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[
{
"date": "1915",
"description": "WWI: The battleship HMS ''Formidable'' is sunk off Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, by a German U-Boat.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "HMS ''Formidable''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Formidable_(1898)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Lyme Regis",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyme_Regis"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Dorset",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorset"
},
{
"text_in_event": "England",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "U-Boat",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-Boat"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/01/31",
"description": "WWI: Germany's first large-scale use of poison gas as a weapon occurs when 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas are fired on the Imperial Russian Army on the Rawka River west of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov however, freezing temperatures prevent it being effective.{{cite web|last=Heller|first=Charles E.|month=September|year=1984|url=<a href=\"http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/resources/csi/Heller/HELLER.asp|title=Chemical\">http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/resources/csi/Heller/HELLER.asp|title=Chemical<\/a> Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918|publisher=Combat Studies Institute|series=Leaveanworth Papers, 10|accessdate=2012-08-24}}",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "poison gas",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_weapons_in_World_War_I"
},
{
"text_in_event": "artillery",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/artillery"
},
{
"text_in_event": "xylyl bromide",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/xylyl_bromide"
},
{
"text_in_event": "tear gas",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/tear_gas"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Imperial Russian Army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Russian_Army"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Rawka River",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rawka_River"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Warsaw",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Bolimov",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bolimov"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/03/03",
"description": "WWI: Off the coast of Chile, the Royal Navy force SMS ''Dresden'' to scuttle.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Chile",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chile"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Royal Navy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Navy"
},
{
"text_in_event": "SMS ''Dresden''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Dresden_(1907)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/03/18",
"description": "WWI: A British attack on the Dardanelles fails.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "British",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Dardanelles",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dardanelles"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/04/22",
"description": "WWI: Start of Second Battle of Ypres. First use of poison gas on the western Front.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Second Battle of Ypres",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Ypres"
},
{
"text_in_event": "poison gas",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chemical_weapons"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/04/25",
"description": "WWI: Start of the Gallipoli Campaign (lasting until January 1916): Landing at Anzac Cove by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps and landing at Cape Helles by British and French troops to begin the Allied invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Gallipoli Campaign",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Landing at Anzac Cove",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landing_at_Anzac_Cove"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Australian and New Zealand Army Corps",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_and_New_Zealand_Army_Corps"
},
{
"text_in_event": "landing at Cape Helles",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/landing_at_Cape_Helles"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Gallipoli",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ottoman Empire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/05/05",
"description": "WWI: The Turks begin shelling Anzac Cove from a new position behind their lines.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "The Turks",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Anzac Cove",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anzac_Cove"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/05/07",
"description": "WWI: The RMS ''Lusitania'' is sunk by a German U-boat, killing 1,198.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "RMS ''Lusitania'' is sunk",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinking_of_the_RMS_Lusitania"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "U-Boat",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-Boat"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/05/09",
"description": "WWI ampndash Second Battle of Artois: German and French forces fight to a standstill.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Second Battle of Artois",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Artois"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "French",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Third_Republic"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/05/24",
"description": "WWI: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Italy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Italy_(1861–1946)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Allies",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_WWI"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Austria-Hungary",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/08/06",
"description": "WWI ampndash Battle of Sari Bair: The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Sari Bair",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sari_Bair"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Allies",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Suvla Bay",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suvla_Bay"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/09/08",
"description": "WWI: A Zeppelin raid destroys No.61 Farringdon Road, London. It Is rebuilt in 1917 and called The Zeppelin Building.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Zeppelin",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeppelin"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Farringdon Road",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farringdon_Road"
},
{
"text_in_event": "London",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London"
},
{
"text_in_event": "1917",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1917"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/09/25",
"description": "October 14 ampndash WWI: Battle of Loos: British forces take the French town of Loos but with substantial casualties and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I and also their first large-scale use of 'New' or Kitchener's Army units.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "October 14",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_14"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Loos",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Loos"
},
{
"text_in_event": "French",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Loos",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loos"
},
{
"text_in_event": "poison gas in World War I",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/poison_gas_in_World_War_I"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Kitchener's Army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitchener's_Army"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/10/12",
"description": "WWI: British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "British",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Edith Cavell",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Cavell"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Allied",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_WWI"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Belgium",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/10/15",
"description": "WWI: Austria-Hungary invades the Kingdom of Serbia. Kingdom of Bulgaria enters the war, invading Kingdom of Serbia. The retreat of the Serbian First Army towards Greece begins the Serbian Campaign (WWI).",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Austria-Hungary",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Kingdom of Serbia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Serbia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Kingdom of Bulgaria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Bulgaria"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Kingdom of Serbia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Serbia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Serbian First Army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_First_Army"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Greece",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Serbian Campaign (WWI)",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_Campaign_(WWI)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/10/23",
"description": "WWI: Torpedoing of the armored cruiser SMS ''Prinz Adalbert'' results in only three men being rescued from a crew of 675, the greatest single loss of life for the German Imperial Navy in the Baltic Sea during the War.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "armored cruiser",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/armored_cruiser"
},
{
"text_in_event": "SMS ''Prinz Adalbert''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Prinz_Adalbert"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German Imperial Navy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Imperial_Navy"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Baltic Sea",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Sea"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/12/23",
"description": "The HMHS ''Britannic'', the largest individual British loss in WWI, departs Liverpool on her maiden voyage.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "HMHS ''Britannic''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMHS_Britannic"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Liverpool",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1915/12/25",
"description": "In WWI, British and German forces declare a Christmas truce, get out of the trenches and have a free-for-all kick-around football game in no-man's land.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Christmas truce",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_truce"
},
{
"text_in_event": "football",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_football"
},
{
"text_in_event": "no-man's land",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/no-man's_land"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/01/13",
"description": "WWI: The Battle of Wadi occurs between Allied British and Ottoman Empire forces, during the Mesopotamian campaign in modern-day Iraq.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Wadi",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wadi_(WWI_battle)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ottoman Empire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Mesopotamian campaign",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamian_campaign"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Iraq",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/01/29",
"description": "WWI: Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Zeppelin",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeppelin"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/02/21",
"description": "WWI: The Battle of Verdun begins in France.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Verdun",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Verdun"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/04/27",
"description": "WWI ampndash Battle of Hulluch: The 47th Brigade, 16th Irish Division is decimated in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Battle of Hulluch",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hulluch"
}
},
{
"date": "1916/05/16",
"description": "Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, which is to divide Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire, following the conclusion of WWI, into French and British spheres of influence.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Sykes-Picot Agreement",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ottoman Empire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "spheres of influence",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphere_of_influence"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/06/04",
"description": "The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in WWI, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Brusilov Offensive",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brusilov_Offensive"
}
},
{
"date": "1916/07/01",
"description": "November 18 ampndash WWI ampndash More than 1 million soldiers die during the Battle of the Somme, including 60,000 casualties for the British Commonwealth on the first day.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "November 18",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_18"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Million",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Million"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of the Somme",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Somme_(1916)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "British Commonwealth",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/08/07",
"description": "WWI: Portugal joins the Allies.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Portugal",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal"
}
},
{
"date": "1916/11/18",
"description": "WWI ampndash Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle, which started on July 1.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of the Somme",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Somme"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Douglas Haig",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Haig"
},
{
"text_in_event": "July 1",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_1"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/11/23",
"description": "WWI ampndash Eastern Front: Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Eastern Front",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Front_(WWI)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Bucharest",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucharest"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Romania",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Romania"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Central Powers",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Powers"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1916/12/23",
"description": "WWI ampndash Battle of Magdhaba: In the Sinai desert, Australian and New Zealand mounted troops capture the Turkish garrison.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Magdhaba",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Magdhaba"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Sinai",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinai_Peninsula"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Australia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "New Zealand",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Turkish",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/01/11",
"description": "German saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion at Kingsland, NJ (now Lyndhurst, NJ), one of the events leading to U.S. involvement in WWI.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Kingsland Explosion",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingsland_Explosion"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Lyndhurst, NJ",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndhurst,_NJ"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/01/22",
"description": "WWI: President Woodrow Wilson calls for quotpeace without victoryquot in Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "president",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Woodrow Wilson",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/01/31",
"description": "WWI: Germany announces its U-boats will engage in unrestricted submarine warfare.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "U-Boat",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-Boat"
},
{
"text_in_event": "submarine",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/submarine"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/02/03",
"description": "WWI: The United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1917/02/24",
"description": "WWI: United States ambassador to the United Kingdom, Walter H. Page, is shown the intercepted Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany offers to give the American Southwest back to Mexico if Mexico declares war on the United States.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Zimmermann Telegram",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimmermann_Telegram"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/03/26",
"description": "WWI: First Battle of Gaza: British cavalry troops retreat after 17,000 Turks block their advance.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "First Battle of Gaza",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Gaza"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/04/02",
"description": "WWI: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asks the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "U.S. Congress",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_the_United_States"
},
{
"text_in_event": "declaration of war",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/declaration_of_war"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/04/06",
"description": "WWI: The United States declares war on Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "declares war on Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/s:Woodrow_Wilson_declares_war_on_Germany"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/04/09",
"description": "April 12 ampndash WWI: Canadian troops win the Battle of Vimy Ridge.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "April 12",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_12"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Vimy Ridge",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vimy_Ridge"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/04/11",
"description": "WWI: Brazil severs diplomatic relations with Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Brazil",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/04/11",
"description": "WWI: The Nivelle Offensive commences.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Nivelle Offensive",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nivelle_Offensive"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/04/19",
"description": "WWI: The Second Battle of Gaza, a fiasco for the British, causes the dismissal of the commander of the Eastern Expeditionary Force, General Archibald Murray.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Second Battle of Gaza",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Gaza"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Eastern Expeditionary Force",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Expeditionary_Force"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Archibald Murray",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Murray"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/05/09",
"description": "WWI: The Nivelle Offensive is abandoned.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Nivelle Offensive",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nivelle_Offensive"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/05/18",
"description": "WWI: The Selective Service Act passes the U.S. Congress, giving the President the power of conscription.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Selective Service Act",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_Service_Act_of_1917"
},
{
"text_in_event": "U.S. Congress",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_the_United_States"
},
{
"text_in_event": "President",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President"
},
{
"text_in_event": "conscription",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/conscription"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/05/27",
"description": "WWI: Over 30,000 French troops refuse to go to the trenches in Missy-aux-Bois.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Missy-aux-Bois",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missy-aux-Bois"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/06/05",
"description": "WWI: Conscription begins in the United States.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "conscription",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/conscription"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/06/13",
"description": "WWI: The first major German bombing raid on London leaves 162 dead and 432 injured.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1917/06/15",
"description": "WWI: Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence capture Aqaba from the Turks.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Arabia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "T. E. Lawrence",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._E._Lawrence"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Aqaba",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aqaba"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Turks",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/06/15",
"description": "WWI: A conscription crisis in Canada leads to passage of the Military Service Act.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "conscription crisis",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/07/20",
"description": "July 28 ampndash WWI: Austrian and German forces repulse the Russian advance into Galicia.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "July 28",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_28"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Austrian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Russian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Galicia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/07/31",
"description": "WWI: The Battle of Passchendaele: Allied offensive operations commence in Flanders.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "The Battle of Passchendaele",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_Passchendaele"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/07/31",
"description": "August ampampndash The Green Corn Rebellion, an uprising by several hundred farmers against the WWI draft, takes place in central Oklahoma.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Green Corn Rebellion",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Corn_Rebellion"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Oklahoma",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oklahoma"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/08/29",
"description": "WWI: The Military Service Act is passed in the Canadian House of Commons, giving the Government of Canada the right to conscript men into the army.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Military Service Act",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_Service_Act_(Canada)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Canadian House of Commons",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_House_of_Commons"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Government of Canada",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_Canada"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/10/12",
"description": "WWI: The biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand. Over 800 men and 45 officers were killed at the First Battle of Passchendaele, roughly 1 in 1000 of the nation's population at the time.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "First Battle of Passchendaele",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Passchendaele"
}
},
{
"date": "1917/10/15",
"description": "WWI: At Vincennes outside of Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Vincennes",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincennes"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Dutch",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_people"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Mata Hari",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mata_Hari"
},
{
"text_in_event": "firing squad",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/firing_squad"
},
{
"text_in_event": "spying",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/espionage"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/10/26",
"description": "WWI: Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Brazil",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil"
},
{
"text_in_event": "declares war",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Brazil_(1889–1930)#Brazil_in_World_War_I"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Central Powers",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Powers"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/11/02",
"description": "WWI: Battle of Passchendaele: After 3 months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Passchendaele",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Passchendaele"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Passchendaele",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passendale"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/11/02",
"description": "WWI: Third Battle of Gaza: United Kingdom forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Third Battle of Gaza",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Battle_of_Gaza"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Gaza",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaza"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ottoman Empire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/11/02",
"description": "WWI: Action of 17 November 1917: United States Navy destroyers USS ''Fanning'' and USS ''Nicholson'' capture Imperial German Navy U-boat SM ''U-58'' off the south-west coast of Ireland, the first combat action in which U.S. ships take a submarine (which is then scuttled).",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Action of 17 November 1917",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_17_November_1917"
},
{
"text_in_event": "United States Navy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Navy"
},
{
"text_in_event": "destroyer",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/destroyer"
},
{
"text_in_event": "USS ''Fanning''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Fanning_(DD-37)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "USS ''Nicholson''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nicholson_(DD-52)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Imperial German Navy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_German_Navy"
},
{
"text_in_event": "U-Boat",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-Boat"
},
{
"text_in_event": "SM ''U-58''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_U-58"
},
{
"text_in_event": "submarine",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/submarine"
},
{
"text_in_event": "scuttled",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/scuttled"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/11/02",
"description": "WWI: Battle of Cambrai: British forces, using tanks, make early progress in an attack on German positions but are soon beaten back.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Cambrai",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cambrai_(1917)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "tank",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/tank"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1917/11/25",
"description": "WWI: German forces defeat Portuguese army of about 1200 at Negomano on the border of modern-day Mozambique and Tanzania.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Negomano",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negomano"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Mozambique",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozambique"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Tanzania",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanzania"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/03/03",
"description": "WWI: Germany, Austria and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Austria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Bolshevist Russia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Soviet_Federative_Socialist_Republic"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Treaty of Brest-Litovsk",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Brest-Litovsk"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/03/07",
"description": "WWI: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Finland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finland"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/03/21",
"description": "WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Second Battle of the Somme",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_the_Somme_(1918)"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/03/21",
"description": "Dr. Karl Muck, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act and imprisoned for the duration of WWI.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Karl Muck",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Muck"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Boston Symphony Orchestra",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Symphony_Orchestra"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Alien Enemies Act",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_Enemies_Act"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/04/21",
"description": "Manfred Von Richthofen, quotThe Red Baronquot, WWI's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Manfred von Richthofen",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manfred_von_Richthofen"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/06/01",
"description": "WWI: The Battle for Belleau Wood begins.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Battle for Belleau Wood",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_for_Belleau_Wood"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/06/10",
"description": "WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS ''Szent István'' is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Austro-Hungarian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"
},
{
"text_in_event": "dreadnought",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dreadnought"
},
{
"text_in_event": "battleship",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/battleship"
},
{
"text_in_event": "SMS ''Szent István''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Szent_István"
},
{
"text_in_event": "MAS",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAS_(boat)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "torpedo boat",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/torpedo_boat"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Dalmatia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalmatia"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/07/15",
"description": "WWI ampndash Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Second Battle of the Marne",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_the_Marne"
},
{
"text_in_event": "River Marne",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Marne"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/07/15",
"description": "WWI: {{RMS|Carpathia}} is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by German submarine U-55 218 of the 223 on board are rescued.ampamp{{cite news|title=Carpathia Sunk 5 of Crew Killed|newspaper=New York Times|page=4|date=20 July 1918|url=<a href=\"http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FB0B14F73B5F1B7A93C2AB178CD85F4C8185F9}}ampamp\">http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FB0B14F73B5F1B7A93C2AB178CD85F4C8185F9}}ampamp<\/a>",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Ireland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaiserliche_Marine"
},
{
"text_in_event": "submarine",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/submarine"
},
{
"text_in_event": "U-55",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unterseeboot_55_(1916)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "New York Times",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/08/08",
"description": "WWI ampndash Battle of Amiens: Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories with a push through the German front lines. German General Erich Ludendorff later calls this the quotblack day of the German Army.quot",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Amiens",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Amiens_(1918)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Canadian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Australian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Erich Ludendorff",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Ludendorff"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/09/29",
"description": "Bulgaria requests an armistice in WWI.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Bulgaria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/10/03",
"description": "King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Ferdinand I of Bulgaria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Bulgaria"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Boris III",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_III_of_Bulgaria"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/10/08",
"description": "WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Forest of Argonne",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_of_Argonne"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Alvin C. York",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_C._York"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/10/31",
"description": "WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Allies",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_WWI"
}
},
{
"date": "1918/11/04",
"description": "WWI: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Austria-Hungary",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Italy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/11/08",
"description": "British battleship HMS ''Britannia'' is sunk by German submarine ''U-50'' off Trafalgar with the loss of around fifty lives, the last major naval engagement of WWI.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "battleship",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-dreadnought_battleship"
},
{
"text_in_event": "HMS ''Britannia''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Britannia_(1904)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Trafalgar",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Trafalgar"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1918/11/08",
"description": "WWI ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM in Marshal Foch’s railroad car in Compiègne Forest in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.ampamp{{cite book|author=Pitt, Barrie|year=2003|title=1918: The Last Act|location=Barnsley|publisher=Pen and Sword|isbn=0-85052-974-3}}ampamp",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "WWI",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I"
},
{
"text_in_event": "an armistice agreement",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice_with_Germany_(Compiègne)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Foch",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Foch"
},
{
"text_in_event": "railroad",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/railroad"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Compiègne Forest",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiègne_Forest"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/01",
"description": "WWII:",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1939/09/02",
"description": "WWII:",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1939/09/03",
"description": "WWII:",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1939/09/04",
"description": "WWII: Nepal declares war on Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Nepal",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/05",
"description": "WWII: The United States declares its neutrality in the war.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "United States",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States"
}
},
{
"date": "1939/09/06",
"description": "WWII: South Africa declares war on Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "South Africa",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/06",
"description": "WWII: Forward elements of General Hoeppner's XVI Panzerkorps take up positions outside Warsaw. The world is stunned by the rapidity of the German advance and the Polish High Command is effectively isolated, but lack of infantry support and effective civilian resistance cause Hoeppner to halt outside the city itself.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Warsaw",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw"
}
},
{
"date": "1939/09/06",
"description": "WWII: Polish troops on the Westerplatte are forced, due to lack of food and ammunition, to surrender. The garrison of about two hundred had held out against thousands of German forces (many of them Naval officer cadets from the ''Schleswig-Holstein,'') for seven days.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Westerplatte",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westerplatte"
},
{
"text_in_event": "''Schleswig-Holstein,''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_battleship_Schleswig-Holstein"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/09",
"description": "WWII: Troops of the Polish Poznan Army under the command of General Kutrzeba open the Battle of the Bzura, the largest and best organized counter-attack mounted by the Polish forces in the campaign of 1939. For the first few days all goes well and the Germans are forced to retreat but quick reaction by mechanized units and the Luftwaffe soon take their toll and the operation bogs down.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Poznan Army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_Poznan"
},
{
"text_in_event": "General Kutrzeba",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Kutrzeba"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of the Bzura",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bzura_battle"
},
{
"text_in_event": "campaign of 1939.",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland_(1939)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/10",
"description": "WWII: Canada declares war on Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Canada",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/15",
"description": "WWII: Diverse elements of the German Wehrmacht surround Warsaw and demand its surrender. The Poles refuse and the siege begins in earnest.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Warsaw",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw"
},
{
"text_in_event": "siege",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Warsaw_(1939)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/17",
"description": "WWII: The Soviet Union invades Poland and then occupies eastern Polish territories.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Soviet Union",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Poland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/19",
"description": "WWII: The Poznan pocket collapses, and the Germans capture, according to many sources, over 150,000 men. Many elements of General Kutrzeba's forces work their way into Warsaw under extreme difficulty.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "General Kutrzeba",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Kutrzeba"
}
},
{
"date": "1939/09/22",
"description": "WWII: Joint victory parade of Wehrmacht and Red Army in Brest-Litovsk at the end of the Invasion of Poland.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "victory parade",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/victory_parade"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Wehrmacht",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wehrmacht"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Red Army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Army"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Brest-Litovsk",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brest_(Belarus)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Invasion of Poland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/09/28",
"description": "WWII:",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1939/10/08",
"description": "WWII: Germany annexes Western Poland.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
},
{
"date": "1939/11/01",
"description": "2 ampndash WWII: Physicist Hans Ferdinand Mayer writes the Oslo Report on German weapons systems and passes it to the British Secret Intelligence Service.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "2",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_2"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Physicist",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physicist"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Hans Ferdinand Mayer",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Ferdinand_Mayer"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Oslo Report",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oslo_Report"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Secret Intelligence Service",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secret_Intelligence_Service"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/04",
"description": "WWII: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons to non-belligerent nations.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Franklin D. Roosevelt",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Delano_Roosevelt"
},
{
"text_in_event": "United States Customs Service",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Customs_Service"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Neutrality Act of 1939",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrality_Acts_of_1930s"
},
{
"text_in_event": "weapon",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/weapon"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/04",
"description": "WWII ampampndash Sonderaktion Krakau: Germans take action against scientists from the University of Kraków and other Kraków universities at the beginning of WWII.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Sonderaktion Krakau",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonderaktion_Krakau"
},
{
"text_in_event": "University of Kraków",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Kraków"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Kraków",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kraków"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/08",
"description": "WWII: In Munich, an attempt to kill Adolf Hitler is made by Georg Elser while Hitler is celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Munich",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Adolf Hitler",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Georg Elser",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Elser"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Beer Hall Putsch",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_Hall_Putsch"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/09",
"description": "WWII: Venlo Incident: Two British agents of SIS are captured by the Germans.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Venlo Incident",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venlo_Incident"
},
{
"text_in_event": "SIS",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secret_Intelligence_Service"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/17",
"description": "WWII: To punish protests against the Nazi occupation of the Czech homeland, the Nazis murder 9 Czech graduate students, send over 1200 to concentration camps, and close all Czech universities.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1939/11/17",
"description": "WWII ampampndash Winter War: Soviet forces attack Finland and reach the Mannerheim Line, starting the war.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Soviet",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Finland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finland"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Mannerheim Line",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerheim_Line"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/11/17",
"description": "WWII ampampndash Sweden declares non-belligerency in the Winter War.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Sweden",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweden"
},
{
"text_in_event": "non-belligerency",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/belligerent"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/12/04",
"description": "WWII: ''HMS Nelson'' is struck by a mine (laid by {{GS|U-31|1936|2}}) off the Scottish coast and is laid up for repairs until August 1940.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "HMS Nelson",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Nelson_(28)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "mine",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sea_mine"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Scottish",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/12/12",
"description": "WWII: ''HMS Duchess'' sinks after a collision with ''HMS Barham'' off the coast of Scotland with the loss of 124 men.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "HMS Duchess",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Duchess_(H64)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "HMS Barham",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Barham_(04)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Scotland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/12/13",
"description": "WWII ampndash Battle of the River Plate: The German pocket battleship, ''Admiral Graf Spee'' is trapped by cruisers HMS ''Ajax'', HMNZS ''Achilles'', and HMS ''Exeter'' after a running battle off the coast of Uruguay. ''Admiral Graf Spee'' is scuttled by its crew off Montevideo harbor on December 17.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of the River Plate",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_River_Plate"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Admiral Graf Spee",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_pocket_battleship_Admiral_Graf_Spee"
},
{
"text_in_event": "HMS ''Ajax''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Ajax_(22)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "HMNZS ''Achilles''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMNZS_Achilles"
},
{
"text_in_event": "HMS ''Exeter''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Exeter_(68)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Uruguay",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uruguay"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Montevideo",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montevideo"
},
{
"text_in_event": "December 17",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_17"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1939/12/14",
"description": "WWII ampndash Winter War: The League of Nations expels the USSR for attacking Finland.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
},
{
"text_in_event": "League of Nations",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Finland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/01/04",
"description": "WWII: Axis powers: Luftwaffe General Hermann Göring assumes control of most war industries in Germany.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Axis powers",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Luftwaffe",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Hermann Göring",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Göring"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/01/06",
"description": "WWII: Winter War: General Semyon Timoshenko takes command of all Russian forces.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Semyon Timoshenko",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semyon_Timoshenko"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/01/06",
"description": "WWII: Winter War ampampndash Battle of Suomussalmi: The Russian 44th Assault Division is destroyed by Finnish forces.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Suomussalmi",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Suomussalmi"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/01/06",
"description": "WWII: Food rationing begins in Great Britain.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Great Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/01/09",
"description": "WWII British submarine {{HMS|Starfish|19S}} is sunk.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "British",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armed_Forces_of_the_United_Kingdom"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/01/10",
"description": "WWII: Mechelen Incident: A German plane carrying secret plans for the invasion of western Europe makes a forced landing in Belgium, leading to mobilization of defense forces in the Low Countries.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Mechelen Incident",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechelen_Incident"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Belgium",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Low Countries",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Countries"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/01/27",
"description": "WWII: A peace resolution introduced in the Parliament of South Africa is defeated 81–59.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Parliament of South Africa",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_South_Africa"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/02/01",
"description": "WWII: Winter War ampndash Russian forces launch a major assault on Finnish troops occupying the Karelian Isthmus.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winter War",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_War"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Karelian Isthmus",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karelian_Isthmus"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/02/16",
"description": "WWII: Altmark Incident: The British destroyer {{HMS|Cossack|F03}} pursues the German tanker ''Altmark'' into Jøssingfjord in southwestern Norway.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Altmark Incident",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altmark_Incident"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German tanker ''Altmark''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_tanker_Altmark"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Jøssingfjord",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jøssingfjord"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/03/18",
"description": "WWII: Axis powers: Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet at Brenner Pass in the Alps and agree to form an alliance against France and the United Kingdom.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Axis powers",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Adolf Hitler",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Benito Mussolini",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_Mussolini"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Brenner Pass",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brenner_Pass"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Alps",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "United Kingdom",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/03/31",
"description": "WWII: Commerce raiding {{Ship|German auxiliary cruiser|Atlantis}}, leaves the Wadden Sea for what will become the longest warship cruise of the war. (622 days without in-port replenishment or repair){{cite book | author=Muggenthaler, August Karl| title=German Raiders of WWII| publisher=Prentice-Hall| year=1977| ISBN=0-13-354027-8| page=14}}",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Commerce raiding",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commerce_raiding"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Wadden Sea",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wadden_Sea"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/04/03",
"description": "WWII: Operation ''Weserübung'': German ships set out for the invasion of Norway.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Operation ''Weserübung''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Weserübung"
},
{
"text_in_event": "invasion of Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_Campaign#German_invasion"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/04/09",
"description": "WWII: Germany invades Denmark and Norway in Operation ''Weserübung.'' The British campaign in Norway is simultaneously commenced.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Denmark",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Weserübung",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weserübung"
},
{
"text_in_event": "British campaign in Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_campaign_in_Norway"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/10",
"description": "WWII:",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1940/05/10",
"description": "WWII: German armies open a {{convert|60|mi|km|adj=on}} wide breach in the Maginot Line at Sedan, France.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Maginot Line",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maginot_Line"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Sedan, France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedan,_France"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/10",
"description": "WWII: The Dutch army surrenders.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Dutch army",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Netherlands_Army"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/05/19",
"description": "WWII: German forces (2nd Panzer division), under General Rudolf Veiel, reach Noyelles on the English Channel.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "2nd Panzer division",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2nd_Panzer_Division_(Germany)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Rudolf Veiel",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Veiel"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Noyelles",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noyelles-sur-Mer"
},
{
"text_in_event": "English Channel",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Channel"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/22",
"description": "WWII: The British Parliament passes a further Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, giving the government full control over all persons and property.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "British parliament",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_the_United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Emergency Powers (Defence) Act",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_Powers_(Defence)_Act_1940"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/24",
"description": "WWII: The Anglo-French Supreme War Council decides to withdraw all forces from Norway.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Anglo-French Supreme War Council",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-French_Supreme_War_Council"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/24",
"description": "WWII: The Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force starts.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Dunkirk evacuation",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkirk_evacuation"
},
{
"text_in_event": "British Expeditionary Force",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Expeditionary_Force_(WWII)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/24",
"description": "WWII: King Leopold III of Belgium orders the Belgian forces to cease fighting. Leaders of the Belgian government on French territory declare Leopold deposed.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Leopold III of Belgium",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_III_of_Belgium"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Belgian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgium"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/29",
"description": "The Vought XF4U-1, prototype of the F4U Corsair U.S. fighter later used in WWII, makes its first flight.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "F4U Corsair",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F4U_Corsair"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/05/29",
"description": "WWII: Paris is bombed by the Luftwaffe for the first time.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Luftwaffe",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/29",
"description": "WWII: The Dunkirk evacuation ends ampampndash British and Dutch forces complete evacuating 300,000 troops from Dunkirk in France to England.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Dunkirk evacuation",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkirk_evacuation"
},
{
"text_in_event": "British",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Dunkirk",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkirk,_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "England",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/05/29",
"description": "WWII: Winston Churchill tells the British House of Commons, ampquotWe shall not flag or fail. We shall fight on the beaches... on the landing grounds... in the fields and the streets.... We shall never surrender.ampquot",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winston Churchill",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill"
},
{
"text_in_event": "British House of Commons",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_House_of_Commons"
},
{
"text_in_event": "We Shall Fight on the Beaches",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/We_Shall_Fight_on_the_Beaches"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: The British Commandos are created.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "British Commandos",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Commandos"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Italy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "United Kingdom",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with his <a href=\"ftp://webstorage2.mcpa.virginia.edu/library/nara/fdr/audiovisual/speeches/fdr_1940_0610.mp3\">ftp://webstorage2.mcpa.virginia.edu/library/nara/fdr/audiovisual/speeches/fdr_1940_0610.mp3<\/a> ampquotStab in the Backampquot speech during the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Franklin D. Roosevelt",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt"
},
{
"text_in_event": "University of Virginia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Virginia"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: Canada declares war on Italy.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Canada",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Italy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: Norway surrenders to German forces.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Norway",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/09",
"description": "WWII: The French government flees to Tours.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Tours",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tours"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/06/12",
"description": "WWII: 13,000 British and French troops surrender to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel at St. Valery-en-Caux.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "British",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "French",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Field Marshal",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_Marshal"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Erwin Rommel",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel"
},
{
"text_in_event": "St. Valery-en-Caux",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Valery-en-Caux"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/13",
"description": "WWII: Paris is declared an open city.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
},
{
"text_in_event": "open city",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/open_city"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/13",
"description": "WWII: The Soviet Union annexes three Baltic States which are Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. This is the most popular date to be said when the term Soviet Empire was coined.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Soviet Union",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Baltic State",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_states"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Estonia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Latvia",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvia"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Lithuania",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuania"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Soviet Empire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Empire"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/13",
"description": "WWII: The French government flees to Bordeaux and Paris falls under German occupation.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Bordeaux",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordeaux"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/13",
"description": "WWII: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Naval Expansion Act into law, which aims to increase the United States Navy's tonnage by 11%.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Franklin D. Roosevelt",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt"
},
{
"text_in_event": "United States Navy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Navy"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/13",
"description": "WWII: A group of 728 Polish political prisoners from Tarnów become the first residents of the Auschwitz concentration camp.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Polish",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Tarnów",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarnów"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Auschwitz concentration camp",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/15",
"description": "WWII: Verdun falls to German forces.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Verdun",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verdun"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/16",
"description": "WWII: Operation Ariel begins: Allied troops start to evacuate France, following Germany's takeover of Paris and most of the nation.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Operation Ariel",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Ariel"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Allied",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_WWII"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/16",
"description": "WWII: A Luftwaffe Junkers 88 bomber sinks the British ship ''RMS Lancastria'', which was evacuating troops from near Saint-Nazaire, France, killing some 5,800 men.ampamp{{cite book|last=Hooton|first=E.R.|title=Luftwaffe at War: Blitzkrieg in the West|publisher=Chervron/Ian Allan|year=2007|location=London|page=88|isbn=978-1-85780-272-6}}ampamp (Wartime censorship prevents the story from becoming public.)",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Luftwaffe",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Junkers 88",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_88"
},
{
"text_in_event": "RMS Lancastria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lancastria"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Saint-Nazaire",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Nazaire"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/16",
"description": "WWII: Winston Churchill says to the House of Commons: ampquotThe Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin.ampquot",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winston Churchill",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill"
},
{
"text_in_event": "House of Commons",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_House_of_Commons"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Britain"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/16",
"description": "WWII: Appeal of 18 June: General Charles de Gaulle, ''de facto'' leader of the Free French Forces, makes his first broadcast appeal over Radio Londres from London rallying French Resistance, calling on all French people to continue the fight against Nazi Germany: ampquotFrance has lost a battle. But France has not lost the warampquot.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Appeal of 18 June",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_of_18_June"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Charles de Gaulle",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Gaulle"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Free French Forces",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_French_Forces"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Radio Londres",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Londres"
},
{
"text_in_event": "London",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London"
},
{
"text_in_event": "French Resistance",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Resistance"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Nazi Germany",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/21",
"description": "WWII: Vichy France and Germany sign an armistice at Compiegne, in the same wagon-lit railroad car used by Marshal Ferdinand Foch to accept the surrender of Germany in 1918.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Vichy France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "armistice",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Armistice_at_Compiègne"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Compiègne",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiègne"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ferdinand Foch",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Foch"
},
{
"text_in_event": "1918",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1918"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/23",
"description": "WWII: German leader Adolf Hitler surveys newly defeated Paris in now occupied France.<a href=\"http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blhitler38.htm\">http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blhitler38.htm<\/a>",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Adolf Hitler",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Paris",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris"
},
{
"text_in_event": "France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/23",
"description": "WWII: Vichy France signs armistice terms with Italy.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Vichy France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Italy",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/06/28",
"description": "WWII: German forces land in Guernsey, marking the start of the 5-year Occupation of the Channel Islands.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Guernsey",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guernsey"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Occupation of the Channel Islands",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_the_Channel_Islands"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/07/02",
"description": "WWII: British-owned {{SS|Arandora Star}}, carrying civilian internees and POWs of Italian and German origin from Liverpool to Canada, is torpedoed and sunk by the {{GS|U-47|1938|6}} off northwest Ireland with the loss of around 865 lives.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "civilian internee",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilian_Internee"
},
{
"text_in_event": "POW",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POW"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Italian",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_people"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_people"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Liverpool",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Canada",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Torpedo",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torpedo"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ireland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/07/03",
"description": "WWII: British naval units sink or seize ships of the French fleet anchored in the Algerian ports of Oran and Mers-el-Kebir. The following day, Vichy France breaks off diplomatic relations with Britain",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Algeria",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algeria"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Oran",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oran"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Mers-el-Kebir",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mers-el-Kebir"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Vichy France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/07/10",
"description": "WWII: The Battle of Britain begins",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Battle of Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Britain"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/07/10",
"description": "WWII: British destroyer {{HMS|Escort|H66}} is torpedoed and sunk by an Italian submarine.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1940/07/10",
"description": "WWII: Vichy France begins with a constitutional law which only 80 members of the parliament vote against.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Vichy France",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France"
},
{
"text_in_event": "80 members of the parliament",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Vichy_80"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/07/14",
"description": "WWII: Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, proclaims the intention of Great Britain to fight alone against Germany whatever the outcome: quotWe shall seek no terms. We shall tolerate no parley. We may show mercy. We shall ask none.quot",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Winston Churchill",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/07/15",
"description": "WWII: Allied victory at the Battle of Cape Spada {{HMAS|Sydney|D48}} and five destroyers sink the Italian cruiser ''Bartolomeo Colleoni''.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Battle of Cape Spada",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Spada"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Italian cruiser ''Bartolomeo Colleoni''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_cruiser_Bartolomeo_Colleoni"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/07/15",
"description": "WWII: Adolf Hitler makes a peace appeal to Britain in an address to the Reichstag. Lord Halifax, the British foreign minister, flatly rejects peace terms in a broadcast reply on July 22.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Adolf Hitler",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Reichstag",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichstag_(Weimar_Republic)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Lord Halifax",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Halifax"
},
{
"text_in_event": "July 22",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_22"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/08/01",
"description": "WWII: British submarine {{HMS|Spearfish|69S}} is sunk.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year"
},
{
"date": "1940/08/08",
"description": "WWII: Wilhelm Keitel signs the quotAufbau Ostquot directive, which eventually leads to the invasion of the Soviet Union.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Wilhelm Keitel",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Keitel"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Aufbau Ost",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aufbau_Ost_(1940)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Soviet Union",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/08/10",
"description": "WWII: British armed merchant cruiser {{HMS|Transylvania|F56}} is torpedoed off Malin Head, Ireland, by German submarine ''U-56''.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Malin Head",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malin_Head"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ireland",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland"
},
{
"text_in_event": "German submarine ''U-56''",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_submarine_U-56_(1938)"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/08/18",
"description": "WWII: Winston Churchill pays tribute in the House of Commons to the Royal Air Force: ampquotNever in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.ampquot",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "Winston Churchill",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill"
},
{
"text_in_event": "House of Commons",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_House_of_Commons"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Royal Air Force",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Air_Force"
},
{
"text_in_event": "so much owed by so many to so few",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/so_much_owed_by_so_many_to_so_few"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/08/26",
"description": "WWII: Chad is the first French colony to proclaim its support for the Allies.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": {
"text_in_event": "Chad",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chad"
}
},
{
"date": "1940/08/30",
"description": "September ampampndash The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division (previously a National Guard Division in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma), is activated and ordered into federal service for 1 year, to engage in a training program in Ft. Sill and Louisiana, prior to serving in WWII.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/45th_Infantry_Division_(United_States)"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Arizona",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arizona"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Colorado",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado"
},
{
"text_in_event": "New Mexico",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Oklahoma",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oklahoma"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Ft. Sill",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ft._Sill"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Louisiana",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana"
}
]
},
{
"date": "1940/09/02",
"description": "WWII: An agreement between America and Great Britain is announced to the effect that 50 U.S. destroyers needed for escort work will be transferred to Great Britain. In return, America gains 99-year leases on British bases in the North Atlantic, West Indies and Bermuda.",
"lang": "en",
"granularity": "year",
"link": [
{
"text_in_event": "America",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States"
},
{
"text_in_event": "Great Britain",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom"
},
{
"text_in_event": "North Atlantic",
"url": "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Atlantic"
},
{