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Overall goal: the telling of the Armada de Mulucca's global circumnavigation and the lives of the men involved. research and initial story should be comprehensive, but with an eye toward adapting it to a graphic novel and screenplay

Imagine the greatest single achievement on the sea told in Watchmen-style.

	This story is a complex one, involving many individuals and cultures and locations around the globe.

		"If you want Calculon to race to the laser gun battle in his hover-Ferarri, press 1.
		 If you want Calculon to double-check his paperwork, press 2." -- Futurama

	The goal is to hint at enough of this complexity to do the story justice, while maintaining a
	sufficiently-paced narrative. We don't want to gloss over details that help fill in the setting,
	the people and the events; but we don't want to get bogged down either. I don't want to alter
	history, but I do want to tell it in a compelling way.

	I would like to tell the events of the Armada de Moluccas in a mostly linear fashion, but 
	fill in some of the time at sea and at rest with character backstory via the memories and dreams
	of the men on the voyage, especially Magellan. I think this will allow us to get right to the point
	of the story of the Armada while also doing character development. Bonus if we can weave the
	flashbacks in a way that a) the audience can make sense of and b) 

	For example, I want to put the torture and execution of Quesada in the perspective of the
	contemporary Spanish Inquisition.
	I want to explain Magellan's actions on the circumnavigation by way of the times in which he lived
	and the evidence we have of his personality on previous tours of duty... without this being
	a strict linear history of Spain or Portugal or even a biography of Magellan.

    I also want to compare this most masterful voyage of discovery with other historical explorations,
        * Apollo 11's journey to the moon
        * Kon-Tiki's trans-Pacific raft journey
        * maybe Journey of the Beagle

	Approximate timeline that breaks the story into manageable pieces by time and location

Literary devices
	Magellan can confide in Pigafetta, who was chronicler and had ingratiated himself
	Non-Spanish/Portuguses sailors can ask the Spanish/Portuguese sailors about things
		que 'strappado'?

"It is an old saying that God gave the Portuguese a very small country to live in, but all the world in which to die." -- The European discovery of America : the southern voyages A.D. 1492-1616, Samuel Eliot Morison. p313

	When did Magellan meet Rui Faleiro?
		Moris says they met in Portugal
		Bergreen says they met in Spain
	How does Juan de Aranda fit in exactly?
		Each story has a slightly different description of him and meeting arrangement...
			Does Magellan contact him or vice versa? Or does someone else bring him onboard?

Sources / References: books, journals, testimony, logs, maps, etc.
		Antonio Pigafetta's journal: original lost, 3 copies in french, 1 in italian
			The account written by Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's official chronicler and one of the survivors of the voyage, did not appear until 1525, in Paris, and was not wholly published until the first year of the 19th century; this was the edition by Carlo Amoretti published in 1800. This edition is now famously called the Ambrosiana codex. It is through Transylvanus' account that Europe was informed of the first circumnavigation of the globe.
		Francisco Albo, whose "log-book" (trustworthy, though fragmentary) is contained in Navarrete's famous "Coleccion"
		memoir by survivor Ginés de Mafra
		"The Genoese pilot" Juan Bautista Punzorol
		a Portugese companion of Duarte Barbosa (preserved by Ramusio)
		navigational notes of Andrés de San Martín, who was the fleet's chief pilot and astrologer: LOST
			These papers have been lost and now exist only in quotes, references, and citations by several Spanish chroniclers, including Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas
				Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano (Madrid, 1601-1615, 4 vols)
		Martinho de Aiamonte

		There are five eyewitness chronicles mentioning Magellan's visit to Mazaua. The authors and the dates of publication of their writings are Antonio Pigafetta,1800; The Genoese Pilot, 1826; Francisco Albo, 1837; Ginés de Mafra, 1920; Martín de Ayamonte,1933.

		"De Moluccis Insulis" (The Mollocus Islands) Maximilian Transylvanus, a secretary of King Charles, interviewed Elcano, Albo and Bustamenta (and Pigafetta?) at length in Valladolid
			A surviving copy of the first edition of his work can be found in the Beinecke Library (Yale University). A second edition can be found at the Scheepvaart Museum (Amsterdam). Princeton University Library has copies of the Cologne and Rome printings.
		Peter Martyr, both contemporaries, who conversed with the Magellan survivors in Seville;
		Oviedo, who was then in Darien;
		Correa, author of Lendas da India;
		Herrera, Spanish historiographer

		The European discovery of America : the southern voyages A.D. 1492-1616, Samuel Eliot Morison.
		Bergreen, Laurence. Over the Edge of the World, Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. HarperCollins: New York, 2003.
		Colección de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España, Volume 2? Martín Fernández de Navarrete y Ximénez de Tejada
		The First Voyage Round the World
				timeline p72
				Genoese Pilot p78-106
				Pigafetta p?-242
				Maximilian Transylvanus: p258-289
		early history by Portguese historian João de Barros?

		The Odyssey
		Voyage of the Beagle: another European perspective on South American coastline
			includes illustrations
		Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific in a Raft
			smashing into a reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands
		The Tempest: "Caliban" was partly inspired by Pigafetta's account of the Patagonian

	New Amsterdam Island / Île Amsterdam
		French Captain Pierre François Péron, born in 1769 at Lambézellec, near Brest was marooned three years (from 1792 to 1795). He wrote an account about being marooned for 40 months gathering sealskins on that lonely Southern Indian Ocean island.

Principal Characters
	Francisco Serrão (Portuguese soldier / cousin of Magellan / admiral of the Ternate navy) to the Spice Islands in 1512; wrote Magellan letters; died around the same time as Magellan
	King Manuel (King of Portugal) [Big Bad] rejects Magellan's requests multiple times over many years
	King Charles I (later Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) [The Strategist]
	Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca (bishop of Burgos) [Big Bad / The Chessmaster]
		Casa de Contratación (La Casa y Audiencia de Indias) [Big Bad]
	Cristóbol de Haro (Flemish financier based in Lisbon) [Only in It for the Money] bore a grudge against Manuel I
	Rui Faleiro (cosmographer) [Chaotic Neutral] friend and partner, slowly going insane
	Beatriz Barbosa (Magellan's wife)
	Diogo Barbosa (Magellan's father-in-law)

	The Armada de Molucca
			Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) (Fernando de Magallanes)
				(Captain General) [Protagonist / The Leader / Principles Zealot / Well-Intentioned Extremist]
			Estêvão Gomes (pilot major)
			Gonzalo Gómez de Espinosa (algacil / master at arms)
			Francisco Albo (pilot)
			Pedro de Valderrama (chaplain)
			Ginés de Mafra (seaman)
			Enrique de Malacca (interpreter)
			Duarte Barbosa (supernumerary)
			Alvaro de Mesquita (Magellan's relative, supernumerary)
			Antonio Pigafetta (chronicler, supernumerary)
			Cristóvão Rebelo (Magellan's illegitmate son, supernumerary)
		San Antonio
			Juan de Cartagena (captain and inspector general)
			Antonio de Coca (Fonseca's nephew / fleet accountant / spy)
			Andres de San Martin (astrologer and pilot)
			Juan de Elorriaga (master)
			Gerónimo Guerra (clerk)
			Bernard de Calmette a.k.a. Pero Sanchez de la Reina (chaplain)
			Gaspar de Quesada (captain)
			Joao Lopes Carvalho (pilot)
			Juan Sebastian Elcano (master)
			Juan de Acurio (mate)
			Hernando Bustamente (barber)
			Joãozito Carvalho (cabin boy)
			Martin de Magalhaes (supernumerary)
			Luis de Mendoza (captain)
			Vasco Gomes Gallego (pilot)
			Antonio Salamon (master)
			Miguel de Rodas (mate)
			Juan Rodriguez Serrano (captain)
			Baltasar Palla (master)
			Bartolomé Prieur (mate)

		Pope Alexander VI () divided world in half
		Juan de Aranda ("ambitious merchant" / head of the Spanish India House of Trade / Factor of the Casa de Contratación)
		Rajah Siaiu (King of Mazaua)
		Humabon (King of Cebu)
		Lapu Lapu (King of Mactan)
		Pedro Alfonsode Lorosa (Portugese renegade who defected and was beheaded by Brito's men)
		Antonio de Brito (Portugese-appointed governor of the Spice Islands) : [The Dragon]

		Magellan's contemporaries:
			Christopher Columbus
			Amerigo Vespucci
			Vasco de Gama

	By ship: determine where and when each ship ended its journey
	By person: determine the beginning and ending time/location for
		~260 crew

Measurements, nautical and otherwise
	span : ~9 inches
	fathom : 6 feet
	league : ~4 miles

Topics / Themes / Dimensions:
	Crew life aboard the ship: each man's jobs, sleep, interaction, entertainment, food, bathroom, etc.
		Spanish naval customs
	Navigation: sun, time-keeping, quadrant
	Communication: even amongst the ships this was difficult
		When the San Antonio (secretly) deserted Magellan left a marker and letter for them on land, as per custom
		how did they keep warm in high latitudes?
	Weapons: the ship's guns are old 
	Family: Magellan brings many of his cousins (and an illegitimate son) along, several of them are made captain
		At least 2 of the men were certainly outright spies for Charles
	Non-crew life aboard the ship
		slaves, Captives, Girls, Family, Livestock, Pests
			flying fish
			sharks ominously circling the boat full of starving men at Ilha de los Tiburones
		Whale bones near Strait
		Birds of the pacific
		sea wolves
		others: whales, dolphins, 
	Unexplained (to them)
		St. Elmo's fire
		date off 1 day
		sailors deserting
		burial at sea
		The Southern Cross constellation
		Magellanic cloud
		indonesian recipes
	Isolation : tiny ships and a big, uncaring world
		the story involves people from many nations
		languages: Spanish, Portugese, naval Spanish, Italian, native languages
	Senses : subtle things
		taste water salinity in the Strait for clues to ocean vs. bay
		homosexuality leading to execution
		intercourse between sailors and natives
		did Magellan really abstain...?
		saints listed on the crew manifest
		Magellan's zeal
		cross at Mazau
		St. Elmo's fire
	Ship's health / maintenance / repairs
		constructed from oak?

	Calculate the phases of the Moon, position of the Sun and locations of stars/constellations during the journey based on the Armada's location and the time of year

Things to Stress / How to show
	The age (Age of Discovery, Age of Sail)
		Ancient oar-propelled galleys were still in mainstream use
		State-of-the-art knowledge:
			Ptolemy's geography and astrology
			Pliny the Elder's 'Natural History'
		Maps/charts were top secret
		Cosmography maps the general features of the universe, describing both heaven and Earth
		Popular travel stories:
			The Travels of Marco Polo
			The Travels of Sir John Mandeville
			(Prester John)
		People were smaller : average height was 5'3"
			Sailors especially would be small, they also suffered malnutrition
		The Spanish Inquisition was ongoing, explains ethnocentrism, intolerence and torture
		Columbus had just discovered the Carribean only a generation before
		1519–21: Hernán Cortés leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
	The natives' POV
		Europeans claim to have 'discovered' these islands...
			show the anchoring of Armada de Molucca from the perspective of a Chinese merchant
				Philippines had been doing business with Arabs, Indians and Chinese for centuries
	Magellan's love for Christianity and for king and country and his overall passion and boldness
		contrast the repeated, cold dismissal by Manuel
	The insane value of cloves and spices: compare/contrast human life, gold, narcotics, etc.
		support by showing how awful food was without it, and how it was used in medicines, etc
		CONTRAST the wealth of the Spice Islands as reported in Serrao's letters
	The bitterness of the sea war between Spain and Portugal
		The fact that the Portugese sent ships out to seek and destroy them
	King Charles
		his youth
		chin deformity
		How little Charles cared for the men he sponsored, or cloves for that matter, only money and titles
	Magellan's character based on...
		military campaigns in his youth
	How much Magellan sacrificed before the journey even launched; he left behind...
		his country of birth and ~30 years of service
		his wife and child
		his friend Ruy Faleiro
	The danger of sailing
		demonstrate via Magellan and Serrao's histories of their ships striking reefs
	The Europeans' effect on the natives
		The transmission of disease
	How cold it was in Patagonia
	The Fillipino pride over Magellan's defeat and death at Mactan
		every year they hold "Kadaugan sa Mactan" on Cebu (?) to commemorate Lapu Lapu's defeat
		Lapu-Lapu vs. Magellan in combat-style video game
	The legacy of Christianity in The Philippines
	The danger of traversing the Cape of Good Hope
		60 foot rogue waves(!)

Transitions during the story
	The insulation of persistent cultural society of upper-crust Europe to the exposure to the
		uncaring sea and land of undeveloped parts of the world
	The excitement of Magellan's time sailing the Indies 1505-1512, and his attempts to reunite with Serrao
	Francisco Serrão from Magellan's brother in arms to Spice Island then to death
		...imagine a Godfather-style power consolidation series between Ternate and Tidore
		Magellan's motivation is partly fueled by nostalgia for Serrão and the good times they had in their youth
	King Charles it's all about titles and thus money, the crew are expendable
		In 1519 Charles is ~18, when they return he is 21 and Holy Roman Emperor
		In 1521 he is negotiating to mary Manuel's daughter Isabel for political reasons
	Leadership: Magellan rules with a strong hand and singular vision, after his death the ships are not properly maintained and go astray
	The Eastern façade of the Cathedral of Seville was begun in 1519 and completed in 1522
	Rats are thrown overboard at first, but are eaten later as food runs out
	Magellan's religious fervor grows; up until Cebu/Mactan it is positive
		...begins conversions peacefully as a show of honor with great success, but eventually attacks anyone who DOESN'T convert
	Cats appear on the ships before starvation in the Pacific, then disappear and nobody mentions it

	Tragic Mistake: Magellan's choice to sidetrack their mission to violently enforce Christianity upon the Mactan
	Point of No Return: When Magellan storms the Mactan sandbar/beach
	Downer Ending: most of the men die of malnutrition, Epinosa loses his ship, nearly half the remaining men are captured by the Portugese in the Verdes

	Quesada mutiny
	the Strait
	Pacific side
	the true size of the Pacific
	Magellan's heavy-handedness in killing natives
	Portugal already had access to the Spice Islands, which is why Manuel repeatedly turned Magellan down

Temporal Juxtapositions
	Quesada's mutiny / the oath of loyalty by the officers in the church before they left

Perception / Symbology / Visual Stylistic Interpretation
	Magellan and Pigafetta have been compared to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
	Show Patagonian people as actual giants as reported, or as ~6ft tall?
	When Magellan looks at the Southern Cross he sees a brighter, more-illuminated cross shape than others do
	When the ships finally reach Guam they form a skull
	When Magellan is fatally struck he briefly forms a cross

Practical questions:
	Tons of sailing ones
		How much draft did a carrack have?
		What was the process of scouting and landing at an island like?
			How deep did the water need to be?
			How to measure depth, spot sandbars/reefs/etc
			How far would they row in?
			How many men would go ashore and how many would stay on the ship?
	Sailing course based...

What do we learn about storytelling from history-based Hollywood film?
	Good: Braveheart, Gladiator, Troy, 300, The Last Samauri, Last of the Mohicans, The Patriot, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
		Script with heavy historical romantic revisions
		One or more large, violent, hand-to-hand battle scene
		Protagonist played by mainstream male Hollywood hunk
		A demonized antagonist  (except: Troy)
		Takes place 
	Bad: The Conqueror, Alexander, The Messenger: Joan of Arc, 1492: Conquest of Paradise
		Non-(straight white male) protagonist
		Absurdly miscast protagonist
		Overt homosexuality (Alexander)
		I'd like to go this route; producing a limited series of comic books
		Other non-superhero comics to be made into (good) films: Sin City, The Crow, Hellboy, V for Vendetta, Watchmen,
		Road to Perdition, From Hell, A History of Violence, Kick-Ass, Men in Black, (Mystery Men), Red, Tales from the Crypt, Timecop, 
	Related films: 1492 (beautiful visuals, terrible script)
	Magellan films/series:
		Films containing Ferdinand Magellan:
		Magellán (1977)

In order to make this more Hollywood:
	Need to emphasize female roles and love
	Emphasize action

	Early symptoms are malaise and lethargy. After 1–3 months, patients develop shortness of breath and bone pain. Myalgias may occur because of reduced carnitine production. Other symptoms include skin changes with roughness, easy bruising and petechiae, gum disease, loosening of teeth, poor wound healing, and emotional changes. Dry mouth and dry eyes similar to Sjögren's syndrome may occur. In the late stages, jaundice, generalized edema, oliguria, neuropathy, fever, and convulsions, and eventual death are frequently seen.


		Magellan's life
		Portugese's secret supply route
			Charles' money shortage
		Blackening of Megellan's name

		Seville -> Cape Verde -> Rio
		South American coast
			Over-wintering in Puerto San Julián
				Mutiny of Concepción and San Antonio
					Execution / torture / marooning
				Patagonian Giants: Patagão" (i.e. "Patagon", or Patagoni in Pigafetta's Italian plural) pata=foot
		Looking for the strait
			Shipwreck of the Santiago and the rescue of her crew
			Tierra del Fuego
		Strait of Magellan / Dragon's Tail
			icebergs / strong winds
			Mutiny and desertion of the San Antonio
		Crossing the Pacific
			Cebu / Limasawa
			Battle of Mactan
			Massacre at Cebu
			Tearing down of the cross
		Spice Islands at last
			Parting ways
		Victoria's Tidore -> Cape of Good Hope -> Seville
			scurvy and starvation
			some members captured by Portugese

		Thanksgiving at Church
		Slaves / captives
		Financial success
		Eventual freeing of Portugese prisoners
		Interviews by Charles, Maximilian
		Magellan's legacy
			Magellan's namesake: GPS units, satellites, 
		Wind up our story's characters
		Procession honoring Magellan's discoveries?

[Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the World](
[Ferdinand Magellan](


The Santo Niño de Cebú ("Holy Child of Cebu") is a Roman Catholic figure of the Child Jesus highly similar to the Infant Jesus of Prague. Like the image's counterpart in Prague, the figure is clothed in expensive textile robes mostly donations from fervent devotees in the Philippines and abroad. The statue is permanently housed at the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño in Cebu City.

The cross at Mazaua

Cross at Cebu