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A Rust macro implementing a Python-like generator expression
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py-comp - A Rust macro implementing a Python-like generator expression

Latest Version Documentation License

This macro implements a syntax that emulates Python's generator-expression syntax in a form more compatible with Rust's usual syntax.

This means that there are a few small differences between the Python syntax and the syntax provided in this macro:

  • The pattern between the for and in tokens is a fully-fledged Rust pattern, which can be as simple as a simple token and as complex as struct destructuring.
  • The expression defining the iterator after the in token must evaluate to either an Iterator or an impl IntoIterator.
  • The conditional expression after the if token must evaluate to a boolean.
  • You may use an if let clause instead of the usual if clause wherever if clauses are allowed. Any names introduced in the if let clause are available in any following clause.
  • The expression in the beginning of the generator expression, the expression following the in token, and the expression following the if token, must all end with a semicolon (;). The only exception to this is the last expression following in or if in the macro, which may omit the trailing semicolon.

The expression replaced by the comp!() macro invocation is a lazy iterator whose lifetime is bound by any references it needs to capture. This means that it can be .collect()ed into any container you like.

Note though that, at least for now, all objects named in an in clause, (except for the first in clause) must be either Copy or introduced by the previous for or if let clauses. This is because the macro uses a move closure (FnOnce) for each level of nesting, which may need to be instantiated more than once without implicit cloning of the captured objects. Similarly, objects named in the "yield" expression (preceding the first for clause) must be Copy types if they were not introduced by the final for or if let clauses. This is because they may be used in multiple output items.

Specifying which objects should be cloned and where may be added in the future, but will probably require a breaking change.

This is a BNF description of the syntax used by this macro:

comprehension ::=  expression ";" comp_for [comp_iter] [";"]
comp_iter     ::=  ";" (comp_for | comp_if | comp_if_let)
comp_for      ::=  "for" pattern "in" expression [comp_iter]
comp_if       ::=  "if" expression [comp_iter]
comp_if_let   ::=  "if" "let" pattern ("|" pattern)* "=" expression [comp_iter]

Just like in Python, you can nest as many for, if, and if let clauses as you like.

Examples

Simple generator expression with a conditional:

use py_comp::comp;

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]
struct Foo(i32);

let arr = &[Foo(11), Foo(12)];

// Notice the semicolons
let comp_vector = comp!(item; for item in arr; if item.0 % 10 == 2)
    .collect::<Vec<&Foo>>();

assert_eq!(comp_vector, vec![&Foo(12)])

Triple cartesian product with conditions and patterns:

use py_comp::comp;

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]
struct Foo(i32);

// These need to be references to arrays because of how the closures
// that the macro expands to capture their environment.
let x = &[(Foo(11), "foo"), (Foo(12), "bar")];
let y = &[Foo(21), Foo(22)];
let z = &[Foo(31), Foo(32)];

let xyz = comp!(
    (a, b, c);
    for (a, _text) in x;  // You can use any function parameter pattern.
    if a.0 % 10 == 2;
    for b in y;           // Obviously not every level requires a conditional.
    for c in z;
    if c.0 % 10 == 2;
)
.collect::<Vec<(&Foo, &Foo, &Foo)>>();

// The result vector here is short for illustration purposes
// but can be as long as long as you need it to be.
assert_eq!(xyz, vec![(&Foo(12), &Foo(21), &Foo(32)), (&Foo(12), &Foo(22), &Foo(32))])

Flatten a triple-nested structure + complex expression:

use py_comp::comp;

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]
struct Foo(i32);

let nested_3 = &[
    [
        [Foo(0), Foo(1), Foo(2)],
        [Foo(3), Foo(4), Foo(5)],
        [Foo(6), Foo(7), Foo(8)],
    ],
    [
        [Foo(9), Foo(10), Foo(11)],
        [Foo(12), Foo(13), Foo(14)],
        [Foo(15), Foo(16), Foo(17)],
    ],
    [
        [Foo(18), Foo(19), Foo(20)],
        [Foo(21), Foo(22), Foo(23)],
        [Foo(24), Foo(25), Foo(26)],
    ],
];

let nested_objects = comp!(
    {
        let inner = nested.0;
        Foo(inner + 1)
    };
    for nested_2 in nested_3;
    for nested_1 in nested_2;
    for nested in nested_1;
)
.collect::<Vec<Foo>>();

let expected_values = (1..28).map(Foo).collect::<Vec<Foo>>();

assert_eq!(expected_values, nested_objects);
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