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Practical guide to use Gnus with Gmail

Author: Chen Bin (redguardtoo)

Version: 20170710

Updated: <2017-07-10 Mon>

Created: <2012-10-12 Mon>

Copyright: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


Gnus is a good email client.

But many newbies get lost in its features. It would be much easier if they had learned the essential 5% features and ignored the remaining 95% at the beginning.

Here is my guide on that 5%.


  • Gnus is solid
  • Works on all platforms
  • Less hardware resource required
  • Searcher and filter is great
  • Mail can be viewed when offline. See the “offline” in section “Advanced tips”
  • Powerful when used with other Emacs plugins like yasnippet

Quick start

Things you need to know at first

  • This guide applies to Emacs24+
  • You need install GnuTLS and OpenSSH on Linux/Mac/Window(Cygwin)
  • C means Ctrl and M means Alt. For example, M-x means pressing Alt and x together.
  • M-x mycommand means pressing Alt and x, input “mycommand”, and press Enter key.
  • RET means Enter key
  • Group means the mail folder
  • Group buffer is the buffer listing folders
  • Summary buffer is the buffer listing mails
  • ~ means HOME directory. The full path of ~ is setup in the environment variable HOME. For example, ~/.gnus.el means a file named .gnus.el is placed in HOME directory. Only on windows, you must setup HOME environment variable manually. If you are a windows user, please setup HOME right now!

Sample setup

M-x gnus will load ~/.gnus.el. Usually we place all setup code in ~/.gnus.el so third party libraries used only by Gnus is not loaded during Emacs startup.

Before start Gnus, you must create .gnus.el. Please check or use my setup at the end of this article.


After starting Gnus by M-x gnus, you come to the “Group Buffer”. The “Group Buffer” lists the mail folders. In Gnus, the folder is called “Group”. By default, the folders are invisible!

You need subscribe the groups to make it visible. For example, INBOX is named “nnimap+gmail:INBOX” in “Group Buffer” and it’s invisible at the beginning!. I admit it’s confusing.

Check section “Subscribe groups” for details.

At minimum, you need subscribe INBOX group. The subscribed groups could still be invisible if they contains NO unread mails. Yes, I admit this makes no sense for a modern email client!

You need C-u 5 M-x gnus-group-list-all-groups to solve this problem.

You can insert below code into ~/.gnus to create hotkey o for C-u 5 M-x gnus-group-list-all-groups :

(defun my-gnus-group-list-subscribed-groups ()
  "List all subscribed groups with or without un-read messages"
  (gnus-group-list-all-groups 5))

(define-key gnus-group-mode-map
  ;; list all the subscribed groups even they contain zero un-read messages
  (kbd "o") 'my-gnus-group-list-subscribed-groups)

In the “Group Buffer”, you can enter a folder by pressing RET. But I strongly suggest using C-u RET in order to see all the mails instead of unread mails.

In the folder, you are viewing “Summary Buffer” which is, as I said before, the list of your mails.

Now it’s simple. Press RET to see the mail. Press q to quit “Summary Buffer”.

In short, “Group Buffer” lists mail folders. “Summary Buffer” lists mails in one folder.

That’s all you need to know. You could go to section “My Gnus configuration (for Gmail)” to use Gnus now without reading remaining sections.

Essential 5%

Don’t memorize all key bindings. Only pick up what you actually use.

At the end of this article, I provides my Hydra setup so you don’t need remembering key binding any more.

Please check section “Use Hydra to avoid remembering key bindings” for more details.

Search mails

Press G G or M-x gnus-group-make-nnir-group to search mails at server side in “Group Buffer”.

You can press # to mark the groups. Search will be limited to marked groups. M-# to un-mark.

If no group marked, the group under cursor is searched.

Place the cursor before the first group, all groups will be searched.

To search certain fields in the mail, press C-u G G or C-u M-x gnus-group-make-nnir-group instead. This is a very useful technique.

You can apply more advanced search syntax (RFC3501 section SEARCH command) by:

  • Press C-u G G or C-u M-x gnus-group-make-nnir-group
  • Input query statements, press Enter
  • Type imap, press Enter

For example, I can use query like TEXT github SINCE 1-Jan-2016 FROM chenbin to search mails which are sent by me and contains keyword github on year 2016.

People who dislike “friendly” RFC3501 could use Gmail syntax for search (Roy Hashimoto provides this tip),

;; Let Gnus know Gmail search syntax
(add-to-list 'nnir-imap-search-arguments '("gmail" . "X-GM-RAW"))
;; `gnus-group-make-nnir-group' use Gmail search syntax *by default*.
;; You can press `G G` instead `C-u G G` instead.
(setq nnir-imap-default-search-key "gmail")

Filter mails locally

Press / / to limit the mails by subject at “Summary Buffer”. “Limiting” means filtering mails locally.

Press / a to limit the mails by author.

/ w to cancel the current filter.

You can apply the limits sequentially and cancel them in reverse order by pressing / w multiple times.

“Limiting” is cool. See for more Limiting tricks.

You can also see for technical details.

Subscribe groups

Press A A or M-x gnus-group-list-active in “Group Buffer” to fetch groups at all connected server. It take a while. I suggest pressing “L” to use local cache instead after A A once.

After A A or L, press u to subscribe/unsubscribe specific group.

In order to see all the mails in “INBOX” folder/group, you need MANUALLY subscribe the group “INBOX”!

Pressing o is much better. It is the hotkey I created for C-u 5 M-x gnus-group-list-all-groups, as mentioned in previous sections.

Press g or M-x gnus-group-get-new-news to refresh groups list.

You can also subscribe groups programmatically. Insert below code into ~/.gnus.el:

(defvar gnus-subscribe-groups-done nil
  "Only subscribe groups once.  Or else Gnus will NOT restart.")
(unless gnus-subscribe-groups-done
  (gnus-subscribe-hierarchically "nnimap+hotmail:Inbox")
  (setq gnus-subscribe-groups-done t))

Reply email

Press R or M-x gnus-summary-reply-with-original to reply WITH quoted text. Press r or M-x gnus-summary-reply to reply WITHOUT quoted text.

Press S W (capitalized S then capitalized W) or M-x gnus-summary-wide-reply-with-original to reply all WITH quoted text. It’s called “wide reply” in Emacs.

Press S w or M-x gnus-summary-wide-reply to reply all WITHOUT quoted text.

Compose new email

Press m or M-x gnus-new-mail in “Summary Buffer”.

You could also C-x m or M-x compose-mail anywhere in Emacs without bugging Gnus.

Re-send as new mail

Press S D e or M-x gnus-summary-resend-message-edit. For example, you may need re-send mail in Draft folder.

Attach a file

Press C-c C-a or M-x mml-attach-file.

The attached file is actually plain text embedded in mail body. You can copy and modify the text.

Save attachment

Move focus over the attachment and press o or M-x gnus-mime-save-part. See ”Using Mime” in Emacs manual for details.

Open attachment

Move focus over the attachment and press Enter or M-x gnus-article-press-button.

The variable mailcap-mime-data defines the program to open the attachment.

You can tweak the variable on Windows or OSX.

On Linux, I press M-x mailcap-parse-mailcaps to load data from ~/.mailcap into mailcap-mime-data instead of tweaking mailcap-mime-data directly.

My ~/.mailcap:

# url
text/html; w3m -I %{charset} -T text/html; copiousoutput;

# image viewer
image/*; feh -F -d -S filename '%s';

# pdf
application/pdf; zathura '%s';
image/pdf; zathura '%s'

# video
video/* ; mplayer '%s'
audio/* ; mplayer '%s'

# Office files.
application/msword; soffice '%s'
application/rtf; soffice '%s'
text/richtext; soffice '%s'
application/; soffice '%s'
application/; soffice '%s'

Send email

Press C-c C-c or M-x message-send-and-exit.

Refresh “Summary Buffer” (check new mails)

Press / N or M-x gnus-summary-insert-new-articles.

Make all mails visible (IMPORTANT)

Press C-u RET on the selected group in “Group Buffer”, or C-u M-g in “Summary Buffer”.

That’s the most important part of this article! By default, Gnus only displays unread mails.

Check for details.

Forward mail

Press C-c C-f or M-x gnus-summary-mail-forward in “Summary Buffer”.

You can mark multiple mails to forward (hotkey is “#”) and forward them in one mail. Holger Schauer provided the tip.

After the forwarded email is created, you may copy the body of that email without sending it. The copied content could be inserted into new mail.

Mark mails as read

Press c either in “Summary Buffer” or “Group Buffer”. This is my favorite used command which it’s more efficient than average mail client.

Tree view of mail folders

Group Topics is used to re-organize the mail folder into tree view.

For example, you can place mail folders from Gmail into “gmail” topic, mails from into “hotmail” topic, place “gmail” and “hotmail” under root topic “Gnus”.

The setup is only one line,

(add-hook 'gnus-group-mode-hook 'gnus-topic-mode)

After setup, you can read its official manual to learn its commands to organize mail folders manually.

It’s tiresome to do this folder organizing thing again and again on different computers.

So you’d better use my way.

All you need to do is to insert below code into ~/.gnus.el,

(eval-after-load 'gnus-topic
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group '((format-time-string "sent.%Y")))
     (setq gnus-topic-topology '(("Gnus" visible)
                                 (("misc" visible))
                                 (("hotmail" visible nil nil))
                                 (("gmail" visible nil nil))))

     ;; Please not the key of topic is specified in my sample setup
     (setq gnus-topic-alist '(("hotmail" ; the key of topic
                              ("gmail" ; the key of topic
                               "[Gmail]/Sent Mail"
                              ("misc" ; the key of topic

Instead of remembering extra commands, editing above snippet is more straightforward. The only requirement is a little bit of Emacs Lisp knowledge.

The flag gnus-message-archive-group defines local archive folder of sent mails. By default new folder is created monthly. My setup creates the folder yearly.

Advanced tips

Windows setup

It’s 100% usable if you install Cygwin at first.

Gnus from Cygwin version of Emacs works out of the box.

Native Emacs for Windows need a little setup:

  • Right-click “My Computer” and go to “Properties -> Advanced -> Environmental Variables”
  • Setup user variables which does not require Administrator right
  • Set the variable “HOME” to the parent directory of your “.emacs.d” directory
  • Set the variable “PATH” to the “C:\cygwin64\bin”. I suppose Cygwin is installed at driver C.
  • Install GnuTLS and OpenSSH through Cygwin package manager

Microsoft Outlook

If your Exchange Server is not using standard protocol like IMAP or you can’t access IMAP port behind firewall, you can use DavMail. DavMail is a “POP/IMAP/SMTP/CalDAV/CardDAV/LDAP exchange gateway”.

Please read its manual, it’s easy to setup.

Here are a few tips for DavMail setup.

The Administrator might use non-standard OWA url, you can use EWSEditor to find out the url.

The IMAP setup should set nnimap-stream to plain by default.

Here is a sample setup for Davmail:

(setq gnus-select-method
      '(nnimap "companyname"
               (nnimap-address "")
               (nnimap-server-port 1143)
               (nnimap-stream plain)
               (nnir-search-engine imap)))

Auto-complete mail address

Install BBDB through melpa. It is a email address database written in Emacs Lisp.

You can always use M-x bbdb-complete-name and M-x bbdb-complete-mail provided by BBDB.

But there are other better plugins based on BBDB (so you still need install BBDB at first):

You only need one of above packages.

Synchronize from Gmail contacts


Other plugins are strict on versions of BBDB. Mine doesn’t have such issue.

Customize “From” field

Easiest solution is to switch the FROM field dynamically by M-x toggle-mail-from-field:

(defun toggle-mail-from-field ()
   ((string= "" user-mail-address)
    (setq user-mail-address ""))
    (setq user-mail-address "")))
  (message "Mail FROM: %s" user-mail-address))

A more complex solution is setup FROM field by the computer you are using:

;; (getenv "HOSTNAME") won't work because $HOSTNAME is not an env variable
;; (system-name) won't work because my /etc/hosts has some weird setup in office
(setq my-hostname (with-temp-buffer
        (shell-command "hostname" t)
        (goto-char (point-max))
        (delete-char -1)

(defun at-office ()
  (and (string= my-hostname "my-sydney-workpc")
       (not (or (string= my-hostname "homepc")
                (string= my-hostname "eee")))))

(setq user-full-name "My Name"
      user-mail-address (if (at-office) "" ""))

Please note,

  • Command line program hostname is better than Emacs function (system-name)
  • I works on several computers which do not belong to me, so I cannot change /etc/hosts which (system-name) try to access
  • Please verify your email address at Gmail if you use Google’s SMTP server

Classify email


You may think Google Inbox equals to Popfile. Trust me, it’s not. You only need Popfile!

Popfile is open source software. The data is stored locally with my full control. For example, the algorithm trained by Gmail can be used to classify mails from Microsoft Exchange Mail Server.

Check for details.

The command I use to start popfile,

cd ~/bin/popfile/ && perl

Write HTML mail

Use org-mime.

Usage is simple. Write mail in org format and M-x org-mime-htmlize.

Please use my patched org-mime which supports Emacs 24.

Read HTML mail

Install w3m and emacs-w3m.

Then insert below code into ~/.emacs,

(setq mm-text-html-renderer 'w3m)

If we don’t specify the w3m as html render, Emacs will use its built in browser shr to render HTML since version 24.4.

I prefer w3m because it has powerful APIs and available on all operating systems.

Some people prefer shr because it can display HTML colors. The libxml is required if you used shr. On windows, libxml need be installed manually.

If you use Cygwin on Windows (as I said before, you have to install Cygwin because that’s the easiest way to install GnuTLS and OpenSSH), you can install w3m through Cygwin.

Read mail offline

Go to “Summary Buffer”.

You need mark the mails by pressing ! or M-x gnus-summary-tick-article-forward.

The marked mails enter the disk cache. They can be read offline.

M-x gnus-summary-put-mark-as-read to remove the cached mail.

You also need insert below code into ~/.emacs,

(setq gnus-use-cache t)

Above code uses the cache to the full extent by “wasting” tens of megabytes of disk space.

The disk cache is located at “~/News/cache/”. You can back it up with GitHub private repository.

Multiple accounts

You only need copy the code containing “gnus-secondary-select-methods” from my setup.

Here is a sample setup,

(add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods
             '(nnimap "gmail-second"
                      (nnimap-address "")
                      (nnimap-server-port 993)
                      (nnimap-stream ssl)
                      (nnir-search-engine imap)
                      ; @see
                      ;; press 'E' to expire email
                      (nnmail-expiry-target "nnimap+gmail:[Gmail]/Trash")
                      (nnmail-expiry-wait 90)))

gnus-secondary-select-methods is the list of your email accounts.

The information of multiple accounts is stored at ~/.authinfo.gpg.

Why Gnus displays more mails than Gmail

Gnus counts by individual mail. Gmail counts by mail thread.

Subscribe “[Gmail]/Sent Mail” folder

You can see your sent mails in Gnus.

Reconnect mail server

Press M-x gnus-group-enter-server-mode to go into server list.

Move the cursor to the offline server and M-x gnus-server-open-server.

Use Hydra to avoid remembering key bindings

  • Install Hydra through
  • Insert below code into ~/.emacs. Then press C-c C-y when composing mail. Press y in other modes
(eval-after-load 'gnus-group
     (defhydra hydra-gnus-group (:color blue)
       ("a" gnus-group-list-active "REMOTE groups A A")
       ("l" gnus-group-list-all-groups "LOCAL groups L")
       ("c" gnus-topic-catchup-articles "Read all c")
       ("G" gnus-group-make-nnir-group "Search server G G")
       ("g" gnus-group-get-new-news "Refresh g")
       ("s" gnus-group-enter-server-mode "Servers")
       ("m" gnus-group-new-mail "Compose m OR C-x m")
       ("#" gnus-topic-mark-topic "mark #")
       ("q" nil "cancel"))
     ;; y is not used by default
     (define-key gnus-group-mode-map "y" 'hydra-gnus-group/body)))

;; gnus-summary-mode
(eval-after-load 'gnus-sum
     (defhydra hydra-gnus-summary (:color blue)
       ("s" gnus-summary-show-thread "Show thread")
       ("h" gnus-summary-hide-thread "Hide thread")
       ("n" gnus-summary-insert-new-articles "Refresh / N")
       ("f" gnus-summary-mail-forward "Forward C-c C-f")
       ("!" gnus-summary-tick-article-forward "Mail -> disk !")
       ("p" gnus-summary-put-mark-as-read "Mail <- disk")
       ("c" gnus-summary-catchup-and-exit "Read all c")
       ("e" gnus-summary-resend-message-edit "Resend S D e")
       ("R" gnus-summary-reply-with-original "Reply with original R")
       ("r" gnus-summary-reply "Reply r")
       ("W" gnus-summary-wide-reply-with-original "Reply all with original S W")
       ("w" gnus-summary-wide-reply "Reply all S w")
       ("#" gnus-topic-mark-topic "mark #")
       ("q" nil "cancel"))
     ;; y is not used by default
     (define-key gnus-summary-mode-map "y" 'hydra-gnus-summary/body)))

;; gnus-article-mode
(eval-after-load 'gnus-art
     (defhydra hydra-gnus-article (:color blue)
       ("f" gnus-summary-mail-forward "Forward")
       ("R" gnus-article-reply-with-original "Reply with original R")
       ("r" gnus-article-reply "Reply r")
       ("W" gnus-article-wide-reply-with-original "Reply all with original S W")
       ("o" gnus-mime-save-part "Save attachment at point o")
       ("w" gnus-article-wide-reply "Reply all S w")
       ("q" nil "cancel"))
     ;; y is not used by default
     (define-key gnus-article-mode-map "y" 'hydra-gnus-article/body)))

(eval-after-load 'message
     (defhydra hydra-message (:color blue)
       ("ca" mml-attach-file "Attach C-c C-a")
       ("cc" message-send-and-exit "Send C-c C-c")
       ("q" nil "cancel"))
     (global-set-key (kbd "C-c C-y") 'hydra-message/body)))

Use Gwene to read RSS/Atom feed as a news group

You can either submit single RSS/Atom feed url or upload OMPL file.

I suggest using emacs-w3m to upload OPML file because it’s easy to select the links created by Gwene.

Then you can use techniques I introduced in previous section “Tree view of mail folders” to organize the feeds. Please make up your mind before uploading.

To view/download embedded video/audio in feed, you can use mplayer if its support for network streaming is enabled. It’s enabled by default at most Linux distributions, OSX, and Windows.

There are also CLI tricks to open images at different OS. Check my code for details.

Here are three commands w3mext-open-with-mplayer, w3mext-download-rss-stream, and w3mext-open-link-or-image-or-url to process multimedia:

(require 'w3m)
;; Install for clipboard support
(require 'simpleclip)

(defun my-buffer-str ()
  (buffer-substring-no-properties (point-min) (point-max)))

(defun my-guess-image-viewer-path (file &optional is-stream)
  (let ((rlt "mplayer"))
      (setq rlt
            (format "open %s &" file)))
      (setq rlt
            (if is-stream (format "curl -L %s | feh -F - &" file) (format "feh -F %s &" file))))
     (*cygwin* (setq rlt "feh -F"))
     (t ; windows
      (setq rlt
            (format "rundll32.exe %SystemRoot%\\\\System32\\\\\shimgvw.dll, ImageView_Fullscreen %s &" file))))

(defun my-guess-mplayer-path ()
  (let* ((rlt "mplayer"))
     (*is-a-mac* (setq rlt "mplayer -quiet"))
     (*linux* (setq rlt "mplayer -quiet -stop-xscreensaver"))
      (if (file-executable-p "/cygdrive/c/mplayer/mplayer.exe")
          (setq rlt "/cygdrive/c/mplayer/mplayer.exe -quiet")
        (setq rlt "/cygdrive/d/mplayer/mplayer.exe -quiet")))
     (t ; windows
      (if (file-executable-p "c:\\\\mplayer\\\\mplayer.exe")
          (setq rlt "c:\\\\mplayer\\\\mplayer.exe -quiet")
        (setq rlt "d:\\\\mplayer\\\\mplayer.exe -quiet"))))

(defun w3mext-subject-to-target-filename ()
  (let (rlt str)
      (goto-char (point-min))
      ;; first line in email could be some hidden line containing NO to field
      (setq str (my-buffer-str)))
    (if (string-match "^Subject: \\(.+\\)" str)
        (setq rlt (match-string 1 str)))
    ;; clean the timestamp at the end of subject
    (setq rlt (replace-regexp-in-string "[ 0-9_.'/-]+$" "" rlt))
    (setq rlt (replace-regexp-in-string "'s " " " rlt))
    (setq rlt (replace-regexp-in-string "[ ,_'/-]+" "-" rlt))

(defun w3mext-download-rss-stream ()
  (let (url cmd)
    (when (or (string= major-mode "w3m-mode") (string= major-mode "gnus-article-mode"))
      (setq url (w3m-anchor))
       ((or (not url) (string= url "buffer://"))
        (message "This link is not video/audio stream."))
        (setq cmd (format "curl -L %s > %s.%s"  url (w3mext-subject-to-target-filename) (file-name-extension url)))
        (kill-new cmd)
        (simpleclip-set-contents cmd)
        (message "%s => clipd/kill-ring" cmd))))))

(defun w3mext-open-link-or-image-or-url ()
  "Opens the current link or image or current page's uri or any url-like text under cursor in firefox."
  (let* (url)
    (when (or (string= major-mode "w3m-mode") (string= major-mode "gnus-article-mode"))
      (setq url (w3m-anchor))
      (if (or (not url) (string= url "buffer://"))
          (setq url (or (w3m-image) w3m-current-url))))
    (browse-url-generic (if url url (car (browse-url-interactive-arg "URL: "))))))

(defun w3mext-encode-specials (str)
  (setq str (replace-regexp-in-string "(" "%28" str))
  (setq str (replace-regexp-in-string ")" "%29" str))
  (setq str (replace-regexp-in-string ")" "%20" str)))

(defun w3mext-open-with-mplayer ()
  (let (url cmd str)
    (when (or (string= major-mode "w3m-mode") (string= major-mode "gnus-article-mode"))
      ;; weird, `w3m-anchor' fail to extract url while `w3m-image' can
      (setq url (or (w3m-anchor) (w3m-image)))
      (unless url
          (goto-char (point-min))
          (when (string-match "^Archived-at: <?\\([^ <>]*\\)>?" (setq str (my-buffer-str)))
            (setq url (match-string 1 str)))))
      (setq url (w3mext-encode-specials url))
      (setq cmd (format "%s -cache 2000 %s &" (my-guess-mplayer-path) url))
      (when (string= url "buffer://")
        ;; cache 2M data and don't block UI
        (setq cmd (my-guess-image-viewer-path url t))))
    (if url (shell-command cmd))))

Please note these commands require (setq mm-text-html-renderer 'w3m) in your setup.

My setup

This setup requires Emacs 24.3+.

My ~/.gnus.el,

(require 'nnir)

;; @see
(setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "")) ;; if you read news groups

;; ask encryption password once
(setq epa-file-cache-passphrase-for-symmetric-encryption t)

;; @see
(add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods
             '(nnimap "gmail"
                      (nnimap-address "")
                      (nnimap-server-port 993)
                      (nnimap-stream ssl)
                      (nnir-search-engine imap)
                      ; @see
                      ;; press 'E' to expire email
                      (nnmail-expiry-target "nnimap+gmail:[Gmail]/Trash")
                      (nnmail-expiry-wait 90)))

;; OPTIONAL, the setup for Microsoft Hotmail
(add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods
             '(nnimap "hotmail"
                      (nnimap-address "")
                      (nnimap-server-port 993)
                      (nnimap-stream ssl)
                      (nnir-search-engine imap)
                      (nnmail-expiry-wait 90)))

(setq gnus-thread-sort-functions
        (not gnus-thread-sort-by-number)))

; NO 'passive
(setq gnus-use-cache t)

;; BBDB: Address list
(add-to-list 'load-path "/where/you/place/bbdb/")
(require 'bbdb)
(bbdb-initialize 'message 'gnus 'sendmail)
(add-hook 'gnus-startup-hook 'bbdb-insinuate-gnus)
(setq bbdb/mail-auto-create-p t
      bbdb/news-auto-create-p t)

;; auto-complete emacs address using bbdb UI
(add-hook 'message-mode-hook
          '(lambda ()
             (flyspell-mode t)
             (local-set-key (kbd "TAB") 'bbdb-complete-name)))

;; Fetch only part of the article if we can.
;; I saw this in someone's .gnus
(setq gnus-read-active-file 'some)

;; open attachment
(eval-after-load 'mailcap
      ;; on OSX, maybe change mailcap-mime-data?
      ((eq system-type 'darwin))
      ;; on Windows, maybe change mailcap-mime-data?
      ((eq system-type 'windows-nt))
       ;; Linux, read ~/.mailcap

;; Tree view for groups.
(add-hook 'gnus-group-mode-hook 'gnus-topic-mode)

;; Threads!  I hate reading un-threaded email -- especially mailing
;; lists.  This helps a ton!
(setq gnus-summary-thread-gathering-function 'gnus-gather-threads-by-subject)

;; Also, I prefer to see only the top level message.  If a message has
;; several replies or is part of a thread, only show the first message.
;; `gnus-thread-ignore-subject' will ignore the subject and
;; look at 'In-Reply-To:' and 'References:' headers.
(setq gnus-thread-hide-subtree t)
(setq gnus-thread-ignore-subject t)

;; Personal Information
(setq user-full-name "My Name"
      user-mail-address "")

;; Read HTML mail:
;; You need install the command line web browser 'w3m' and Emacs plugin 'w3m'
;; manually. It specify the html render as w3m so my setup works on all versions
;; of Emacs.
;; Since Emacs 24+, a default html rendering engine `shr' is provided:
;;   - It works out of box without any cli program dependency or setup
;;   - It can render html color
;; So below line is optional.
(setq mm-text-html-renderer 'w3m) ; OPTIONAL

;; Send email through SMTP
(setq message-send-mail-function 'smtpmail-send-it
      smtpmail-default-smtp-server ""
      smtpmail-smtp-service 587
      smtpmail-local-domain "homepc")
(setq gnus-use-correct-string-widths nil)

;; Sample on how to organize mail folders.
;; It's dependent on `gnus-topic-mode'.
(eval-after-load 'gnus-topic
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group '((format-time-string "sent.%Y")))
     (setq gnus-server-alist '(("archive" nnfolder "archive" (nnfolder-directory "~/Mail/archive")
                                (nnfolder-active-file "~/Mail/archive/active")
                                (nnfolder-get-new-mail nil)
                                (nnfolder-inhibit-expiry t))))

     ;; "Gnus" is the root folder, and there are three mail accounts, "misc", "hotmail", "gmail"
     (setq gnus-topic-topology '(("Gnus" visible)
                                 (("misc" visible))
                                 (("hotmail" visible nil nil))
                                 (("gmail" visible nil nil))))

     ;; each topic corresponds to a public imap folder
     (setq gnus-topic-alist '(("hotmail" ; the key of topic
                              ("gmail" ; the key of topic
                               "[Gmail]/Sent Mail"
                               "Sent Messages"
                              ("misc" ; the key of topic

Your login and password is stored at ~/.authinfo.gpg which is read by Gnus. Please press C-h v auth-sources for more information.

Multiple mail accounts share one .authinfo.gpg,

machine login password my-secret-password port 993
machine login password my-secret-password port 587
machine login password my-secret-password port 993

Please note “.authinfo.gpg” is encrypted by default. Emacs will do the encryption/description automatically if file extension is “.gpg”. See for details.