Code for forward population genetic simulation in asexual populations, with special focus on cancer progression. Fitness can be an arbitrary function of genetic interactions between multiple genes or modules of genes, including epistasis, order restrictions in mutation accumulation, and order effects. Mutation rates can differ between genes, and we can include mutator/antimutator genes (to model mutator phenotypes). Simulations so far use continuous-time models and can include driver and passenger genes and modules. Also included are functions for: simulating random DAGs of the type found in Oncogenetic Trees, Conjunctive Bayesian Networks, and other cancer progression models; plotting and sampling from single or multiple realizations of the simulations, including single-cell sampling; plotting the parent-child relationships of the clones; generating random fitness landscapes (Rough Mount Fuji, House of Cards, and additive models, and NK model) and plotting them.
A former version of this code has been used in the paper "Identifying restrictions in the order of accumulation of mutations during tumor progression: effects of passengers, evolutionary models, and sampling", BMC Bioinformatics, 2015, 16:41. OncoSimulR has also been used extensively in the simulations reported in the Bioinformatics paper "Cancer Progression Models And Fitness Landscapes: A Many-To-Many Relationship" and the PLoS Computational Biology paper "Every which way? On predicting tumor evolution using cancer progression models".
New functionality to allow for frequency-dependent fitness has been added. See the freq-dep-fitness branch: https://github.com/rdiaz02/OncoSimul/tree/freq-dep-fitness
To use the most recent code in BioConductor, install the devel version.
if (!require("BiocManager")) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install("OncoSimulR", version = "devel")
To start using it:
You can directly install from github (and this might be newer than the BioC code)
install.packages("devtools") ## if you don't have it already library(devtools) install_github("rdiaz02/OncoSimul/OncoSimulR")
But sometimes the latest additions in this repo could be broken (see Software status). And you can of course clone this repo, and install from there.
BioConductor github repository
The github repository for this package is this one: https://github.com/rdiaz02/OncoSimul . Since mid-2017 BioConductor is maintained using git, but since this directory contains other files and directories in addition to the OncoSimulR package itself, I have not used option "Sync an existing GitHub repository with Bioconductor". Instead, I continue using this github repo, but then locally update a Bioconductor-only repository of just the OncoSimulR code (as explained in Maintain a Bioconductor-only repository for an existing package).
As any R/BioConductor package, OncoSimulR comes with documentation for its
user-visible functions and data sets (using the help is just standard R
OncoSimulR's BioConductor page
you have access to the standard documentation both the manual and overview
---the vignette. The best place to start is the vignette (created from the
OncoSimulR/vignettes/OncoSimulR.Rnw file that includes both text and
You can view the vignette from R itself doing
and this gives you access to the HTML, the Rmd file (markdown + R), and the R code.
Documentation: HTML and PDF for this repo's version
These files correspond to the most recent, github version, of the package (i.e., they might include changes not yet available from the BioConudctor package).
This paper published in Bioinformatics gives a quick overview of OncoSimulR (a former version is available as a bioRxiv preprint). You can also take a look at this poster presented at ECCB 2016. A chapter titled "Simulating evolution in asexual populations with epistasis" will appear in K.-C. Wong (ed.), Epistasis: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, later during 2020; here is a preprint version.
If you use the package in publications please cite the Bioinformatics paper.
The frequency-dependent fitness functionality is based on Sergio Sanchez-Carrilo's Master's thesis (see also file 'miscell-files/Sergio_Sanchez-Carillo-improvements-post-TFM.pdf' for additional features that were not described in the original thesis). Additional functionality has been added by Juan Antonio Miguel González.
Licenses and copyright
The R/BioConductor OncoSimulR package is licensed under the GPLv3
license. The code for the OncoSimulR BioConductor package, except for
plot.stacked, is Copyright 2012-2020 by
Ramon Diaz-Uriarte; the code for frequency dependent fitness is Copyright
2017-2019 Sergio Sanchez-Carrillo and 2019-2020 Juan Antonio Miguel
plot.stacked are Copyright 2013-2016 by Marc
Taylor (see also https://github.com/marchtaylor/sinkr and
The code under
src/FitnessLandascape is from MAGELLAN, Maps of
The authors are S. Brouillet, G. Achaz, S. Matuszewski, H. Annoni, and
L. Ferreti. I downloaded the sources on 2019-06-05 from
http://wwwabi.snv.jussieu.fr/public/magellan/latest.tgz. The code is under
the GPLv3. MAGELLAN is "an integrated tool to visualize and analyze
fitness landscapes of small dimension (up to 7-8 loci)". In OncoSimulR we
use only a very limited subset of the functionality of MAGELLAN (mostly to
generate different types of random fitness landscapes and to compute
statistics of epistasis); the
Makevars file we use only compiles two of
the executables (
fl_generate) ---the directory
src/FitnessLandascape contains, however, the complete sources. Note also
that the plots of fitness landscapes used in OncoSimulR are actually
blatantly copied in looks from MAGELLAN's plots.
(For the freq-dep-fitness branch) The code under
is from The C++ Mathematical Expression Toolkit Library
(ExprTk). This code
is copyright Arash Partow, and is licensed under "The MIT License (MIT)"
(http://www.opensource.org/licenses/MIT) and is compatible with GPL
(http://directory.fsf.org/wiki/License:Expat). The file was originally
downloaded from http://www.partow.net/programming/exprtk/index.html on
2017-05-15. The most recent version was downloaded again in 2019-05-14
(and corresponds to the exprTk
repo at commit
file was originally named
exprtk.hpp; to conform to R's requirements, it
was renamed as
The code in
miscell-files/randutils.h is copyright Melissa E. O'Neill,
and is licensed under "The MIT License (MIT)" in the terms explained in
the file itself. This is a license that is
compatible with the GPL.
The file randutils.hpp was downloaded from
https://gist.github.com/imneme/540829265469e673d045 on 2015-06-20 and is
also referenced from the main article [Ease of Use without Loss of Power]
renamed it to randutils.h to conform to R's requirements (and changed the
auto exit_func = hash(&_Exit); line to keep R from complaining about the
Exit function). I had to disable usage of randutils for now, since I could
not get it to compile with gcc-4.6 (since version 3.3 of R,
the official Rtools for Windows now support C++-11, so I might change
this in the near future).
The file under gitinfo-hooks is Copyright 2011 Brent Longborough, is part of the gitinfo package, and is under the LaTeX Project Public License 1.3, which is incompatible with the GPL. Note this file is not part of the OncoSimulR BioConductor package.
The files under miscell-files/AParramon_discrete_time are copyright Alberto Parramon, unless otherwise specified. This is an implementation of a discrete-time version of OncoSimulR.
|Bioconductor (multiple platforms)||Travis CI (Linux)||Appveyor (Windows)|
|R CMD check|| (release)
(Note: Appveyor can fail for reasons that have nothing to do with the package, such as R not being downloaded correctly, etc. Look at the details of each failure. Similarly, some of the errors in BioConductor, specially in the development branch, can be caused, specially in Windows, by some required packages not being yet available, often "car" and "igraph".Again, look at the details of each failure.)