Machine.Specifications is a Context/Specification framework geared towards removing language noise and simplifying tests.
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Machine.Specifications (MSpec)

The most recent release is available at CodeBetter's TeamCity server:

You can also install these using NuGet:

  PM> Install-Package Machine.Specifications
  PM> Install-Package Machine.Specifications-Signed

On top of that we provide downloads for the latest successful build (possibly more current than the releases above):

Machine.Specifications is a Context/Specification framework geared towards removing language noise and simplifying tests. All it asks is that you accept the =()=>.

Below docs are a work in progress:


Machine.Specifications is a Context/Specification framework geared towards removing language noise and simplifying tests. All it asks is that you accept the =()=>.

The source code is available on GitHub at It is released under the terms of the MIT license with some parts MS-PL. Information about this license is contained within the accompanying License.txt file.

Getting started with MSpec

Downloading/Building/Installing MSpec (would love to make this simpler)

MSpec is a tool that is constantly being worked on in order to fix bugs or add new features. As such, it does not have the classic model of milestone releases to represent "stable" version, although the version number of MSpec is periodically updated to reflect progress in the evolution of the codebase.

With this in mind, there are two common ways to obtain MSpec: build from source or get the latest build zip MSpec's Continuous Integration (CI) server.

Build from source

The easiest way to build MSpec from source is to clone the git repository on GitHub and build the MSpec solution. If you do not intend to fork/contribute changes MSpec, you can anonymously clone the GitHub repo with the following command. If terms like "git" and "clone the git repository" are moon language to you, you can learn more here.

git clone git://

Start the build by running build.cmd right from the cloned directory.

The solution file is located, relative to the root of the repo, at Source\Machine.Specifications.sln.

Get the latest build from the CI server

MSpec has a Continuous Integration setup, provided by CodeBetter and running on TeamCity.

If you'd like to skip the above steps and just want the binaries for MSpec, get the zip of the latest release

How stuff works

Subject/It/Because of/Establish context/Cleanup after

Running your specs (Test Runners)

Command line

MSpec, like other testing frameworks, provides a robust command-line runner that can be used to execute specs in one or more assemblies and allows a number of output formats to suit your needs. The runner comes in different flavors:

  • mspec.exe, AnyCPU, runs on the CLR 2.0
  • mspec-x86.exe, x86, runs on the CLR 2.0
  • mspec-clr4.exe, AnyCPU, runs on the CLR 4.0
  • mspec-x86-clr4.exe, x86, runs on the CLR 4.0

Usage of the command-line runner is as follows (from mspec.exe --help):

Usage: mspec.exe [options] <assemblies>
-i, --include               Executes all specifications in contexts with these comma delimited tags. Ex. -i "foo,bar,foo_bar"
-x, --exclude               Exclude specifications in contexts with these comma delimited tags. Ex. -x "foo,bar,foo_bar"
-t, --timeinfo              Shows time-related information in HTML output
-s, --silent                Suppress console output
-w, --wait                  Wait 15 seconds for debugger to be attached
--teamcity                  Reporting for TeamCity CI integration (also auto-detected)
--no-teamcity-autodetect    Disables TeamCity autodetection
--html <PATH>               Outputs the HTML report to path, one-per-assembly w/ index.html (if directory, otherwise all are in one file)
--xml <PATH>                Outputs the XML report to the file referenced by the path
-h, --help                  Shows this help message
Usage: mspec.exe [options] <assemblies>

Selenium Support in the command-line runner

The command-line runner provides support for Selenium web tests written using MSpec. When utilized, the MSpec HTML reports will show additional, Selenium-specific information, like screenshots and some useful debug info that can come in handy when trying to figure out why a web test has failed. Aaron Jensen has written a blog post on the topic that explains how to integrate this feature into your specs.

TeamCity support from the command-line runner

MSpec provides TeamCity integration via specialized output from the command-line runner to provide information and updates on overall test run status while the specs are running. This functionality can be enabled by passing the --teamcity option to the command-line runner. The runner will auto-detect TeamCity if the option is not passed.

HTML output from the command-line runner

Using the --html option from the command-line runner will cause the runner to output its test results in a "human readable" HTML document. If no file name is provided as an argument, it will use the name of the tested assembly(s) as the name of the output file. In the case of multiple assemblies, an index.html will be included with links to each assembly-specific HTML document. If a filename is provided, the output will be place in a file at that name/path, overwriting previous files. If multiple assemblies are being tested, the output for each will be grouped into a single file.

Using this option with a CI server that supports running the command-line runner and capturing the output HTML as an artifact, you can integrate the test results into your build report.

Also, this option is needed if you intend to capture Selenium-specific test information in your build results.

XML output from the command-line runner

XML output can be generated by MSpec's command-line runner for use with external tools that can consume the markup with the --xml <filename(s)> option.

This option behaves the same as the --html option, in terms of filename behavior and multiple assemblies.


Using InstallResharperRunner*.bat

MSpec provides a batch file for each of the versions of ReSharper it supports, 4.1, 4.5, 5.0, 5.1, 6.0 and 6.1.

Preventing ReSharper from marking specifications as unused

By default, ReSharper will think that specification classes (those marked with the [Subject] attribute), and their internals are unused. To change this behavior in Visual Studio:

  1. Open the ReSharper Options (ReSharper -> Options...)
  2. Select "Code Annotations"
  3. Ensure that the namespace "Machine.Specifications.Annotations" is checked
  4. Click "OK"
ReSharper templates

To import the templates into Visual Studio go to ReSharper -> Templates Explorer..., click Import... and select the Misc\ReSharper.*.DotSettings files.

Live templates

MSpec provides following live templates:

  • mse, shortcut for Establish delegate
  • msb, shortcut for Because delegate
  • msi, shortcut for It delegate
  • msf, shortcut for failing It delegate which is best used in conjugation with the Catch.Exception surround template.
File templates

At the moment there is only one file template which creates a new file containing a single MSpec context.

Surround templates

There is one surround template which makes the creation of Catch.Exception statements easier.

Usage examples for the file and surround template can be found in the following blog post:


Using InstallTDNetRunner.bat

NOTE: If you obtained the latest successful binaries from CI build as indicated above, the InstallTDNetRunner.bat is already with the binaries and doesn't need to be copied.

MSpec provides a InstallTDNetRunner.bat file which can be used to add support for MSpec to TestDriven.Net. The file (and another version which runs silently) are available in the \Distribution\Specifications directory of the source repository. To add TD.Net support:

  • Copy one or more of the .bat files in the above-mentioned directory into a directory which contains the complete build output of the project (usually \Build in the source repo).

  • Run one of them.

After following these steps, MSpec-based Contexts and Specifications can be ran from within Visual Studio in the same manner as tests from other frameworks are executed.

Using XCopy deploy in TD.NET 2.24+

TestDriven.Net versions 2.24 and newer support a XCopy deployment model that simplifies the plugin deployment process and negates the versioning issues that arise from using the registry-based scheme used in InstallTDNetRunner.bat.

All that needs to be done is to make sure that the Machine.Specifications.dll.tdnet file that is deployed as part of the zip downloads and Machine.Specifications.TDNetRunner.csproj is in the same directory as your MSpec binaries.


The utility of Inheritance in Context/Specification-style testing

aka When/how to use base classes.

Intention revealing contexts

aka helper methods in base classes, fluent-fixture patterns, etc etc ad nauseum.


Make your Its/Becauses single-line statements

MSpec is designed to reduce noise in tests. You should generally only have one line in your It and Because statements. As such, you should probably leave out the { and }. Context/Specification testing, while a rethinking of "classic" TDD, still abides by the rules of Arrange-Act-Assert. As such, it is preferrable to keep the latter two as succinct as possible.


If you're consistently finding that you need to have multiple lines in your Because statements, that may be a code smell that your Context is "too chunky". You want to be able to verify and "nail down" that the behavior that you're verifying with your It statements is because of a single action. Of course, most non-trivial contexts require multiple lines of setup to get into the preferred state that you're verifying, but you want to be able to say that there is a particular, final action that makes your specifications pass.

For example:

public class because_example_goes_here : ExampleSpecs {



Simultaneously, your It statements should be single-liners and reflect a single assertion. If you're stuffing multiple assertions into a single It, considering the wording of that It and how you may be able to break it up into two or more specifications, each containing a single statement.

public class it_example_goes_here : ExampleSpecs {


Testing for exceptions

When testing for exceptions it is recommended that you use the Catch class in your Because statement then validate the exception in subsequent It statements. This ensures that no validation of the Exception occurs in the Because statement. It is also recommended to include an It statement that explicitly determines the type of Exception if that is important to you. Doing so will improve the readability of your specifications clarifying how the system is intended to behave.

public class when_the_user_credentials_cannot_be_verified : ExampleSpecs {
  static Exception Exception;

  Because of = () => 
    Exception = Catch.Exception(() => SecurityService.Authenticate("user", "pass") );

  It should_fail = () => 


External links (blog posts, etc?)

Framework Features


This interface has two methods

void OnAssemblyStart()

void OnAssemblyComplete()

These methods are used by classes that implement IAssemblyContext, to set if an assembly loaded by reflection has started to be checked (explored) or is completed.