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Overall goal: the telling of the Armada de Mulucca's global circumnavigation and the lives of the men involved. research and initial story should be comprehensive, but with an eye toward adapting it to a graphic novel and screenplay Imagine the greatest single achievement on the sea told in Watchmen-style. Storytelling: This story is a complex one, involving many individuals and cultures and locations around the globe. "If you want Calculon to race to the laser gun battle in his hover-Ferarri, press 1. If you want Calculon to double-check his paperwork, press 2." -- Futurama The goal is to hint at enough of this complexity to do the story justice, while maintaining a sufficiently-paced narrative. We don't want to gloss over details that help fill in the setting, the people and the events; but we don't want to get bogged down either. I don't want to alter history, but I do want to tell it in a compelling way. I would like to tell the events of the Armada de Moluccas in a mostly linear fashion, but fill in some of the time at sea and at rest with character backstory via the memories and dreams of the men on the voyage, especially Magellan. I think this will allow us to get right to the point of the story of the Armada while also doing character development. Bonus if we can weave the flashbacks in a way that a) the audience can make sense of and b) For example, I want to put the torture and execution of Quesada in the perspective of the contemporary Spanish Inquisition. I want to explain Magellan's actions on the circumnavigation by way of the times in which he lived and the evidence we have of his personality on previous tours of duty... without this being a strict linear history of Spain or Portugal or even a biography of Magellan. I also want to compare this most masterful voyage of discovery with other historical explorations, specifically: * Apollo 11's journey to the moon * Kon-Tiki's trans-Pacific raft journey * maybe Journey of the Beagle Proceed: Approximate timeline that breaks the story into manageable pieces by time and location Literary devices Magellan can confide in Pigafetta, who was chronicler and had ingratiated himself Non-Spanish/Portuguses sailors can ask the Spanish/Portuguese sailors about things que 'strappado'? "It is an old saying that God gave the Portuguese a very small country to live in, but all the world in which to die." -- The European discovery of America : the southern voyages A.D. 1492-1616, Samuel Eliot Morison. p313 Questions: When did Magellan meet Rui Faleiro? Moris says they met in Portugal Bergreen says they met in Spain How does Juan de Aranda fit in exactly? Each story has a slightly different description of him and meeting arrangement... Does Magellan contact him or vice versa? Or does someone else bring him onboard? Sources / References: books, journals, testimony, logs, maps, etc. Firsthand: Antonio Pigafetta's journal: original lost, 3 copies in french, 1 in italian The account written by Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's official chronicler and one of the survivors of the voyage, did not appear until 1525, in Paris, and was not wholly published until the first year of the 19th century; this was the edition by Carlo Amoretti published in 1800. This edition is now famously called the Ambrosiana codex. It is through Transylvanus' account that Europe was informed of the first circumnavigation of the globe. Francisco Albo, whose "log-book" (trustworthy, though fragmentary) is contained in Navarrete's famous "Coleccion" memoir by survivor Ginés de Mafra "The Genoese pilot" Juan Bautista Punzorol a Portugese companion of Duarte Barbosa (preserved by Ramusio) navigational notes of Andrés de San Martín, who was the fleet's chief pilot and astrologer: LOST These papers have been lost and now exist only in quotes, references, and citations by several Spanish chroniclers, including Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano (Madrid, 1601-1615, 4 vols) Martinho de Aiamonte There are five eyewitness chronicles mentioning Magellan's visit to Mazaua. The authors and the dates of publication of their writings are Antonio Pigafetta,1800; The Genoese Pilot, 1826; Francisco Albo, 1837; Ginés de Mafra, 1920; Martín de Ayamonte,1933. Secondhand: "De Moluccis Insulis" (The Mollocus Islands) Maximilian Transylvanus, a secretary of King Charles, interviewed Elcano, Albo and Bustamenta (and Pigafetta?) at length in Valladolid A surviving copy of the first edition of his work can be found in the Beinecke Library (Yale University). A second edition can be found at the Scheepvaart Museum (Amsterdam). Princeton University Library has copies of the Cologne and Rome printings. Peter Martyr, both contemporaries, who conversed with the Magellan survivors in Seville; Oviedo, who was then in Darien; Correa, author of Lendas da India; Herrera, Spanish historiographer Third-hand: The European discovery of America : the southern voyages A.D. 1492-1616, Samuel Eliot Morison. Bergreen, Laurence. Over the Edge of the World, Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. HarperCollins: New York, 2003. Colección de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España, Volume 2? Martín Fernández de Navarrete y Ximénez de Tejada The First Voyage Round the World http://books.google.com/books?id=SwsVAAAAQAAJ&dq=the%20first%20voyage%20round%20the%20world&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false The_first_voyage_round_the_world.pdf timeline p72 Genoese Pilot p78-106 Pigafetta p?-242 Maximilian Transylvanus: p258-289 early history by Portguese historian João de Barros? Related: The Odyssey Voyage of the Beagle: another European perspective on South American coastline includes illustrations Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific in a Raft smashing into a reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands The Tempest: "Caliban" was partly inspired by Pigafetta's account of the Patagonian New Amsterdam Island / Île Amsterdam French Captain Pierre François Péron, born in 1769 at Lambézellec, near Brest was marooned three years (from 1792 to 1795). He wrote an account about being marooned for 40 months gathering sealskins on that lonely Southern Indian Ocean island. Principal Characters Francisco Serrão (Portuguese soldier / cousin of Magellan / admiral of the Ternate navy) to the Spice Islands in 1512; wrote Magellan letters; died around the same time as Magellan King Manuel (King of Portugal) [Big Bad] rejects Magellan's requests multiple times over many years King Charles I (later Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) [The Strategist] Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca (bishop of Burgos) [Big Bad / The Chessmaster] Casa de Contratación (La Casa y Audiencia de Indias) [Big Bad] Cristóbol de Haro (Flemish financier based in Lisbon) [Only in It for the Money] bore a grudge against Manuel I Rui Faleiro (cosmographer) [Chaotic Neutral] friend and partner, slowly going insane Beatriz Barbosa (Magellan's wife) Diogo Barbosa (Magellan's father-in-law) The Armada de Molucca Trinidad Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) (Fernando de Magallanes) (Captain General) [Protagonist / The Leader / Principles Zealot / Well-Intentioned Extremist] Estêvão Gomes (pilot major) Gonzalo Gómez de Espinosa (algacil / master at arms) Francisco Albo (pilot) Pedro de Valderrama (chaplain) Ginés de Mafra (seaman) Enrique de Malacca (interpreter) Duarte Barbosa (supernumerary) Alvaro de Mesquita (Magellan's relative, supernumerary) Antonio Pigafetta (chronicler, supernumerary) Cristóvão Rebelo (Magellan's illegitmate son, supernumerary) San Antonio Juan de Cartagena (captain and inspector general) Antonio de Coca (Fonseca's nephew / fleet accountant / spy) Andres de San Martin (astrologer and pilot) Juan de Elorriaga (master) Gerónimo Guerra (clerk) Bernard de Calmette a.k.a. Pero Sanchez de la Reina (chaplain) Concepción Gaspar de Quesada (captain) Joao Lopes Carvalho (pilot) Juan Sebastian Elcano (master) Juan de Acurio (mate) Hernando Bustamente (barber) Joãozito Carvalho (cabin boy) Martin de Magalhaes (supernumerary) Victoria Luis de Mendoza (captain) Vasco Gomes Gallego (pilot) Antonio Salamon (master) Miguel de Rodas (mate) Santiago Juan Rodriguez Serrano (captain) Baltasar Palla (master) Bartolomé Prieur (mate) also: Pope Alexander VI () divided world in half Juan de Aranda ("ambitious merchant" / head of the Spanish India House of Trade / Factor of the Casa de Contratación) Rajah Siaiu (King of Mazaua) Humabon (King of Cebu) Lapu Lapu (King of Mactan) Pedro Alfonsode Lorosa (Portugese renegade who defected and was beheaded by Brito's men) Antonio de Brito (Portugese-appointed governor of the Spice Islands) : [The Dragon] Magellan's contemporaries: Christopher Columbus Amerigo Vespucci Vasco de Gama Details By ship: determine where and when each ship ended its journey By person: determine the beginning and ending time/location for ~260 crew Measurements, nautical and otherwise span : ~9 inches fathom : 6 feet league : ~4 miles Topics / Themes / Dimensions: Crew life aboard the ship: each man's jobs, sleep, interaction, entertainment, food, bathroom, etc. Spanish naval customs Navigation: sun, time-keeping, quadrant Communication: even amongst the ships this was difficult When the San Antonio (secretly) deserted Magellan left a marker and letter for them on land, as per custom Clothing: how did they keep warm in high latitudes? Food Weapons: the ship's guns are old Family: Magellan brings many of his cousins (and an illegitimate son) along, several of them are made captain Trust: At least 2 of the men were certainly outright spies for Charles Magellan's Non-crew life aboard the ship slaves, Captives, Girls, Family, Livestock, Pests Wildlife Fish fishing flying fish tuna sharks ominously circling the boat full of starving men at Ilha de los Tiburones Whale bones near Strait Birds of the pacific guanacos penguins sea wolves others: whales, dolphins, Unexplained (to them) St. Elmo's fire scurvy date off 1 day Allegiance mutiny sailors deserting Death burial at sea torture execution Discovery The Southern Cross constellation Magellanic cloud indonesian recipes Isolation : tiny ships and a big, uncaring world Language the story involves people from many nations languages: Spanish, Portugese, naval Spanish, Italian, native languages Senses : subtle things taste water salinity in the Strait for clues to ocean vs. bay Sex homosexuality leading to execution intercourse between sailors and natives did Magellan really abstain...? Religion saints listed on the crew manifest Magellan's zeal conversions mass cross at Mazau St. Elmo's fire Ship's health / maintenance / repairs constructed from oak? Continuity Calculate the phases of the Moon, position of the Sun and locations of stars/constellations during the journey based on the Armada's location and the time of year Things to Stress / How to show The age (Age of Discovery, Age of Sail) Ancient oar-propelled galleys were still in mainstream use State-of-the-art knowledge: Ptolemy's geography and astrology Pliny the Elder's 'Natural History' Maps/charts were top secret Cosmography maps the general features of the universe, describing both heaven and Earth Popular travel stories: The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Sir John Mandeville (Prester John) People were smaller : average height was 5'3" Sailors especially would be small, they also suffered malnutrition The Spanish Inquisition was ongoing, explains ethnocentrism, intolerence and torture Columbus had just discovered the Carribean only a generation before 1519–21: Hernán Cortés leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The natives' POV Europeans claim to have 'discovered' these islands... show the anchoring of Armada de Molucca from the perspective of a Chinese merchant Philippines had been doing business with Arabs, Indians and Chinese for centuries Magellan's love for Christianity and for king and country and his overall passion and boldness contrast the repeated, cold dismissal by Manuel The insane value of cloves and spices: compare/contrast human life, gold, narcotics, etc. support by showing how awful food was without it, and how it was used in medicines, etc CONTRAST the wealth of the Spice Islands as reported in Serrao's letters The bitterness of the sea war between Spain and Portugal The fact that the Portugese sent ships out to seek and destroy them King Charles his youth chin deformity How little Charles cared for the men he sponsored, or cloves for that matter, only money and titles Magellan's character based on... military campaigns in his youth How much Magellan sacrificed before the journey even launched; he left behind... his country of birth and ~30 years of service his wife and child his friend Ruy Faleiro The danger of sailing demonstrate via Magellan and Serrao's histories of their ships striking reefs The Europeans' effect on the natives The transmission of disease How cold it was in Patagonia The Fillipino pride over Magellan's defeat and death at Mactan every year they hold "Kadaugan sa Mactan" on Cebu (?) to commemorate Lapu Lapu's defeat Lapu-Lapu vs. Magellan in combat-style video game http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fDC3YA7Kww The legacy of Christianity in The Philippines The danger of traversing the Cape of Good Hope 60 foot rogue waves(!) Transitions during the story The insulation of persistent cultural society of upper-crust Europe to the exposure to the uncaring sea and land of undeveloped parts of the world The excitement of Magellan's time sailing the Indies 1505-1512, and his attempts to reunite with Serrao Francisco Serrão from Magellan's brother in arms to Spice Island then to death ...imagine a Godfather-style power consolidation series between Ternate and Tidore Magellan's motivation is partly fueled by nostalgia for Serrão and the good times they had in their youth King Charles it's all about titles and thus money, the crew are expendable In 1519 Charles is ~18, when they return he is 21 and Holy Roman Emperor In 1521 he is negotiating to mary Manuel's daughter Isabel for political reasons Leadership: Magellan rules with a strong hand and singular vision, after his death the ships are not properly maintained and go astray The Eastern façade of the Cathedral of Seville was begun in 1519 and completed in 1522 Rats are thrown overboard at first, but are eaten later as food runs out Magellan's religious fervor grows; up until Cebu/Mactan it is positive ...begins conversions peacefully as a show of honor with great success, but eventually attacks anyone who DOESN'T convert Cats appear on the ships before starvation in the Pacific, then disappear and nobody mentions it Climaxes: Tragic Mistake: Magellan's choice to sidetrack their mission to violently enforce Christianity upon the Mactan Point of No Return: When Magellan storms the Mactan sandbar/beach Downer Ending: most of the men die of malnutrition, Epinosa loses his ship, nearly half the remaining men are captured by the Portugese in the Verdes Reveals Quesada mutiny the Strait Pacific side the true size of the Pacific Magellan's heavy-handedness in killing natives Portugal already had access to the Spice Islands, which is why Manuel repeatedly turned Magellan down Temporal Juxtapositions Quesada's mutiny / the oath of loyalty by the officers in the church before they left Perception / Symbology / Visual Stylistic Interpretation Magellan and Pigafetta have been compared to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza Show Patagonian people as actual giants as reported, or as ~6ft tall? When Magellan looks at the Southern Cross he sees a brighter, more-illuminated cross shape than others do When the ships finally reach Guam they form a skull When Magellan is fatally struck he briefly forms a cross Practical questions: Tons of sailing ones How much draft did a carrack have? What was the process of scouting and landing at an island like? How deep did the water need to be? Anchoring How to measure depth, spot sandbars/reefs/etc How far would they row in? How many men would go ashore and how many would stay on the ship? Sailing course based... geography navigation currents winds maps What do we learn about storytelling from history-based Hollywood film? Good: Braveheart, Gladiator, Troy, 300, The Last Samauri, Last of the Mohicans, The Patriot, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves Script with heavy historical romantic revisions One or more large, violent, hand-to-hand battle scene Protagonist played by mainstream male Hollywood hunk A demonized antagonist (except: Troy) Takes place Bad: The Conqueror, Alexander, The Messenger: Joan of Arc, 1492: Conquest of Paradise Non-(straight white male) protagonist Absurdly miscast protagonist Overt homosexuality (Alexander) 300: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/300_(comics) I'd like to go this route; producing a limited series of comic books Other non-superhero comics to be made into (good) films: Sin City, The Crow, Hellboy, V for Vendetta, Watchmen, Road to Perdition, From Hell, A History of Violence, Kick-Ass, Men in Black, (Mystery Men), Red, Tales from the Crypt, Timecop, Related films: 1492 (beautiful visuals, terrible script) Magellan films/series: Films containing Ferdinand Magellan: http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0027108/ Magellán (1977) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0125387/ In order to make this more Hollywood: Need to emphasize female roles and love Emphasize action Scurvy Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy. After 1–3 months, patients develop shortness of breath and bone pain. Myalgias may occur because of reduced carnitine production. Other symptoms include skin changes with roughness, easy bruising and petechiae, gum disease, loosening of teeth, poor wound healing, and emotional changes. Dry mouth and dry eyes similar to Sjögren's syndrome may occur. In the late stages, jaundice, generalized edema, oliguria, neuropathy, fever, and convulsions, and eventual death are frequently seen. Chapters Pre-journey Magellan's life Portugese's secret supply route Financing Charles' money shortage Blackening of Megellan's name Journey Seville -> Cape Verde -> Rio South American coast Over-wintering in Puerto San Julián Mutiny of Concepción and San Antonio Execution / torture / marooning Patagonian Giants: Patagão" (i.e. "Patagon", or Patagoni in Pigafetta's Italian plural) pata=foot Looking for the strait Shipwreck of the Santiago and the rescue of her crew Tierra del Fuego Strait of Magellan / Dragon's Tail icebergs / strong winds Mutiny and desertion of the San Antonio Crossing the Pacific Phillipines Cebu / Limasawa Battle of Mactan Massacre at Cebu Tearing down of the cross Spice Islands at last Parting ways Victoria's Tidore -> Cape of Good Hope -> Seville scurvy and starvation some members captured by Portugese Post-journey Thanksgiving at Church Slaves / captives Financial success Eventual freeing of Portugese prisoners Interviews by Charles, Maximilian Magellan's legacy Magellan's namesake: GPS units, satellites, Wind up our story's characters Procession honoring Magellan's discoveries? [Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the World](http://www.marinersmuseum.org/education/ferdinand-magellan-and-first-circumnavigation-world) [Ferdinand Magellan](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan) () () () () Things: The Santo Niño de Cebú ("Holy Child of Cebu") is a Roman Catholic figure of the Child Jesus highly similar to the Infant Jesus of Prague. Like the image's counterpart in Prague, the figure is clothed in expensive textile robes mostly donations from fervent devotees in the Philippines and abroad. The statue is permanently housed at the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño in Cebu City. The cross at Mazaua http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_mass_in_the_Philippines#Planting_of_the_cross Cross at Cebu