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Hash-19 is as an assassin droid in the Star Wars Universe. These are durasteel drones uploaded with only the most archaic kill programs [Wookieepedia]

Ahem.. Ahem.. So about this gem itself.. When I was writing an aggregation API that had to talk to multiple services each with their own REST end-points and JSON schema, when mashing up multiple hashes and transforming it to a structure acceptable to the consumer, I ended up writing lot of boiler plate code. I could see patterns and there was clearly scope for optimisation.

A detailed writeup explaining the need is available for reading.

Hash19 is an attempt at offering a DSL to tame the JSON manipulation and help in dealing with common use-cases. The features include

  • whitelisting attributes
  • attribute aliasing and keying
  • has_one and has_many associations
  • lazy loading associations via triggers
  • mass injection of associations using bulk APIs


Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'hash19'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install hash19

One example for all

class Jedi
    include Hash19
    attributes :name, :saber, :padawan_id
    attribute :master, key: :trained_by
    has_one :padawan, using: :padawan_id, trigger: ->(id) { Padawan.find id }
    has_many :killings

class Padawan
    include Hash19
    attributes :id, :name
    def find(id)..end #implementation hidden
    def find_all(ids)..end #implementation hidden

json = '[{"name": "Anakin Skywalker", "saber": "Single Blade Blue",  "trained_by": "Obi Wan",
         "padawan": {"id": 201, "name": "Ahsoka Tano"}},
        {"name": "Mace Windu", "saber": "Single Blade Violet", "padawan_id": 132, "trained_by": "Yoda"}]'
jedis = JSON.parse(json) #{"name"=>"Anakin Skywalker", "saber"=>"Single Blade Blue", "master"=>"Obi Wan",
                           #"padawan"=>{"id"=>201, "name"=>"Ahsoka Tano"}}
                   #{"name"=>"Mace Windu", "saber"=>"Single Blade Violet", "master"=>"Yoda",
                           #"padawan"=>{"id"=>132, "name"=>"Depa Billaba["}}

All aspects of the code are explained with detailed examples below. This gives a quick snapshot of what the gem can do. Ergo...

  • the attributes name, saber and padawan_id have been whitelisted. Any other attribute in the JSON will be ignored
  • the attributes can have aliases in the actual JSON
  • there can be an inline relationship within the JSON with another entity. For example, each Jedi entity can contain a padawan object. If the association already exists, it will be transformed. This is true for the first Jedi in the example
  • If the association is not present in the JSON, it is lazy loaded. The first call to the attribute will call the trigger to fetch the association, if not present. In this case, for the second Jedi, a call Padawan#find will be triggered and the association fetched.

Now, this immediately raises the question about firing multiple calls to Padawan#find when there are many entries without the association populated. And that's where injection is recommended:

class Jedis
    include Hash19 
    contains :jedi
    inject at: '$', using: :padawan_id, reference: :id, 
           trigger: lambda { |ids| Padawan.find_all ids }, as: 'padawan'

This is like a wrapper class for the Jedi collection. It collects all padawan_ids from the complete JSON, calls Padawan#find_all once, the bulk-api equivalent of find, with a list of ids and injects the content back to the main collection at appropriate places as defined by the json_path in at


To get started, include the Hash19 module in the target class and you are good.

A detailed documentation of all features can be found below:

  1. Whitelisting attributes
 class SuperHero 
	 include Hash19
	 attributes :name, :strength
	 attribute :universe, key: :comic

Assume a JSON payload has many more attributes

[{"name": "Flash", "strength": "Speed", "last_seen": "never", "comic": "DC"},
 {"name": "Magneto", "strength": "Magnetism Control", "first_seen": 1963, "comic": "Marvel"},
 {"name": "Hulk", "strength": "Super Strength", "weakness": "temper", "comic": "Marvel"}]

When this JSON is thrown at a Hash19 class...

  payload = JSON.parse(json)
  results = { |hash| }
  print results #[{"name"=>"Flash", "strength"=>"Speed", "universe"=>"DC"},
                # {"name"=>"Magneto", "strength"=>"Magnetism Control", "universe"=>"Marvel"},
                # {"name"=>"Hulk", "strength"=>"Super Strength", "universe"=>"Marvel"}]

Note that only the whitelisted attributes are accepted and keys can be aliased. The to_h method converts the native hash19 object into a ruby hash.

  1. Still a hash The Hash19 object acts as a wrapper to Ruby Hash. All hash operations are supported by the wrapper. But, finally to_h should be called to retrieve the underlying hash.
 hero = "Flash", strength: "Speed", comic: "DC")
 hero[:name] #Flash
 hero[:nick_name] = "Scarlet Speedster"
 hero.keys #["name", "strength", "universe", "nick_name"]
 hero.to_h #{"name"=>"Flash", "strength"=>"Speed", "universe"=>"DC", "nick_name"=>"Scarlet Speedster"}
  1. Associations One-to-one and One-to-many relationships are supported. All associations are lazy loaded unless present directly in the root JSON.
class Hashable
    include Hash19
class SuperVillain < Hashable
    attribute :name
    has_many :minions
    has_one :doctor
class Minion < Hashable
  attributes :name, :sound
class Doctor < Hashable
  attribute :name

Now, a JSON of the following structure

{"name": "Gru", "doctor": {"name": "Nefario"}, 
"minions": [{"name": "Poppadom", "sound": "Weebaa"},{"name": "Gelato", "sound": "Ooojaa"}]

can be parsed with all associations loaded when calling

If the parent JSON does not contain the associations and they are powered by separate API calls, we can specify triggers to load them.

class SuperVillain < Hashable
    attribute :name, doctor_id
    has_one :doctor, using: :doctor_id, trigger: ->(id) { Error.find id }

If you notice the trigger, the using parameter denotes the attribute to use to fetch the association and the lambda passed to trigger will be invoked to fetch the association. This is lazy loaded, in the sense when a call is made to .doctor or .to_h, the trigger is fired.

Associations also support alternate keys and aliasing... The below code snippet illustrates use of a different key in source json, the class to use to construct the object and the alias key in the target.

has_one :child, key: :offspring, alias: :junior
{offspring: {name: 'Luke Skywalker'}} # will be parsed as {'junior' => {'name' => 'Luke Skywalker'}}
  1. Bulk Injections

Left to itself with associations, when the root JSON is a large collection with none of the associations populated in the first place, there will be several triggers fired for each item in the collection. This is the HTTP equivalent of N+1 in the ORM world. To avoid this, Hash19 supports association injections. Let's dive into an example:

class SuperHeroes < Hashable
    contains :super_heroes
    inject at: '$', using: :weapon_id, reference: :id, trigger: lambda { |ids| Weapon.find_all ids }

  class SuperHero < Hashable
    attributes :name, :power, :weapon_id
    has_one :weapon, using: :weapon_id, trigger: lambda { |id| Weapon.find id }

  class Weapon < Hashable
    attributes :name, :id
    def find_all(ids)..end #calls bulk API across wire. Implementation hidden

If you notice, SuperHeroes is a wrapper class around SuperHero. This is the object equivalent of a JSON collection. The inject method will extract weapon_id from all items in the collection based on the json-path specified by at and call the trigger and put back the resultant entities joining superhero.weapon_id and

So, a json like below

super_heros =[{name: 'iron man', power: 'none', weapon_id: 1},
				{name: 'thor', power: 'class 100', weapon_id: 2},
				{name: 'hulk', power: 'bulk', weapon_id: 3}])

will lead to one call to Weapon#find_all with params [1,2,3] to fetch all weapon details. And the final collection will be of the form:

super_heroes.to_h #[{'name' => 'iron man', 'power' => 'none', 'weapon' => {'name' => 'jarvis', 'id' => 1}},
                  #{'name' => 'thor', 'power' => 'class 100', 'weapon' => {'name' => 'hammer', 'id' => 2}},
                  #{'name' => 'hulk', 'power' => 'bulk', 'weapon' => {'name' => 'hands', 'id' => 3}}

Note that injection always overrides the association trigger since the former is eager loaded and latter is lazy loaded thus avoiding the N+1 calls.

One other important thing to remember is that all the injections will happen in parallel. Hash19 uses eldritch gem to trigger multiple injections concurrently. If one inject is dependent on another or if you want the injections to happen in sequence add async: false to make calls synchronously.

Please refer to the tests for more examples and documentation.


  1. Fork it ( )
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create a new Pull Request


Hash helpers to map complex JSON to ruby objects. Handles associations and eager loading







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