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0 parents commit 344dec356e5da9fe5fc2723a05b3e8596916510d Ezra Zygmuntowicz committed Dec 3, 2008
211 README
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+== Welcome to Rails
+
+Rails is a web-application and persistence framework that includes everything
+needed to create database-backed web-applications according to the
+Model-View-Control pattern of separation. This pattern splits the view (also
+called the presentation) into "dumb" templates that are primarily responsible
+for inserting pre-built data in between HTML tags. The model contains the
+"smart" domain objects (such as Account, Product, Person, Post) that holds all
+the business logic and knows how to persist themselves to a database. The
+controller handles the incoming requests (such as Save New Account, Update
+Product, Show Post) by manipulating the model and directing data to the view.
+
+In Rails, the model is handled by what's called an object-relational mapping
+layer entitled Active Record. This layer allows you to present the data from
+database rows as objects and embellish these data objects with business logic
+methods. You can read more about Active Record in
+link:files/vendor/rails/activerecord/README.html.
+
+The controller and view are handled by the Action Pack, which handles both
+layers by its two parts: Action View and Action Controller. These two layers
+are bundled in a single package due to their heavy interdependence. This is
+unlike the relationship between the Active Record and Action Pack that is much
+more separate. Each of these packages can be used independently outside of
+Rails. You can read more about Action Pack in
+link:files/vendor/rails/actionpack/README.html.
+
+
+== Getting started
+
+1. At the command prompt, start a new rails application using the rails command
+ and your application name. Ex: rails myapp
+ (If you've downloaded rails in a complete tgz or zip, this step is already done)
+2. Change directory into myapp and start the web server: <tt>script/server</tt> (run with --help for options)
+3. Go to http://localhost:3000/ and get "Welcome aboard: You’re riding the Rails!"
+4. Follow the guidelines to start developing your application
+
+
+== Web Servers
+
+By default, Rails will try to use Mongrel and lighttpd if they are installed, otherwise
+Rails will use the WEBrick, the webserver that ships with Ruby. When you run script/server,
+Rails will check if Mongrel exists, then lighttpd and finally fall back to WEBrick. This ensures
+that you can always get up and running quickly.
+
+Mongrel is a Ruby-based webserver with a C-component (which requires compilation) that is
+suitable for development and deployment of Rails applications. If you have Ruby Gems installed,
+getting up and running with mongrel is as easy as: <tt>gem install mongrel</tt>.
+More info at: http://mongrel.rubyforge.org
+
+If Mongrel is not installed, Rails will look for lighttpd. It's considerably faster than
+Mongrel and WEBrick and also suited for production use, but requires additional
+installation and currently only works well on OS X/Unix (Windows users are encouraged
+to start with Mongrel). We recommend version 1.4.11 and higher. You can download it from
+http://www.lighttpd.net.
+
+And finally, if neither Mongrel or lighttpd are installed, Rails will use the built-in Ruby
+web server, WEBrick. WEBrick is a small Ruby web server suitable for development, but not
+for production.
+
+But of course its also possible to run Rails on any platform that supports FCGI.
+Apache, LiteSpeed, IIS are just a few. For more information on FCGI,
+please visit: http://wiki.rubyonrails.com/rails/pages/FastCGI
+
+
+== Debugging Rails
+
+Sometimes your application goes wrong. Fortunately there are a lot of tools that
+will help you debug it and get it back on the rails.
+
+First area to check is the application log files. Have "tail -f" commands running
+on the server.log and development.log. Rails will automatically display debugging
+and runtime information to these files. Debugging info will also be shown in the
+browser on requests from 127.0.0.1.
+
+You can also log your own messages directly into the log file from your code using
+the Ruby logger class from inside your controllers. Example:
+
+ class WeblogController < ActionController::Base
+ def destroy
+ @weblog = Weblog.find(params[:id])
+ @weblog.destroy
+ logger.info("#{Time.now} Destroyed Weblog ID ##{@weblog.id}!")
+ end
+ end
+
+The result will be a message in your log file along the lines of:
+
+ Mon Oct 08 14:22:29 +1000 2007 Destroyed Weblog ID #1
+
+More information on how to use the logger is at http://www.ruby-doc.org/core/
+
+Also, Ruby documentation can be found at http://www.ruby-lang.org/ including:
+
+* The Learning Ruby (Pickaxe) Book: http://www.ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/
+* Learn to Program: http://pine.fm/LearnToProgram/ (a beginners guide)
+
+These two online (and free) books will bring you up to speed on the Ruby language
+and also on programming in general.
+
+
+== Breakpoints
+
+Breakpoint support is available through the script/breakpointer client. This
+means that you can break out of execution at any point in the code, investigate
+and change the model, AND then resume execution! Example:
+
+ class WeblogController < ActionController::Base
+ def index
+ @posts = Post.find(:all)
+ breakpoint "Breaking out from the list"
+ end
+ end
+
+So the controller will accept the action, run the first line, then present you
+with a IRB prompt in the breakpointer window. Here you can do things like:
+
+Executing breakpoint "Breaking out from the list" at .../webrick_server.rb:16 in 'breakpoint'
+
+ >> @posts.inspect
+ => "[#<Post:0x14a6be8 @attributes={\"title\"=>nil, \"body\"=>nil, \"id\"=>\"1\"}>,
+ #<Post:0x14a6620 @attributes={\"title\"=>\"Rails you know!\", \"body\"=>\"Only ten..\", \"id\"=>\"2\"}>]"
+ >> @posts.first.title = "hello from a breakpoint"
+ => "hello from a breakpoint"
+
+...and even better is that you can examine how your runtime objects actually work:
+
+ >> f = @posts.first
+ => #<Post:0x13630c4 @attributes={"title"=>nil, "body"=>nil, "id"=>"1"}>
+ >> f.
+ Display all 152 possibilities? (y or n)
+
+Finally, when you're ready to resume execution, you press CTRL-D
+
+
+== Console
+
+You can interact with the domain model by starting the console through <tt>script/console</tt>.
+Here you'll have all parts of the application configured, just like it is when the
+application is running. You can inspect domain models, change values, and save to the
+database. Starting the script without arguments will launch it in the development environment.
+Passing an argument will specify a different environment, like <tt>script/console production</tt>.
+
+To reload your controllers and models after launching the console run <tt>reload!</tt>
+
+To reload your controllers and models after launching the console run <tt>reload!</tt>
+
+
+
+== Description of contents
+
+app
+ Holds all the code that's specific to this particular application.
+
+app/controllers
+ Holds controllers that should be named like weblogs_controller.rb for
+ automated URL mapping. All controllers should descend from ApplicationController
+ which itself descends from ActionController::Base.
+
+app/models
+ Holds models that should be named like post.rb.
+ Most models will descend from ActiveRecord::Base.
+
+app/views
+ Holds the template files for the view that should be named like
+ weblogs/index.rhtml for the WeblogsController#index action. All views use eRuby
+ syntax.
+
+app/views/layouts
+ Holds the template files for layouts to be used with views. This models the common
+ header/footer method of wrapping views. In your views, define a layout using the
+ <tt>layout :default</tt> and create a file named default.rhtml. Inside default.rhtml,
+ call <% yield %> to render the view using this layout.
+
+app/helpers
+ Holds view helpers that should be named like weblogs_helper.rb. These are generated
+ for you automatically when using script/generate for controllers. Helpers can be used to
+ wrap functionality for your views into methods.
+
+config
+ Configuration files for the Rails environment, the routing map, the database, and other dependencies.
+
+components
+ Self-contained mini-applications that can bundle together controllers, models, and views.
+
+db
+ Contains the database schema in schema.rb. db/migrate contains all
+ the sequence of Migrations for your schema.
+
+doc
+ This directory is where your application documentation will be stored when generated
+ using <tt>rake doc:app</tt>
+
+lib
+ Application specific libraries. Basically, any kind of custom code that doesn't
+ belong under controllers, models, or helpers. This directory is in the load path.
+
+public
+ The directory available for the web server. Contains subdirectories for images, stylesheets,
+ and javascripts. Also contains the dispatchers and the default HTML files. This should be
+ set as the DOCUMENT_ROOT of your web server.
+
+script
+ Helper scripts for automation and generation.
+
+test
+ Unit and functional tests along with fixtures. When using the script/generate scripts, template
+ test files will be generated for you and placed in this directory.
+
+vendor
+ External libraries that the application depends on. Also includes the plugins subdirectory.
+ This directory is in the load path.
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+# Add your own tasks in files placed in lib/tasks ending in .rake,
+# for example lib/tasks/capistrano.rake, and they will automatically be available to Rake.
+
+require(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'config', 'boot'))
+
+require 'rake'
+require 'rake/testtask'
+require 'rake/rdoctask'
+
+require 'tasks/rails'
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+# Filters added to this controller apply to all controllers in the application.
+# Likewise, all the methods added will be available for all controllers.
+
+class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
+ # Pick a unique cookie name to distinguish our session data from others'
+ session :session_key => '_rails-2.2.2-app_session_id'
+end
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+# Methods added to this helper will be available to all templates in the application.
+module ApplicationHelper
+end
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+# Don't change this file. Configuration is done in config/environment.rb and config/environments/*.rb
+
+RAILS_ROOT = "#{File.dirname(__FILE__)}/.." unless defined?(RAILS_ROOT)
+
+unless defined?(Rails::Initializer)
+ if File.directory?("#{RAILS_ROOT}/vendor/rails")
+ require "#{RAILS_ROOT}/vendor/rails/railties/lib/initializer"
+ else
+ require 'rubygems'
+
+ rails_gem_version =
+ if defined? RAILS_GEM_VERSION
+ RAILS_GEM_VERSION
+ else
+ File.read("#{File.dirname(__FILE__)}/environment.rb") =~ /^[^#]*RAILS_GEM_VERSION\s+=\s+'([\d.]+)'/
+ $1
+ end
+
+ if rails_gem_version
+ rails_gem = Gem.cache.search('rails', "=#{rails_gem_version}.0").sort_by { |g| g.version.version }.last
+
+ if rails_gem
+ gem "rails", "=#{rails_gem.version.version}"
+ require rails_gem.full_gem_path + '/lib/initializer'
+ else
+ STDERR.puts %(Cannot find gem for Rails =#{rails_gem_version}.0:
+ Install the missing gem with 'gem install -v=#{rails_gem_version} rails', or
+ change environment.rb to define RAILS_GEM_VERSION with your desired version.
+ )
+ exit 1
+ end
+ else
+ gem "rails"
+ require 'initializer'
+ end
+ end
+
+ Rails::Initializer.run(:set_load_path)
+end
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+# SQLite version 3.x
+# gem install sqlite3-ruby
+development:
+ adapter: sqlite3
+ database: db/development.sqlite3
+ timeout: 5000
+
+# Warning: The database defined as 'test' will be erased and
+# re-generated from your development database when you run 'rake'.
+# Do not set this db to the same as development or production.
+test:
+ adapter: sqlite3
+ database: db/test.sqlite3
+ timeout: 5000
+
+production:
+ adapter: sqlite3
+ database: db/production.sqlite3
+ timeout: 5000
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+# Be sure to restart your web server when you modify this file.
+
+# Uncomment below to force Rails into production mode when
+# you don't control web/app server and can't set it the proper way
+# ENV['RAILS_ENV'] ||= 'production'
+
+# Specifies gem version of Rails to use when vendor/rails is not present
+RAILS_GEM_VERSION = '1.2.6' unless defined? RAILS_GEM_VERSION
+
+# Bootstrap the Rails environment, frameworks, and default configuration
+require File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'boot')
+
+Rails::Initializer.run do |config|
+ # Settings in config/environments/* take precedence over those specified here
+
+ # Skip frameworks you're not going to use (only works if using vendor/rails)
+ # config.frameworks -= [ :action_web_service, :action_mailer ]
+
+ # Only load the plugins named here, by default all plugins in vendor/plugins are loaded
+ # config.plugins = %W( exception_notification ssl_requirement )
+
+ # Add additional load paths for your own custom dirs
+ # config.load_paths += %W( #{RAILS_ROOT}/extras )
+
+ # Force all environments to use the same logger level
+ # (by default production uses :info, the others :debug)
+ # config.log_level = :debug
+
+ # Use the database for sessions instead of the file system
+ # (create the session table with 'rake db:sessions:create')
+ # config.action_controller.session_store = :active_record_store
+
+ # Use SQL instead of Active Record's schema dumper when creating the test database.
+ # This is necessary if your schema can't be completely dumped by the schema dumper,
+ # like if you have constraints or database-specific column types
+ # config.active_record.schema_format = :sql
+
+ # Activate observers that should always be running
+ # config.active_record.observers = :cacher, :garbage_collector
+
+ # Make Active Record use UTC-base instead of local time
+ # config.active_record.default_timezone = :utc
+
+ # Add new inflection rules using the following format
+ # (all these examples are active by default):
+ # Inflector.inflections do |inflect|
+ # inflect.plural /^(ox)$/i, '\1en'
+ # inflect.singular /^(ox)en/i, '\1'
+ # inflect.irregular 'person', 'people'
+ # inflect.uncountable %w( fish sheep )
+ # end
+
+ # See Rails::Configuration for more options
+end
+
+# Add new mime types for use in respond_to blocks:
+# Mime::Type.register "text/richtext", :rtf
+# Mime::Type.register "application/x-mobile", :mobile
+
+# Include your application configuration below
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+# Settings specified here will take precedence over those in config/environment.rb
+
+# In the development environment your application's code is reloaded on
+# every request. This slows down response time but is perfect for development
+# since you don't have to restart the webserver when you make code changes.
+config.cache_classes = false
+
+# Log error messages when you accidentally call methods on nil.
+config.whiny_nils = true
+
+# Enable the breakpoint server that script/breakpointer connects to
+config.breakpoint_server = true
+
+# Show full error reports and disable caching
+config.action_controller.consider_all_requests_local = true
+config.action_controller.perform_caching = false
+config.action_view.cache_template_extensions = false
+config.action_view.debug_rjs = true
+
+# Don't care if the mailer can't send
+config.action_mailer.raise_delivery_errors = false
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+# Settings specified here will take precedence over those in config/environment.rb
+
+# The production environment is meant for finished, "live" apps.
+# Code is not reloaded between requests
+config.cache_classes = true
+
+# Use a different logger for distributed setups
+# config.logger = SyslogLogger.new
+
+# Full error reports are disabled and caching is turned on
+config.action_controller.consider_all_requests_local = false
+config.action_controller.perform_caching = true
+
+# Enable serving of images, stylesheets, and javascripts from an asset server
+# config.action_controller.asset_host = "http://assets.example.com"
+
+# Disable delivery errors, bad email addresses will be ignored
+# config.action_mailer.raise_delivery_errors = false
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