notOne)

expect(isOne(0)).to.eql("0 is not one");
expect(isOne(1)).to.eql("1 is one");

Match against primitive values

Numbers

var one = function(n) { return n + " is one"; };
var notOne = function(n) { return n + " is not one"; };

var isOne = pat()
  .caseof(1, one)
  .otherwise(notOne)

expect(isOne(0)).to.eql("0 is not one");
expect(isOne(1)).to.eql("1 is one");

Strings

var two = function(str) { return str + " is 2"; };
var notTwo = function(str) { return str + " is not 2"; };

var isTwo = pat()
  .caseof("two", two)
  .otherwise(notTwo)

expect(isTwo("one")).to.eql("one is not 2");
expect(isTwo("two")).to.eql("two is 2");

Booleans

var theTrue = function(bool) { return bool + " is the truth"; };
var theFalse = function(bool) { return bool + " is not the truth"; };

var isTheTruth = pat()
  .caseof(true, theTrue)
  .otherwise(theFalse)

expect(isTheTruth(true)).to.eql("true is the truth");
expect(isTheTruth(false)).to.eql("false is not the truth");

Match against arrays and objects

Arrays

var arrayOneTwoThree = function(arr) { return "got array 1, 2, 3"; };
var somethingElse = function(x) { return "I don't regocnize " + x.join(", "); };

var isOneTwoThreeArray = pat()
  .caseof([1, 2, 3], arrayOneTwoThree)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(isOneTwoThreeArray([1, 1, 1])).to.eql("I don't regocnize 1, 1, 1");
expect(isOneTwoThreeArray([1, 2, 3])).to.eql("got array 1, 2, 3");

Nested arrays

var matched = function(arr) { return "got points (1, 2), (3, 4)"; };
var somethingElse = function(x) { return "I don't regocnize " + x.join(", "); };

var isPoints2D = pat()
  .caseof([[1, 2], [3, 4]], matched)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(isPoints2D([[1, 1], [2, 2]])).to.eql("I don't regocnize 1,1, 2,2");
expect(isPoints2D([[1, 2], [3, 4]])).to.eql("got points (1, 2), (3, 4)");

Objects

var fullName = function(person) { 
  return [person.firstName, person.lastName].join(" ");
};
var somethingElse = function(person) { 
  return ["I don't regocnize", person.firstName, person.lastName].join(" "); 
};

var printMikko = pat()
  .caseof({firstName: "Mikko", lastName: "Koski"}, fullName)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(printMikko({firstName: "John", lastName: "Doe"})).to.eql("I don't regocnize John Doe");
expect(printMikko({firstName: "Mikko", lastName: "Koski"})).to.eql("Mikko Koski");

Matcher function

var fullName = function(person) { 
  return [person.firstName, person.lastName].join(" ");
};
var somethingElse = function() { 
  return "Invalid person object";
};

function isPerson(obj) {
  var person = obj || {};
  return person.firstName && person.lastName;
}

var printAnyName = pat()
  .caseof(isPerson, fullName)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(printAnyName({firstName: "Mikko"})).to.eql("Invalid person object");
expect(printAnyName({firstName: "John", lastName: "Doe"})).to.eql("John Doe");

Match against types

Use constructor functions Number, String, Boolean, Array and Object to match against function argument types

var number = function(x) { return x + " is a number!" };
var somethingElse = function(x) { return x + " is not a number" };

var isNumber = pat()
  .caseof(Number, number)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(isNumber("hello")).to.eql("hello is not a number");
expect(isNumber(5)).to.eql("5 is a number!");

Multiple arguments

The caseof function can take any number of arguments.

var sum = function(a, b, c) { return a + b + c };
var somethingElse = function() { return "Invalid arguments" };

var sum3 = pat()
  .caseof(Number, Number, Number, sum)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(sum3(1, 2)).to.eql("Invalid arguments");
expect(sum3(1, 2, 3)).to.eql(6);

Multiple cases

You can have any number of caseofs.

var sumNumbers = function(a, b) { return a + b; };
var sumStrings = function(a, b) { return Number(a) + Number(b); };
var somethingElse = function() { return "Invalid arguments" };

var sum = pat()
  .caseof(Number, Number, sumNumbers)
  .caseof(String, String, sumStrings)
  .otherwise(somethingElse);

expect(sum(1, 2)).to.eql(3);
expect(sum("2", "3")).to.eql(5);

Throws, if no match

var sum2 = function(a, b) { return a + b; };

var sum = pat()
  .caseof(Number, Number, sum2);

expect(sum(3, 4)).to.eql(7);
expect(function() { sum(1); }).to.throwException();

Any

pat._ matches to anything.

var print = function(a, _) { return "got number " + a + " and " + typeof _; };

var fn = pat()
  .caseof(Number, pat._, print)

expect(fn(3, 4)).to.eql("got number 3 and number");
expect(fn(1, true)).to.eql("got number 1 and boolean");
expect(function() { fn(2); }).to.throwException("throws");

No arguments

var noArguments = function() { return "Great! No arguments!"; };

var fn = pat()
  .caseof(noArguments)

expect(fn()).to.eql("Great! No arguments!");
expect(function() { fn(1); }).to.throwException("throws");

Rest

pat.rest() matches to all the rest arguments and packs them to an array.

var print = function(a, b, rest) { return "Got " + a + ", " + b + " and [" + rest.join(", ") + "]"; };

var fn = pat()
  .caseof(Number, Number, pat.rest(), print)

expect(fn(1, 2, 3, 4, "five")).to.eql("Got 1, 2 and [3, 4, five]");
expect(function() { fn(1); }).to.throwException("throws");

Rest with type

pat.rest() can take type as an argument.

var print = function(a, b, rest) { return "Got " + a + ", " + b + " and [" + rest.join(", ") + "]"; };

var fn = pat()
  .caseof(Number, Number, pat.rest(Number), print)

expect(fn(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)).to.eql("Got 1, 2 and [3, 4, 5]");
expect(function() { fn(1, 2, 3, 4, "five"); }).to.throwException();

All at once

var print = function(nums) { return "Sum " + nums.join(" + ") + " is even" };

function sumEven(args) {
  var sum = args.reduce(function(a, b) { return a + b; });
  return sum % 2 === 0;
}

var fn = pat().caseof(pat.all(sumEven), print)

expect(fn(1, 2, 3, 4)).to.eql("Sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 is even");
expect(function() { fn(1, 2, 3, 4, 5); }).to.throwException("throws");

Matcher functions can modify the arguments

var head = function(arr) {
  if(Array.isArray(arr)) {
    return pat.val(arr[0]);
  } else {
    return false;
  }
};

var print = function(x) { return "Head of an array is " + x};

var printFirst = pat()
  .caseof(head, print);

expect(printFirst([1, 2, 3, 4])).to.eql("Head of an array is 1");

Nested patters

Use array syntax [] for nested patterns. With nested patterns you can match against an array and take its head and rest of it (like x :: xs).

var max = pat()
  .caseof([], function() { throw "maximum of an empty array" })
  .caseof([Number], function(x) { return x; })
  .caseof([Number, pat.rest()], function(x, xs) { 
    var maxXs = max(xs);
    return x > maxXs ? x : maxXs;
  });

expect(max([1, 6, 4, 5, 7, 91, 53, 73])).to.eql(91)

Examples

See examples/

Before you run the examples, remember to install the dependencies with npm install or bower install.

Project values (!!1)

Every project has to have some hard-core values, here's mine:

  • Clean and easy api
  • 100% test coverage
  • Spread the joy of Functional Programming in JavaScript

Contributing

  1. Fork
  2. Add a unit test
  3. Add an example to README
  4. Lint
  5. Open a pull request

Inspiration

License

Copyright (c) 2013 Mikko Koski
Licensed under the MIT license.