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package POE::NFA;
use strict;
use vars qw($VERSION);
$VERSION = '1.352'; # NOTE - Should be #.### (three decimal places)
use Carp qw(carp croak);
sub SPAWN_INLINES () { 'inline_states' }
sub SPAWN_OBJECTS () { 'object_states' }
sub SPAWN_PACKAGES () { 'package_states' }
sub SPAWN_OPTIONS () { 'options' }
sub SPAWN_RUNSTATE () { 'runstate' }
sub OPT_TRACE () { 'trace' }
sub OPT_DEBUG () { 'debug' }
sub OPT_DEFAULT () { 'default' }
sub OPT_IMMEDIATE () { 'immediate' }
sub EN_DEFAULT () { '_default' }
sub EN_START () { '_start' }
sub EN_STOP () { '_stop' }
sub EN_SIGNAL () { '_signal' }
sub NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE () { 'poe_nfa_goto_state' }
sub NFA_EN_POP_STATE () { 'poe_nfa_pop_state' }
sub NFA_EN_PUSH_STATE () { 'poe_nfa_push_state' }
sub NFA_EN_STOP () { 'poe_nfa_stop' }
sub SELF_RUNSTATE () { 0 }
sub SELF_OPTIONS () { 1 }
sub SELF_STATES () { 2 }
sub SELF_ID () { 3 }
sub SELF_CURRENT () { 4 }
sub SELF_STATE_STACK () { 5 }
sub SELF_INTERNALS () { 6 }
sub SELF_CURRENT_NAME () { 7 }
sub SELF_IS_IN_INTERNAL () { 8 }
sub STACK_STATE () { 0 }
sub STACK_EVENT () { 1 }
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Shorthand for defining a trace constant.
sub _define_trace {
no strict 'refs';
local $^W = 0;
foreach my $name (@_) {
next if defined *{"TRACE_$name"}{CODE};
if (defined *{"POE::Kernel::TRACE_$name"}{CODE}) {
eval(
"sub TRACE_$name () { " .
*{"POE::Kernel::TRACE_$name"}{CODE}->() .
"}"
);
die if $@;
}
else {
eval "sub TRACE_$name () { TRACE_DEFAULT }";
die if $@;
}
}
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEGIN {
# ASSERT_DEFAULT changes the default value for other ASSERT_*
# constants. It inherits POE::Kernel's ASSERT_DEFAULT value, if
# it's present.
unless (defined &ASSERT_DEFAULT) {
if (defined &POE::Kernel::ASSERT_DEFAULT) {
eval( "sub ASSERT_DEFAULT () { " . &POE::Kernel::ASSERT_DEFAULT . " }" );
}
else {
eval 'sub ASSERT_DEFAULT () { 0 }';
}
};
# TRACE_DEFAULT changes the default value for other TRACE_*
# constants. It inherits POE::Kernel's TRACE_DEFAULT value, if
# it's present.
unless (defined &TRACE_DEFAULT) {
if (defined &POE::Kernel::TRACE_DEFAULT) {
eval( "sub TRACE_DEFAULT () { " . &POE::Kernel::TRACE_DEFAULT . " }" );
}
else {
eval 'sub TRACE_DEFAULT () { 0 }';
}
};
_define_trace("DESTROY");
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Export constants into calling packages. This is evil; perhaps
# EXPORT_OK instead? The parameters NFA has in common with SESSION
# (and other sessions) must be kept at the same offsets as each-other.
sub OBJECT () { 0 }
sub MACHINE () { 1 }
sub KERNEL () { 2 }
sub RUNSTATE () { 3 }
sub EVENT () { 4 }
sub SENDER () { 5 }
sub STATE () { 6 }
sub CALLER_FILE () { 7 }
sub CALLER_LINE () { 8 }
sub CALLER_STATE () { 9 }
sub ARG0 () { 10 }
sub ARG1 () { 11 }
sub ARG2 () { 12 }
sub ARG3 () { 13 }
sub ARG4 () { 14 }
sub ARG5 () { 15 }
sub ARG6 () { 16 }
sub ARG7 () { 17 }
sub ARG8 () { 18 }
sub ARG9 () { 19 }
sub import {
my $package = caller();
no strict 'refs';
*{ $package . '::OBJECT' } = \&OBJECT;
*{ $package . '::MACHINE' } = \&MACHINE;
*{ $package . '::KERNEL' } = \&KERNEL;
*{ $package . '::RUNSTATE' } = \&RUNSTATE;
*{ $package . '::EVENT' } = \&EVENT;
*{ $package . '::SENDER' } = \&SENDER;
*{ $package . '::STATE' } = \&STATE;
*{ $package . '::ARG0' } = \&ARG0;
*{ $package . '::ARG1' } = \&ARG1;
*{ $package . '::ARG2' } = \&ARG2;
*{ $package . '::ARG3' } = \&ARG3;
*{ $package . '::ARG4' } = \&ARG4;
*{ $package . '::ARG5' } = \&ARG5;
*{ $package . '::ARG6' } = \&ARG6;
*{ $package . '::ARG7' } = \&ARG7;
*{ $package . '::ARG8' } = \&ARG8;
*{ $package . '::ARG9' } = \&ARG9;
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Spawn a new state machine.
sub _add_ref_states {
my ($states, $refs) = @_;
foreach my $state (keys %$refs) {
$states->{$state} = {};
my $data = $refs->{$state};
croak "the data for state '$state' should be an array" unless (
ref $data eq 'ARRAY'
);
croak "the array for state '$state' has an odd number of elements" if (
@$data & 1
);
while (my ($ref, $events) = splice(@$data, 0, 2)) {
if (ref $events eq 'ARRAY') {
foreach my $event (@$events) {
$states->{$state}->{$event} = [ $ref, $event ];
}
}
elsif (ref $events eq 'HASH') {
foreach my $event (keys %$events) {
my $method = $events->{$event};
$states->{$state}->{$event} = [ $ref, $method ];
}
}
else {
croak "events with '$ref' for state '$state' " .
"need to be a hash or array ref";
}
}
}
}
sub spawn {
my ($type, @params) = @_;
my @args;
# We treat the parameter list strictly as a hash. Rather than dying
# here with a Perl error, we'll catch it and blame it on the user.
croak "odd number of events/handlers (missing one or the other?)"
if @params & 1;
my %params = @params;
croak "$type requires a working Kernel"
unless defined $POE::Kernel::poe_kernel;
# Options are optional.
my $options = delete $params{+SPAWN_OPTIONS};
$options = { } unless defined $options;
# States are required.
croak(
"$type constructor requires at least one of the following parameters: " .
join (", ", SPAWN_INLINES, SPAWN_OBJECTS, SPAWN_PACKAGES)
) unless (
exists $params{+SPAWN_INLINES} or
exists $params{+SPAWN_OBJECTS} or
exists $params{+SPAWN_PACKAGES}
);
my $states = delete($params{+SPAWN_INLINES}) || {};
if (exists $params{+SPAWN_OBJECTS}) {
my $objects = delete $params{+SPAWN_OBJECTS};
_add_ref_states($states, $objects);
}
if (exists $params{+SPAWN_PACKAGES}) {
my $packages = delete $params{+SPAWN_PACKAGES};
_add_ref_states($states, $packages);
}
my $runstate = delete($params{+SPAWN_RUNSTATE}) || {};
# These are unknown.
croak(
"$type constructor does not recognize these parameter names: ",
join(', ', sort(keys(%params)))
) if keys %params;
# Build me.
my $self = bless [
$runstate, # SELF_RUNSTATE
$options, # SELF_OPTIONS
$states, # SELF_STATES
undef, # SELF_ID
undef, # SELF_CURRENT
[ ], # SELF_STATE_STACK
{ }, # SELF_INTERNALS
'(undef)', # SELF_CURRENT_NAME
0, # SELF_IS_IN_INTERNAL
], $type;
# Register the machine with the POE kernel.
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->session_alloc($self);
# Return it for immediate reuse.
return $self;
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Another good inheritance candidate.
sub DESTROY {
my $self = shift;
# NFA's data structures are destroyed through Perl's usual garbage
# collection. TRACE_DESTROY here just shows what's in the session
# before the destruction finishes.
TRACE_DESTROY and do {
POE::Kernel::_warn(
"----- NFA $self Leak Check -----\n",
"-- Namespace (HEAP):\n"
);
foreach (sort keys (%{$self->[SELF_RUNSTATE]})) {
POE::Kernel::_warn(" $_ = ", $self->[SELF_RUNSTATE]->{$_}, "\n");
}
POE::Kernel::_warn("-- Options:\n");
foreach (sort keys (%{$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]})) {
POE::Kernel::_warn(" $_ = ", $self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$_}, "\n");
}
POE::Kernel::_warn("-- States:\n");
foreach (sort keys (%{$self->[SELF_STATES]})) {
POE::Kernel::_warn(" $_ = ", $self->[SELF_STATES]->{$_}, "\n");
}
};
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub _invoke_state {
my ($self, $sender, $event, $args, $file, $line, $fromstate) = @_;
# Trace the state invocation if tracing is enabled.
if ($self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_TRACE}) {
POE::Kernel::_warn(
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self), " -> $event\n"
);
}
# Discard troublesome things.
return if $event eq EN_START;
return if $event eq EN_STOP;
# Stop request has come through the queue. Shut us down.
if ($event eq NFA_EN_STOP) {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->_data_ses_stop($self->ID);
return;
}
# Make a state transition.
if ($event eq NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE) {
my ($new_state, $enter_event, @enter_args) = @$args;
# Make sure the new state exists.
POE::Kernel::_die(
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
" tried to enter nonexistent state '$new_state'\n"
)
unless exists $self->[SELF_STATES]->{$new_state};
# If an enter event was specified, make sure that exists too.
POE::Kernel::_die(
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
" tried to invoke nonexistent enter event '$enter_event' ",
"in state '$new_state'\n"
)
unless (
not defined $enter_event or
( length $enter_event and
exists $self->[SELF_STATES]->{$new_state}->{$enter_event}
)
);
# Invoke the current state's leave event, if one exists.
$self->_invoke_state( $self, 'leave', [], undef, undef, undef )
if exists $self->[SELF_CURRENT]->{leave};
# Enter the new state.
$self->[SELF_CURRENT] = $self->[SELF_STATES]->{$new_state};
$self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME] = $new_state;
# Invoke the new state's enter event, if requested.
$self->_invoke_state(
$self, $enter_event, \@enter_args, undef, undef, undef
) if defined $enter_event;
return undef;
}
# Push a state transition.
if ($event eq NFA_EN_PUSH_STATE) {
my @args = @$args;
push(
@{$self->[SELF_STATE_STACK]},
[ $self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME], # STACK_STATE
shift(@args), # STACK_EVENT
]
);
$self->_invoke_state(
$self, NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE, \@args, undef, undef, undef
);
return undef;
}
# Pop a state transition.
if ($event eq NFA_EN_POP_STATE) {
POE::Kernel::_die(
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
" tried to pop a state from an empty stack\n"
)
unless @{ $self->[SELF_STATE_STACK] };
my ($previous_state, $previous_event) = @{
pop @{ $self->[SELF_STATE_STACK] }
};
$self->_invoke_state(
$self, NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE,
[ $previous_state, $previous_event, @$args ],
undef, undef, undef
);
return undef;
}
# Stop.
# Try to find the event handler in the current state or the internal
# event handlers used by wheels and the like.
my ( $handler, $is_in_internal );
if (exists $self->[SELF_CURRENT]->{$event}) {
$handler = $self->[SELF_CURRENT]->{$event};
}
elsif (exists $self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$event}) {
$handler = $self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$event};
$is_in_internal = ++$self->[SELF_IS_IN_INTERNAL];
}
# If it wasn't found in either of those, then check for _default in
# the current state.
elsif (exists $self->[SELF_CURRENT]->{+EN_DEFAULT}) {
# If we get this far, then there's a _default event to redirect
# the event to. Trace the redirection.
if ($self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_TRACE}) {
POE::Kernel::_warn(
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
" -> $event redirected to EN_DEFAULT in state ",
"'$self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME]'\n"
);
}
$handler = $self->[SELF_CURRENT]->{+EN_DEFAULT};
# Transform the parameters for _default. ARG1 and beyond are
# copied so they can't be altered at a distance.
$args = [ $event, [@$args] ];
$event = EN_DEFAULT;
}
# No external event handler, no internal event handler, and no
# external _default handler. This is a grievous error, and now we
# must die.
elsif ($event ne EN_SIGNAL) {
POE::Kernel::_die(
"a '$event' event was sent from $file at $line to session ",
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
", but session ", $POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self),
" has neither a handler for it nor one for _default ",
"in its current state, '$self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME]'\n"
);
}
# Inline event handlers are invoked this way.
my $return;
if (ref($handler) eq 'CODE') {
$return = $handler->(
undef, # OBJECT
$self, # MACHINE
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel, # KERNEL
$self->[SELF_RUNSTATE], # RUNSTATE
$event, # EVENT
$sender, # SENDER
$self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME], # STATE
$file, # CALLER_FILE_NAME
$line, # CALLER_FILE_LINE
$fromstate, # CALLER_STATE
@$args # ARG0..
);
}
# Package and object handlers are invoked this way.
else {
my ($object, $method) = @$handler;
$return = $object->$method( # OBJECT (package, implied)
$self, # MACHINE
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel, # KERNEL
$self->[SELF_RUNSTATE], # RUNSTATE
$event, # EVENT
$sender, # SENDER
$self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME], # STATE
$file, # CALLER_FILE_NAME
$line, # CALLER_FILE_LINE
$fromstate, # CALLER_STATE
@$args # ARG0..
);
}
$self->[SELF_IS_IN_INTERNAL]-- if $is_in_internal;
return $return;
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Add, remove or replace event handlers in the session. This is going
# to be tricky since wheels need this but the event handlers can't be
# limited to a single state. I think they'll go in a hidden internal
# state, or something.
sub _register_state {
my ($self, $name, $handler, $method) = @_;
$method = $name unless defined $method;
# Deprecate _signal.
if ($name eq EN_SIGNAL) {
# Report the problem outside POE.
my $caller_level = 0;
local $Carp::CarpLevel = 1;
while ( (caller $caller_level)[0] =~ /^POE::/ ) {
$caller_level++;
$Carp::CarpLevel++;
}
croak(
",----- DEPRECATION ERROR -----\n",
"| The _signal event is deprecated. Please use sig() to register\n",
"| an explicit signal handler instead.\n",
"`-----------------------------\n",
);
}
# There is a handler, so try to define the state. This replaces an
# existing state.
if ($handler) {
# Coderef handlers are inline states.
if (ref($handler) eq 'CODE') {
POE::Kernel::_carp(
"redefining handler for event($name) for session(",
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self), ")"
)
if (
$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_DEBUG} and
(exists $self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$name})
);
$self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$name} = $handler;
}
# Non-coderef handlers may be package or object states. See if
# the method belongs to the handler.
elsif ($handler->can($method)) {
POE::Kernel::_carp(
"redefining handler for event($name) for session(",
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self), ")"
)
if (
$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_DEBUG} &&
(exists $self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$name})
);
$self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$name} = [ $handler, $method ];
}
# Something's wrong. This code also seems wrong, since
# ref($handler) can't be 'CODE'.
else {
if (
(ref($handler) eq 'CODE') and
$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_TRACE}
) {
POE::Kernel::_carp(
$self->fetch_id(),
" : handler for event($name) is not a proper ref - not registered"
)
}
else {
unless ($handler->can($method)) {
if (length ref($handler)) {
croak "object $handler does not have a '$method' method"
}
else {
croak "package $handler does not have a '$method' method";
}
}
}
}
}
# No handler. Delete the state!
else {
delete $self->[SELF_INTERNALS]->{$name};
}
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Return the session's ID. This is a thunk into POE::Kernel, where
# the session ID really lies. This is a good inheritance candidate.
sub _set_id {
my ($self, $id) = @_;
$self->[SELF_ID] = $id;
}
sub ID {
return shift()->[SELF_ID];
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Return the session's current state's name.
sub get_current_state {
my $self = shift;
return $self->[SELF_CURRENT_NAME];
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Fetch the session's run state. In rare cases, libraries may need to
# break encapsulation this way, probably also using
# $kernel->get_current_session as an accessory to the crime.
sub get_runstate {
my $self = shift;
return $self->[SELF_RUNSTATE];
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set or fetch session options. This is virtually identical to
# POE::Session and a good inheritance candidate.
sub option {
my $self = shift;
my %return_values;
# Options are set in pairs.
while (@_ >= 2) {
my ($flag, $value) = splice(@_, 0, 2);
$flag = lc($flag);
# If the value is defined, then set the option.
if (defined $value) {
# Change some handy values into boolean representations. This
# clobbers the user's original values for the sake of DWIM-ism.
($value = 1) if ($value =~ /^(on|yes|true)$/i);
($value = 0) if ($value =~ /^(no|off|false)$/i);
$return_values{$flag} = $self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$flag};
$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$flag} = $value;
}
# Remove the option if the value is undefined.
else {
$return_values{$flag} = delete $self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$flag};
}
}
# If only one option is left, then there's no value to set, so we
# fetch its value.
if (@_) {
my $flag = lc(shift);
$return_values{$flag} = (
exists($self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$flag})
? $self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{$flag}
: undef
);
}
# If only one option was set or fetched, then return it as a scalar.
# Otherwise return it as a hash of option names and values.
my @return_keys = keys(%return_values);
if (@return_keys == 1) {
return $return_values{$return_keys[0]};
}
else {
return \%return_values;
}
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This stuff is identical to the stuff in POE::Session. Good
# inheritance candidate.
# Create an anonymous sub that, when called, posts an event back to a
# session. This is highly experimental code to support Tk widgets and
# maybe Event callbacks. There's no guarantee that this code works
# yet, nor is there one that it'll be here in the next version.
# This maps postback references (stringified; blessing, and thus
# refcount, removed) to parent session IDs. Members are set when
# postbacks are created, and postbacks' DESTROY methods use it to
# perform the necessary cleanup when they go away. Thanks to njt for
# steering me right on this one.
my %postback_parent_id;
# I assume that when the postback owner loses all reference to it,
# they are done posting things back to us. That's when the postback's
# DESTROY is triggered, and referential integrity is maintained.
sub POE::NFA::Postback::DESTROY {
my $self = shift;
my $parent_id = delete $postback_parent_id{$self};
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->refcount_decrement( $parent_id, 'postback' );
}
# Tune postbacks depending on variations in toolkit behavior.
BEGIN {
# Tk blesses its callbacks internally, so we need to wrap our
# blessed callbacks in unblessed ones. Otherwise our postback's
# DESTROY method probably won't be called.
if (exists $INC{'Tk.pm'}) {
eval 'sub USING_TK () { 1 }';
}
else {
eval 'sub USING_TK () { 0 }';
}
};
# Create a postback closure, maintaining referential integrity in the
# process. The next step is to give it to something that expects to
# be handed a callback.
sub postback {
my ($self, $event, @etc) = @_;
my $id = $POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id(shift);
my $postback = bless sub {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->post( $id, $event, [ @etc ], [ @_ ] );
return 0;
}, 'POE::NFA::Postback';
$postback_parent_id{$postback} = $id;
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->refcount_increment( $id, 'postback' );
# Tk blesses its callbacks, so we must present one that isn't
# blessed. Otherwise Tk's blessing would divert our DESTROY call to
# its own, and that's not right.
return sub { $postback->(@_) } if USING_TK;
return $postback;
}
# Create a synchronous callback closure. The return value will be
# passed to whatever is handed the callback.
#
# TODO - Should callbacks hold reference counts like postbacks do?
sub callback {
my ($self, $event, @etc) = @_;
my $id = $POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->ID_session_to_id($self);
my $callback = sub {
return $POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->call( $id, $event, [ @etc ], [ @_ ] );
};
$callback;
}
#==============================================================================
# New methods.
sub goto_state {
my ($self, $new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args) = @_;
if (defined $self->[SELF_CURRENT] && !$self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_IMMEDIATE}) {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->post(
$self, NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE,
$new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args
);
}
else {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->call(
$self, NFA_EN_GOTO_STATE,
$new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args
);
}
}
sub stop {
my $self = shift;
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->post( $self, NFA_EN_STOP );
}
sub call_state {
my ($self, $return_event, $new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args) = @_;
if ($self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_IMMEDIATE}) {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->call(
$self, NFA_EN_PUSH_STATE,
$return_event,
$new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args
);
}
else {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->post(
$self, NFA_EN_PUSH_STATE,
$return_event,
$new_state, $entry_event, @entry_args
);
}
}
sub return_state {
my ($self, @entry_args) = @_;
if ($self->[SELF_OPTIONS]->{+OPT_IMMEDIATE}) {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->call( $self, NFA_EN_POP_STATE, @entry_args );
}
else {
$POE::Kernel::poe_kernel->post( $self, NFA_EN_POP_STATE, @entry_args );
}
}
1;
__END__
=head1 NAME
POE::NFA - an event-driven state machine (nondeterministic finite automaton)
=head1 SYNOPSIS
use POE::Kernel;
use POE::NFA;
use POE::Wheel::ReadLine;
# Spawn an NFA and enter its initial state.
POE::NFA->spawn(
inline_states => {
initial => {
setup => \&setup_stuff,
},
state_login => {
on_entry => \&login_prompt,
on_input => \&save_login,
},
state_password => {
on_entry => \&password_prompt,
on_input => \&check_password,
},
state_cmd => {
on_entry => \&command_prompt,
on_input => \&handle_command,
},
},
)->goto_state(initial => "setup");
POE::Kernel->run();
exit;
sub setup_stuff {
$_[RUNSTATE]{io} = POE::Wheel::ReadLine->new(
InputEvent => 'on_input',
);
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state(state_login => "on_entry");
}
sub login_prompt { $_[RUNSTATE]{io}->get('Login: '); }
sub save_login {
$_[RUNSTATE]{login} = $_[ARG0];
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state(state_password => "on_entry");
}
sub password_prompt { $_[RUNSTATE]{io}->get('Password: '); }
sub check_password {
if ($_[RUNSTATE]{login} eq $_[ARG0]) {
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state(state_cmd => "on_entry");
}
else {
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state(state_login => "on_entry");
}
}
sub command_prompt { $_[RUNSTATE]{io}->get('Cmd: '); }
sub handle_command {
$_[RUNSTATE]{io}->put(" <<$_[ARG0]>>");
if ($_[ARG0] =~ /^(?:quit|stop|exit|halt|bye)$/i) {
$_[RUNSTATE]{io}->put('Bye!');
$_[MACHINE]->stop();
}
else {
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state(state_cmd => "on_entry");
}
}
=head1 DESCRIPTION
POE::NFA implements a different kind of POE session: A
non-deterministic finite automaton. Let's break that down.
A finite automaton is a state machine with a bounded number of states
and transitions. Technically, POE::NFA objects may modify themselves
at run time, so they aren't really "finite". Run-time modification
isn't currently supported by the API, so plausible deniability is
maintained!
Deterministic state machines are ones where all possible transitions
are known at compile time. POE::NFA is "non-deterministic" because
transitions may change based on run-time conditions.
But more simply, POE::NFA is like POE::Session but with banks of event
handlers that may be swapped according to the session's run-time state.
Consider the SYNOPSIS example, which has "on_entry" and "on_input"
handlers that do different things depending on the run-time state.
POE::Wheel::ReadLine throws "on_input", but different things happen
depending whether the session is in its "login", "password" or
"command" state.
POE::NFA borrows heavily from POE::Session, so this document will only
discuss the differences. Please see L<POE::Session> for things which
are similar.
=head1 PUBLIC METHODS
This document mainly focuses on the differences from POE::Session.
=head2 get_current_state
Each machine state has a name. get_current_state() returns the name
of the machine's current state. get_current_state() is mainly used to
retrieve the state of some other machine. It's easier (and faster) to
use C<$_[STATE]> in a machine's own event handlers.
=head2 get_runstate
get_runstate() returns the machine's current runstate. Runstates are
equivalent to POE::Session HEAPs, so this method does pretty much the
same as POE::Session's get_heap(). It's easier (and faster) to use
C<$_[RUNSTATE]> in a machine's own event handlers, however.
=head2 spawn STATE_NAME => HANDLERS_HASHREF[, ...]
spawn() is POE::NFA's constructor. The name reflects the idea that
new state machines are spawned like threads or processes rather than
instantiated like objects.
The machine itself is defined as a list of state names and hashes that
map events to handlers within each state.
my %states = (
state_1 => {
event_1 => \&handler_1,
event_2 => \&handler_2,
},
state_2 => {
event_1 => \&handler_3,
event_2 => \&handler_4,
},
);
A single event may be handled by many states. The proper handler will
be called depending on the machine's current state. For example, if
C<event_1> is dispatched while the machine is in C<state_2>, then
handler_3() will be called to handle the event. The state -> event ->
handler map looks like this:
$machine{state_2}{event_1} = \&handler_3;
Instead of C<inline_states>, C<object_states> or C<package_states> may
be used. These map the events of a state to an object or package method
respectively.
object_states => {
state_1 => [
$object_1 => [qw(event_1 event_2)],
],
state_2 => [
$object_2 => {
event_1 => method_1,
event_2 => method_2,
}
]
}
In the example above, in the case of C<event_1> coming in while the machine
is in C<state_1>, method C<event_1> will be called on $object_1. If the
machine is in C<state_2>, method C<method_1> will be called on $object_2.
C<package_states> is very similar, but instead of using an $object, you
pass in a C<Package::Name>
The C<runstate> parameter allows C<RUNSTATE> to be initialized differently
at instantiation time. C<RUNSTATE>, like heaps, are usually anonymous hashrefs,
but C<runstate> may set them to be array references or even objects.
State transitions are not necessarily executed immediately by default. Rather,
they are placed in POEs event queue behind any currently pending events.
Enabling the C<immediate> option causes state transitions to occur immediately,
regardless of any queued events.
=head2 goto_state NEW_STATE[, ENTRY_EVENT[, EVENT_ARGS]]
goto_state() puts the machine into a new state. If an ENTRY_EVENT is
specified, then that event will be dispatched after the machine enters
the new state. EVENT_ARGS, if included, will be passed to the entry
event's handler via C<ARG0..$#_>.
# Switch to the next state.
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state( 'next_state' );
# Switch to the next state, and call a specific entry point.
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state( 'next_state', 'entry_event' );
# Switch to the next state; call an entry point with some values.
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state( 'next_state', 'entry_event', @parameters );
=head2 stop
stop() forces a machine to stop. The machine will also stop
gracefully if it runs out of things to do, just like POE::Session.
stop() is heavy-handed. It will force resources to be cleaned up.
However, circular references in the machine's C<RUNSTATE> are not
POE's responsibility and may cause memory leaks.
$_[MACHINE]->stop();
=head2 call_state RETURN_EVENT, NEW_STATE[, ENTRY_EVENT[, EVENT_ARGS]]
call_state() is similar to goto_state(), but it pushes the current
state on a stack. At some later point, a handler can call
return_state() to pop the call stack and return the machine to its old
state. At that point, a C<RETURN_EVENT> will be posted to notify the
old state of the return.
$machine->call_state( 'return_here', 'new_state', 'entry_event' );
As with goto_state(), C<ENTRY_EVENT> is the event that will be emitted
once the machine enters its new state. C<ENTRY_ARGS> are parameters
passed to the C<ENTRY_EVENT> handler via C<ARG0..$#_>.
=head2 return_state [RETURN_ARGS]
return_state() returns to the most recent state in which call_state()
was invoked. If the preceding call_state() included a return event
then its handler will be invoked along with some optional
C<RETURN_ARGS>. The C<RETURN_ARGS> will be passed to the return
handler via C<ARG0..$#_>.
$_[MACHINE]->return_state( 'success', @success_values );
=head2 Methods that match POE::Session
The following methods behave identically to the ones in POE::Session.
=over 2
=item ID
=item option
=item postback
=item callback
=back
=head2 About new() and create()
POE::NFA's constructor is spawn(), not new() or create().
=head1 PREDEFINED EVENT FIELDS
POE::NFA's predefined event fields are the same as POE::Session's with
the following three exceptions.
=head2 MACHINE
C<MACHINE> is equivalent to Session's C<SESSION> field. It holds a
reference to the current state machine, and is useful for calling
its methods.
See POE::Session's C<SESSION> field for more information.
$_[MACHINE]->goto_state( $next_state, $next_state_entry_event );
=head2 RUNSTATE
C<RUNSTATE> is equivalent to Session's C<HEAP> field. It holds an
anonymous hash reference which POE is guaranteed not to touch. Data
stored in C<RUNSTATE> will persist between handler invocations.
=head2 STATE
C<STATE> contains the name of the machine's current state. It is not
equivalent to anything from POE::Session.
=head2 EVENT
C<EVENT> is equivalent to Session's C<STATE> field. It holds the name
of the event which invoked the current handler. See POE::Session's
C<STATE> field for more information.
=head1 PREDEFINED EVENT NAMES
POE::NFA defines four events of its own. These events are used
internally and may not be overridden by application code.
See POE::Session's "PREDEFINED EVENT NAMES" section for more
information about other predefined events.
The events are: C<poe_nfa_goto_state>, C<poe_nfa_push_state>,
C<poe_nfa_pop_state>, C<poe_nfa_stop>.
Yes, all the internal events begin with "poe_nfa_". More may be
forthcoming, but they will always begin the same way. Therefore
please do not define events beginning with "poe_nfa_".
=head1 SEE ALSO
Many of POE::NFA's features are taken directly from POE::Session.
Please see L<POE::Session> for more information.
The SEE ALSO section in L<POE> contains a table of contents covering
the entire POE distribution.
=head1 BUGS
See POE::Session's documentation.
POE::NFA is not as feature-complete as POE::Session. Your feedback is
appreciated.
=head1 AUTHORS & COPYRIGHTS
Please see L<POE> for more information about authors and contributors.
=cut
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