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Contributing to the Neon Genesis Evangelion 2: Another Cases (PSP) translation

This is a WIP guide. Bunch of formatting issues too; will fix once we want to open up the flood-gates

  1. Setting up your Development Environment
  2. Familiarizing yourself with the Game's file formats and directories
  3. Extracting it all
  4. Familiarizing yourself with the Patches
  5. Technical Considerations
  6. Translation Conventions
  7. Types of game translation crashes/behaviors

Setting up your Development Environment

What you'll need:

  • Actual UMD of the game: Neon Genesis Evangelion 2 - Another Cases / ULJS-00064
  • Actual PSP with CFW (Custom Firmware)
  • Mini USB cable

1. Setting up a PSP emulator with the official Sony font

If you don't do this, then fonts within the emulator will be glitched/scrambled.

  1. Install the PSP emulator "PPSSPP" from:
  2. Run PPSSPP, then go to File -> Open Memory Stick.
  3. A file explorer window should open, with a single directory called "PSP," enter it.
  4. Create a directory within the "PSP" folder called flash0
  5. Turn on your actual PSP with CFW
  6. Press Select, a CFW menu should come up: "PRO VSH MENU"
  7. Scroll down to "USB Device" and press right until you get "flash0"
  8. Press Select to Accept and close the menu
  9. Connect the PSP to your computer via the Mini USB cable
  10. You should see a drive appear with the folders "codepage", "dic", "font", and "vsh"
  11. Copy the "font" folder from the PSP's flash0 and paste it in the emulator's flash0 folder
  12. Stop the USB session on the PSP (but don't disconnect the cable just yet).

2. Getting the game from the actual UMD and extracting it

The PPSSPP emulator can run game ISOs that have been extracted. This makes it easier to patch specific files on the fly.

  1. Place the game UMD within the actual PSP
  2. Press Select, a custom firmware menu should come up: "PRO VSH MENU"
  3. Scroll down to "USB Device" and press right until you get "UMD Disc"
  4. Press Select to Accept and close the menu
  5. Connect the PSP to your computer via the Mini USB cable, or manually re-initiate USB session
  6. You should see a drive appear with a single file: "UMD9660.ISO"
  7. Copy the "UMD9660.ISO" file to your desktop.
  8. Extract the contents of the ISO into a folder called "EVA_GAME" or whatever you prefer. WinRAR can be used to accomplish this.
  9. When you're all done, press "Select" on your PSP, change the "USB Device" back to "Memory Stick", and press Select to Accept and close the menu

3. Setting up Python

The tooling for this project is currently written in Python 2.7 and as such you'll need it installed. If you're on MacOS X, a suitable Python version should already be installed.

  1. Download the proper Python package for your machine. If you're on a 64-bit Windows machine, download Windows x86-64 MSI installer If you're on a 32-bit Windows machine, or you're not sure, download Windows x86 MSI installer At time of writing, Python 2.7.15 was the latest version of the Python 2.7 branch:
  2. Run the Python package installer

4. Setting up the nge_2_re tooling

The nge_2_re tooling will enable us to import, export, pack, unpack, and patch files while we work on translating them. It's important to note the final user will not need to do all this jut to patch the game, but instead this is needed for developing the patch.

  1. Go to
  2. Click the big green "Clone or download" button
  3. Extract or clone the contents to a local folder called nge_2_re

There are only two folders of concern to translators within nge_2_re:

  • patches:
    • Patches are translations in a search & replace format or replace-at-location format
    • These are consumed by scripts in the tools folder
  • tools:
    • Scripts that can decompress/unpack/pack/convert/patch game data

Familiarizing yourself with the Game's file formats and directories

The following is the game's directory hierarchy:

  • umd0:/PSP_GAME/SYSDIR/
    • EBOOT.BIN: Encrypted game code. Applying translation patches to it requires decrypting it first or applying translation patches during run-time via an seplugin. We've not yet tackled this problem besides applying game code translation patches temporarily as run-time cheat codes
    • BOOT.BIN: On new PSP games, like NGE2, a file filled with zeroes. This is the file developers send to Sony, which Sony encrypts (& zeroes) to make EBOOT.bin
  • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/
    • btdemo: Maps, models, animations, and textures of battle stages, angels, and evas
    • btface: Character battle expressions, for use in Eva intercom
    • btl: Battle menu textures, and certain event scripts
    • chara: Models, textures, and animations for characters, but looks like most are unused (see map)
    • event: Event pictures/title-images and event scripts
    • face: Character day-to-day conversation expressions
    • free: Text for game's Secret Information and Tutorial sections.
    • game: Game menu textures
    • im: Pictures for possibly hardcoded events in the game that don't need event scripts but just pictures
    • map: Maps, models, animations, and textures, for world maps as well as characters
      • Instead of loading the Asuka model from /chara/, they seem to duplicate the model per map
    • modules: Extra code modules used by the PSP .prx (think of them like Windows DLL files)
    • sound: Unknown format for game sounds and possibly music
    • voice: Voice clips

It should be noted that most of the game's files are packed/compressed within .har files. The only thing you should know about .har files for now is that they're proprietary .zip files. We'll be unzipping them in the next section. Furthermore, the game reuses the .bin suffix for various file formats. For clarity we'll add BIND/WAVE/TEXT/CODE before them, keeping in mind that BIND & WAVE .bin are archives that can be unpacked just like .har as well.

For translation, we're mainly interested in modifying pictures (which might contain Japanese text) and the Japanese text scattered across various places.

The game stores pictures all over umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/

  • Some are in .har files as .hpt files
  • Some are in .har files as .zpt files
  • Some are in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/im/ as .zpt files
  • At least two are in the game executable, in umd0:/PSP_GAME/SYSDIR/EBOOT.BIN as .zpt files
    • The Bandai logo screen and the Eva tenth anniversary screen

The game stores voice dialogue as Sony atrac3plus encoded .wav files in WAVE .bin files:

  • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/voice/na0.bin
  • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/voice/na1.bin
  • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/voice/na2.bin

The game stores Japanese text in various places and formats as well:

  • In the encrypted game executable: umd0:/PSP_GAME/SYSDIR/EBOOT.BIN
    • There's Japanese text in the read-only sections
    • There's Japanese text in read-writable sections
    • These are mainly menu text and short actions like "open door."
    • No tool yet for formally re-injecting these translations back
  • As .evs files contained located in:
    • Almost every .har file in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/event/
    • In the following .har files:
      • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/btl/b2event.har
      • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/btl/bevent.har
      • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/btl/tabris.har
  • As TEXT .bin files:
    • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/free/f2tuto.bin
    • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/free/f2info.bin
    • As TEXT files packed in BIND .bin files:
      • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/btl/btimtext.bin
      • umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/game/imtext.bin

Extracting it all

So it's clear from above that a lot of the game's content is hidden in archive files:

  • .har
  • WAVE .bin
  • BIND .bin

To extract it all, run tools/, and drag-and-drop the UMD_DATA.BIN located in your unpacked ISO from the 2. Getting the game from the actual UMD and extracting it step. Don't just unpack UMD_DATA.BIN from the ISO! The rest of the files are needed as well!

This will take a while. Let it run overnight!

What the script does is:

  1. Ask for the path to where you extracted the contents of the game ISO to
  2. Decompresses the standalone .zpt pictures in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/im/ by running tools/ on them
  3. Unpacks and decompresses all the .har files in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/ by running tools/ --decompress on them (and calls tools/ for us if necessary)
  4. Converts all .hpt pictures to .png for us by running tools/ --export on all .hpt.DECOMPRESSED files in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/
  5. Converts all .zpt pictures to .png for us by running tools/ --export on all .zpt.DECOMPRESSED files in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/
  6. Unpacks all the WAVE .bin files in umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/voice/ by running tools/ --unpack
    • Though to listen to them one'll still need a player that supports Sony's atrac3plus codec
      • One can install ffmpeg and do ffmpeg -i in.wav out.mp3

You should now have a bunch of easily accessible decompressed and converted game content. Despite this, you shouldn't delete the original files!

Familiarizing yourself with the Patches

In the the tooling ( ) you should notice two folders: patches and tools.

The patches directory contains the following:

    • Translation patches for the writable parts of the game code, in the umd0:/PSP_GAME/SYSDIR/EBOOT.BIN file
    • No method to apply yet
    • Translation patches for the read-only parts of the game code, in the umd0:/PSP_GAME/SYSDIR/EBOOT.BIN file
    • No method to apply yet
    • Translation patches for the text entries in the game’s Secret Information menu
    • Can be applied with: --patch path_to_extracted_game/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/free/f2info.bin path_to_toolchain/patches/
    • Translation patches for the text entries in the game's Tutorial menu
    • Can be applied with: --patch path_to_extracted_game/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/free/f2tuto.bin path_to_toolchain/patches/
    • Translation patches for the TEXT .bin's in the BIND umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/game/imtext.bin
    • The BIND .bin will need to be unpacked with tools/ and then you can use to patch the resulting TEXT .bin's, followed by re-packing the files with tools/ again
    • Translation patches for the TEXT .bin's in the BIND umd0:/PSP_GAME/USRDIR/btl/btimtext.bin
    • The BIND .bin will need to be unpacked with tools/ and then you can use to patch the resulting TEXT .bin's, followed by re-packing the files with tools/ again
    • Translation patches for the .evs scripts found in unpacked event .har files. They'll need to be patched with tools/ (WIP) followed by re-injecting the patched .evs into the .har file using tools/ --replace-raw

Technical Considerations

  1. The game's text uses Shift-JIS encoding with a few tweaks by the game's developers, to account for characters such as ² not existing in Shift-JIS. The nge_2_re tooling exports text to UTF-8, but it doesn't account for these customization, and we do not intend to utilize most of these customizations (except possibly S² and N² at a later time). But for now, if you see:

    • A Greek Θ (ShiftJIS: 0x83, 0xA6) the game renders as J.
      • If you see it, just put a regular J.
    • A Greek Α (ShiftJIS: 0x83, 0x9F) the game renders as A.
      • If you see it, just put a regular A.
    • A Greek Τ (ShiftJIS: 0x83, 0xB1) the game renders as T.
      • If you see it, just put a regular T. .
    • A Greek Ν (ShiftJIS: 0x83, 0xAB) the game renders as
      • If you see it, just put N2 instead for now.
    • A Greek Σ (ShiftJIS: 0x83, 0xB0) the game renders as
      • If you see it, just put S2 instead for now.
    • The Fullwidth Latin (ShiftJIS: 0x82, 0x72) the game renders as S
      • If you see it, just put a regular S instead.
  2. Please do not use the following characters in your translation since they cannot be converted to Shift-JIS:

    • The en dash nor the em dash
    • Superscripts , ¹, ², etc.
    • Subscripts , , , etc.
  3. We use Python quotes for containing the original Japanese and the translated text, and as such you need to understand certain concepts such as escape codes.

    • If a " signifies the start of a block of text and another " signifies the end, how do we create a block of text that has a " as part of the text?

    • Let's say we have the following text that we want to put in quotes:

      • The man's watch "froze" during the monday\tuesday transition
      • when the storm happened.
    • A naive approach might be:

      • "The man's watch "froze" during the monday\t uesday transition,
      • when the storm happened."
    • This has a couple of issues:

      • There's a " inside the text that's terminating the text-block early.
      • The line-break is not encapsulated by the " and will instead give errors.
      • The \t in \tuesday will actually get treated as a tab.
    • This is because there are a set of sequences common across most programming languages, Python included, that start with a \ and represent other characters.

      • To have a " that's part of the text, it should actually be written as \"
      • With \ being used to start special sequences, how to have a \ that's part of the text? By doubling it up as \\
      • The other escape codes are a line-break, \n and tab, \t
      • And finally \0 denotes a string terminator
        • The C programming language automatically adds a \0, but for this translation project we initially expected that fine control over \0 placement will be needed but turns out that's not the case. For now continue placing \0 manually, but we'll probably revisit this and automatically add \0.
    • Finally with all that said, the correctly quoted text should be written as: "The man's watch \"froze\" during the monday\\tuesday transition\nwhen the storm happened.\0"

    And regarding character counts, it's important to keep in mind that when counting the number of characters, escape sequences are to be counted as one character, e.g. \n is one character.

  4. The game uses special sequences of text to denote insertion points. We're still not sure what all the sequences are. The following are standard sequences across most modern programming languages:

    • %s is used to insert other pieces of text from elsewhere
    • %f is used to insert decimal numbers, like 3.14, or 1.68
    • %d is used to insert integers, like 4, 8, or 2

    The game then has its own sequences:

    • $a seems to be the active participant/subject/player
    • $b seems to be the passive participant/owner-of-object
    • $c seems to be an intruder/overriding subject/non-player subject
    • $d seems to be a number (or maybe angel ordinal)
    • $n seems to denote a super-line-break that triggers the start of a new page while \n triggers the start of a new line.
    • $o seems to be an item/object in subject's possession
    • $p seems to be an item/object in passive participant's possession

    The game also seems to have its own special characters:

    • The character is used to start a new "page" of dialog box text.

    When placing sequences in the translation, try to remap their position in the translation the best you can.

  5. The translations to the game code (in patches/ and patches/, if longer than the original Japanese text, will need to be moved elsewhere within the game code, and this is an involved process. For now, don't worry about this or length restrictions when translating until further notice.

Translation Conventions

  1. Character names:
    1. Name order: First Name before Last Name Example: Shinji Ikari
    2. Compound last name order: Japanese Last Name before Foreign Last Name Example: Asuka Soryu Langley
    3. Honorifics: Keep them. If you run into Ikari Shinji-kun, where the name order rule would make it Shinji Ikari, make it Shinji Ikari-kun Example: Shinji-kun.
    4. Exceptions: In menus (which are a few of the entries in patches/ & patches/, drop the Last name and instead use the First name only to save on menu-screen space.
    5. Special Considerations:
      • キール ローレンツ should be Kiel Lorenz
      • ペンペン should be Pen Pen, and not PenPen nor Pen-Pen
      • JA2 should be J.A.2
  2. Other Names
    1. Organization Names: Capitalize first letter, then lowercase the letters that follow. Example: Nerv, Seele
    2. Food names: Stay as close to the Japanese dish as possible Example: 弁当 should be Bento
    3. Angel Names: Use the more modern Angel name spellings from the Eva Chronicle (left column):
    4. Eva Units: Follow the source,
      • If it's, 初号機, use Eva-01
      • If it's エヴァ初号機, use Eva Unit-01
    5. Special Considerations:
      • マギ should be MAGI
      • 秘密情報 should be Confidential Information
      • 機密 should be Classified Information
  3. Acronyms:
    1. Expansion: Do not expand if the source isn't expanded.
      • Do: JA to J.A.
      • Do Not: JA to Jet Alone
    2. Periods: Common acronyms should OMIT periods. Non-common/Eva acronyms should maintain periods.
      • Common acronyms: TV, DNA, WC, UN, US/USA
      • Uncommon acronyms: A.T., J.A.
  4. Abbreviations: If it's a common word, keep the abbreviation and the period. For non-common/Eva words, keep the abbreviation but leave out the period.
    • Do: Prog Knife
    • Do Not: Prog. Knife
    • Do Not: Progressive Knife Rationale:
    • Usually abbreviations are used for very common words,
    • but Progressive is not common. So if one writes prog. it looks like a sentence end,
    • and as such is jarring.
  5. Word Casing: Actions should be normal sentences,
    • Examples: Open the door and Press button But items and attack names should be capitalized,
    • Examples: Ultra Spin Kick, Lightning Storm, Cold Pizza
  6. Recurring settled translations:
    • These are phrases that may appear often, and it was decided that a more natural translation should be used:
        1. 心の迷宮 (kokoro no meikyuu): literally "emotional maze", but instead go with "labyrinth of the heart"
        1. Keel Lorenz, or Kiel Lorenz? Go with Kiel to be in-line with the most recent official translation of Kiel in the Evangelion Chronicle, and it's the more realistic German name.
  7. Angel Ordinals: In the .evs files, you'll see 第$d使徒 for "The $d Angel." The $d just fills in a plain integer, and in Japanese the Kanji makes the integer that follows it an ordinal. When translating, this doesn't work since it'll become The 4 Angel instead of The 4th Angel. For now, go with $dth. We can revisit it by trying to modify the game code to generate the suffix properly later.
  8. Pronouns: If due to script replacement via the game's use of $a, $b, %s makes it difficult to know the pronoun, go with they/them/themselves.
  9. Emphasis:
    1. Translate「example here」 to "example here"
    2. Translate He worked at Nerv -- a secret agency to He worked at Nerv, a secret agency.
    3. Vocal loudness using uppercase: I did NOT give him the cake.
    4. Meaning emphasis using hyphens: You don't understand, he -lost- the money

Types of game translation crashes/behaviors

If there is a crash after injecting a translation into the game, most likely the crash is one of the following classes:

  1. Game crashes/freezes/fails silently because it expected text to be a certain length.
    • Already seen with patches/ and patches/
      • If text has more than 5 line-breaks, crash unless a new page is triggered via a special $n token
      • If text is more than 64 bytes (including the line-breaks), crash
  2. Game crashes/freezes/fails silently/doesn't show properly because it expected text to start at a certain position within a bigger piece of text.
  3. Game crashes/freezes/fails silently because it's scanning text for a certain character that was removed.
  4. Game crashes/freezes/fails silently because it expected text to be a certain value, or text was translated that wasn't text but a number that happened to register as Japanese text. (Most likely the case for things in patches/ /data that are 1 or 2 Kanji)
  5. Game crashes/freezes/fails silently because it ran out of memory due to the translated text exerting different memory pressure
  6. Untranslated text appears
  7. Translated text overruns/is badly linebreaked or spaced in the menu/messagebox
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