Anglicization of a (limited) subset of UTF-8 characters
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.

About is a script (and a Python module) that performs anglicization of mixed-language text.

Essentially, this program is a simple finite state machine that accepts a sequence of UTF-8 characters and converts it to a sequence of the 26 letters of the English alphabet. Unrecognized characters are relayed in unmodified form. Peculiarities of each particular language are not taken into account (although this can be improved to a certain degree by defining transliterations for pairs or triads of input characters -- suggestions are welcome).

The script is compatible with Python versions of both 2.X and 3.X series.


This code can be used as a script as well as an importable module.

Usage as a script

When used as a script, works as a filter: it reads UTF-8 data from its standard input, converts the characters it recognizes to the English alphabet, and prints the result to its standard output.

For example:


$ echo 'Cześć!' | ./

Usage as a module

To use as a module, first import the Anglicize class from it:

from anglicize import Anglicize

The class has two modes of operation:

  1. Convert the entire text in one go. This mode works best for texts that are already in memory or will have to be loaded in memory anyway. For that, there's a static method anglicize():

     result = Anglicize.anglicize(utf8_byte_string)

    Note that Unicode strings first must be converted to UTF-8 byte strings using str.encode() before they can be passed to the method:

     result = Anglicize.anglicize(u'retour de la même idée'.encode('UTF-8'))
  2. Convert a large block of text iteratively, one buffer at a time. This mode is meant for processing a stream of text data; it consists of three steps:

    1. Create an object of the Anglicize class. This object will keep the current state of the finite state machine and a couple of small buffers:

        anglicize = Anglicize()
        result = ''
    2. Pump the data through the object:

        while input.has_data():
            result += anglicize.process_buf(input.read_buffer())
    3. Finalize processing by flushing the internal buffers of the object:

        result += anglicize.finalize()

How this script came to be

The original intent of this script was to solve a problem with syncing files with diacritics in their names between OS X and Linux systems. The problem is that HFS+ in OS X uses a canonical decomposition of Unicode characters (a variant of Normal Form D, see

When a synchronization tool (such as Unison or BitTorrent Sync) copies a file with diacritics in its name from a Linux system to OS X, the latter saves the file under a file name that uses NFD decomposition. The next run of Unison assumes that this is a new file and that the original file has been deleted, which messes things up. For information about Unicode normalization, see

While there are other ways to get around this issue, a decision was made to write a script to remove any non-ASCII characters from the file names altogether, which solves the problem once and for all.