Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
392 lines (315 sloc) 16.4 KB

Manual

Usage help

Usage help is available:

$ ./restic --help
restic is a backup program which allows saving multiple revisions of files and
directories in an encrypted repository stored on different backends.

Usage:
  restic [command]

Available Commands:
  backup        Create a new backup of files and/or directories
  cache         Operate on local cache directories
  cat           Print internal objects to stdout
  check         Check the repository for errors
  diff          Show differences between two snapshots
  dump          Print a backed-up file to stdout
  find          Find a file or directory
  forget        Remove snapshots from the repository
  generate      Generate manual pages and auto-completion files (bash, zsh)
  help          Help about any command
  init          Initialize a new repository
  key           Manage keys (passwords)
  list          List objects in the repository
  ls            List files in a snapshot
  migrate       Apply migrations
  mount         Mount the repository
  prune         Remove unneeded data from the repository
  rebuild-index Build a new index file
  restore       Extract the data from a snapshot
  snapshots     List all snapshots
  stats         Count up sizes and show information about repository data
  tag           Modify tags on snapshots
  unlock        Remove locks other processes created
  version       Print version information

Flags:
      --cacert file              file to load root certificates from (default: use system certificates)
      --cache-dir string         set the cache directory. (default: use system default cache directory)
      --cleanup-cache            auto remove old cache directories
  -h, --help                     help for restic
      --json                     set output mode to JSON for commands that support it
      --key-hint string          key ID of key to try decrypting first (default: $RESTIC_KEY_HINT)
      --limit-download int       limits downloads to a maximum rate in KiB/s. (default: unlimited)
      --limit-upload int         limits uploads to a maximum rate in KiB/s. (default: unlimited)
      --no-cache                 do not use a local cache
      --no-lock                  do not lock the repo, this allows some operations on read-only repos
  -o, --option key=value         set extended option (key=value, can be specified multiple times)
  -p, --password-file string     read the repository password from a file (default: $RESTIC_PASSWORD_FILE)
  -q, --quiet                    do not output comprehensive progress report
  -r, --repo string              repository to backup to or restore from (default: $RESTIC_REPOSITORY)
      --tls-client-cert string   path to a file containing PEM encoded TLS client certificate and private key
  -v, --verbose n[=-1]           be verbose (specify --verbose multiple times or level n)

Use "restic [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Similar to programs such as git, restic has a number of sub-commands. You can see these commands in the listing above. Each sub-command may have own command-line options, and there is a help option for each command which lists them, e.g. for the backup command:

$ ./restic backup --help
The "backup" command creates a new snapshot and saves the files and directories
given as the arguments.

Usage:
  restic backup [flags] FILE/DIR [FILE/DIR] ...

Flags:
  -e, --exclude pattern                  exclude a pattern (can be specified multiple times)
      --exclude-caches                   excludes cache directories that are marked with a CACHEDIR.TAG file
      --exclude-file file                read exclude patterns from a file (can be specified multiple times)
      --exclude-if-present stringArray   takes filename[:header], exclude contents of directories containing filename (except filename itself) if header of that file is as provided (can be specified multiple times)
      --files-from string                read the files to backup from file (can be combined with file args/can be specified multiple times)
  -f, --force                            force re-reading the target files/directories (overrides the "parent" flag)
  -h, --help                             help for backup
      --hostname hostname                set the hostname for the snapshot manually. To prevent an expensive rescan use the "parent" flag
  -x, --one-file-system                  exclude other file systems
      --parent string                    use this parent snapshot (default: last snapshot in the repo that has the same target files/directories)
      --stdin                            read backup from stdin
      --stdin-filename string            file name to use when reading from stdin (default "stdin")
      --tag tag                          add a tag for the new snapshot (can be specified multiple times)
      --time string                      time of the backup (ex. '2012-11-01 22:08:41') (default: now)
      --with-atime                       store the atime for all files and directories

Global Flags:
      --cacert file              file to load root certificates from (default: use system certificates)
      --cache-dir string         set the cache directory. (default: use system default cache directory)
      --cleanup-cache            auto remove old cache directories
      --json                     set output mode to JSON for commands that support it
      --key-hint string          key ID of key to try decrypting first (default: $RESTIC_KEY_HINT)
      --limit-download int       limits downloads to a maximum rate in KiB/s. (default: unlimited)
      --limit-upload int         limits uploads to a maximum rate in KiB/s. (default: unlimited)
      --no-cache                 do not use a local cache
      --no-lock                  do not lock the repo, this allows some operations on read-only repos
  -o, --option key=value         set extended option (key=value, can be specified multiple times)
  -p, --password-file string     read the repository password from a file (default: $RESTIC_PASSWORD_FILE)
  -q, --quiet                    do not output comprehensive progress report
  -r, --repo string              repository to backup to or restore from (default: $RESTIC_REPOSITORY)
      --tls-client-cert string   path to a file containing PEM encoded TLS client certificate and private key
  -v, --verbose n[=-1]           be verbose (specify --verbose multiple times or level n)

Subcommand that support showing progress information such as backup, check and prune will do so unless the quiet flag -q or --quiet is set. When running from a non-interactive console progress reporting will be limited to once every 10 seconds to not fill your logs. Use backup with the quiet flag -q or --quiet to skip the initial scan of the source directory, this may shorten the backup time needed for large directories.

Additionally on Unix systems if restic receives a SIGUSR1 signal the current progress will be written to the standard output so you can check up on the status at will.

Manage tags

Managing tags on snapshots is done with the tag command. The existing set of tags can be replaced completely, tags can be added or removed. The result is directly visible in the snapshots command.

Let's say we want to tag snapshot 590c8fc8 with the tags NL and CH and remove all other tags that may be present, the following command does that:

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo tag --set NL --set CH 590c8fc8
create exclusive lock for repository
modified tags on 1 snapshots

Note the snapshot ID has changed, so between each change we need to look up the new ID of the snapshot. But there is an even better way, the tag command accepts --tag for a filter, so we can filter snapshots based on the tag we just added.

So we can add and remove tags incrementally like this:

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo tag --tag NL --remove CH
create exclusive lock for repository
modified tags on 1 snapshots

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo tag --tag NL --add UK
create exclusive lock for repository
modified tags on 1 snapshots

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo tag --tag NL --remove NL
create exclusive lock for repository
modified tags on 1 snapshots

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo tag --tag NL --add SOMETHING
no snapshots were modified

Under the hood

Browse repository objects

Internally, a repository stores data of several different types described in the design documentation. You can list objects such as blobs, packs, index, snapshots, keys or locks with the following command:

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo list snapshots
d369ccc7d126594950bf74f0a348d5d98d9e99f3215082eb69bf02dc9b3e464c

The find command searches for a given pattern in the repository.

$ restic -r backup find test.txt
debug log file restic.log
debug enabled
enter password for repository:
found 1 matching entries in snapshot 196bc5760c909a7681647949e80e5448e276521489558525680acf1bd428af36
  -rw-r--r--   501    20      5 2015-08-26 14:09:57 +0200 CEST path/to/test.txt

The cat command allows you to display the JSON representation of the objects or their raw content.

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo cat snapshot d369ccc7d126594950bf74f0a348d5d98d9e99f3215082eb69bf02dc9b3e464c
enter password for repository:
{
  "time": "2015-08-12T12:52:44.091448856+02:00",
  "tree": "05cec17e8d3349f402576d02576a2971fc0d9f9776ce2f441c7010849c4ff5af",
  "paths": [
    "/home/user/work"
  ],
  "hostname": "kasimir",
  "username": "username",
  "uid": 501,
  "gid": 20
}

Metadata handling

Restic saves and restores most default attributes, including extended attributes like ACLs. Sparse files are not handled in a special way yet, and aren't restored.

The following metadata is handled by restic:

  • Name
  • Type
  • Mode
  • ModTime
  • AccessTime
  • ChangeTime
  • UID
  • GID
  • User
  • Group
  • Inode
  • Size
  • Links
  • LinkTarget
  • Device
  • Content
  • Subtree
  • ExtendedAttributes

Getting information about repository data

Use the stats command to count up stats about the data in the repository. There are different counting modes available using the --mode flag, depending on what you want to calculate. The default is the restore size, or the size required to restore the files:

  • restore-size (default) counts the size of the restored files.
  • files-by-contents counts the total size of unique files as given by their contents. This can be useful since a file is considered unique only if it has unique contents. Keep in mind that a small change to a large file (even when the file name/path hasn't changed) will cause them to look like different files, thus essentially causing the whole size of the file to be counted twice.
  • raw-data counts the size of the blobs in the repository, regardless of how many files reference them. This tells you how much restic has reduced all your original data down to (either for a single snapshot or across all your backups), and compared to the size given by the restore-size mode, can tell you how much deduplication is helping you.
  • blobs-per-file is kind of a mix between files-by-contents and raw-data modes; it is useful for knowing how much value your backup is providing you in terms of unique data stored by file. Like files-by-contents, it is resilient to file renames/moves. Unlike files-by-contents, it does not balloon to high values when large files have small edits, as long as the file path stayed the same. Unlike raw-data, this mode DOES consider how many files point to each blob such that the more files a blob is referenced by, the more it counts toward the size.

For example, to calculate how much space would be required to restore the latest snapshot (from any host that made it):

$ restic stats latest
password is correct
Total File Count:   10538
      Total Size:   37.824 GiB

If multiple hosts are backing up to the repository, the latest snapshot may not be the one you want. You can specify the latest snapshot from only a specific host by using the --host flag:

$ restic stats --host myserver latest
password is correct
Total File Count:   21766
      Total Size:   481.783 GiB

There we see that it would take 482 GiB of disk space to restore the latest snapshot from "myserver".

But how much space does that snapshot take on disk? In other words, how much has restic's deduplication helped? We can check:

$ restic stats --host myserver --mode raw-data latest
password is correct
Total Blob Count:   340847
      Total Size:   458.663 GiB

Comparing this size to the previous command, we see that restic has saved about 23 GiB of space with deduplication.

Which mode you use depends on your exact use case. Some modes are more useful across all snapshots, while others make more sense on just a single snapshot, depending on what you're trying to calculate.

Scripting

Restic supports the output of some commands in JSON format, the JSON data can then be processed by other programs (e.g. jq). The following example lists all snapshots as JSON and uses jq to pretty-print the result:

$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo snapshots --json | jq .
[
  {
    "time": "2017-03-11T09:57:43.26630619+01:00",
    "tree": "bf25241679533df554fc0fd0ae6dbb9dcf1859a13f2bc9dd4543c354eff6c464",
    "paths": [
      "/home/work/doc"
    ],
    "hostname": "kasimir",
    "username": "fd0",
    "uid": 1000,
    "gid": 100,
    "id": "bbeed6d28159aa384d1ccc6fa0b540644b1b9599b162d2972acda86b1b80f89e"
  },
  {
    "time": "2017-03-11T09:58:57.541446938+01:00",
    "tree": "7f8c95d3420baaac28dc51609796ae0e0ecfb4862b609a9f38ffaf7ae2d758da",
    "paths": [
      "/home/user/shared"
    ],
    "hostname": "kasimir",
    "username": "fd0",
    "uid": 1000,
    "gid": 100,
    "id": "b157d91c16f0ba56801ece3a708dfc53791fe2a97e827090d6ed9a69a6ebdca0"
  }
]

Temporary files

During some operations (e.g. backup and prune) restic uses temporary files to store data. These files will, by default, be saved to the system's temporary directory, on Linux this is usually located in /tmp/. The environment variable TMPDIR can be used to specify a different directory, e.g. to use the directory /var/tmp/restic-tmp instead of the default, set the environment variable like this:

$ export TMPDIR=/var/tmp/restic-tmp
$ restic -r /srv/restic-repo backup ~/work

Caching

Restic keeps a cache with some files from the repository on the local machine. This allows faster operations, since meta data does not need to be loaded from a remote repository. The cache is automatically created, usually in an OS-specific cache folder:

  • Linux/other: ~/.cache/restic (or $XDG_CACHE_HOME/restic)
  • macOS: ~/Library/Caches/restic
  • Windows: %LOCALAPPDATA%/restic

The command line parameter --cache-dir can each be used to override the default cache location. The parameter --no-cache disables the cache entirely. In this case, all data is loaded from the repo.

The cache is ephemeral: When a file cannot be read from the cache, it is loaded from the repository.

Within the cache directory, there's a sub directory for each repository the cache was used with. Restic updates the timestamps of a repo directory each time it is used, so by looking at the timestamps of the sub directories of the cache directory it can decide which sub directories are old and probably not needed any more. You can either remove these directories manually, or run a restic command with the --cleanup-cache flag.