Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Find file History
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
..
Failed to load latest commit information.
wordpress
README.md

README.md

Lab: AppArmor

Difficulty: Advanced

Time: Approximately 25 minutes

AppArmor (Application Armor) is a Linux Security Module (LSM). It protects the operating system by applying profiles to individual applications. In contrast to managing capabilities with CAP_DROP and syscalls with seccomp, AppArmor allows for much finer-grained control. For example, AppArmor can restrict file operations on specified paths.

In this lab you will learn the basics of AppArmor and how to use it with Docker for improved security.

You will complete the following steps as part of this lab.

Prerequisites

You will need all of the following to complete this lab:

  • A Linux-based Docker Host with AppArmor enabled in the kernel (most Debian-based distros)
  • Docker 1.12 or higher

The following command shows you how to check if AppArmor is enabled in your system's kernel:

Check from Docker 1.12 or higher

$ docker version | grep apparmor
Security Options: apparmor seccomp   

If the above output does not return a line with apparmor then your system does not have AppArmor enabled in its kernel.

Step 1: AppArmor primer

By default, Docker applies the docker-default AppArmor profile to new containers. This profile is located in /etc/apparmor.d/docker/ and you can find more information about it in the documentation.

Here are some quick pointers for how to understand AppArmor profiles:

  • Include statements, such as #include <abstractions/base>, behave just like their C counterparts by expanding to additional AppArmor profile contents.

  • AppArmor deny rules have precedence over allow and owner rules. This means that deny rules cannot be overridden by subsequent allow or owner rules for the same resource. Moreover, an allow will be overridden by a subsequent deny on the same resource

  • For file operations, r corresponds to read, w to write, k to lock, l to link, and x to execute.

For more information, see the official AppArmor documentation wiki (under active development at this time).

Step 2: The default-docker AppArmor profile

In this step you will check the status of AppArmor on your Docker Host and learn how to identify whether or not Docker containers are running with an AppArmor profile.

  1. View the status of AppArmor on your Docker Host with the apparmor_status command.
$ apparmor_status
apparmor module is loaded.
10 profiles are loaded.
10 profiles are in enforce mode.
   /sbin/dhclient
   /usr/bin/lxc-start
   /usr/lib/NetworkManager/nm-dhcp-client.action
   /usr/lib/NetworkManager/nm-dhcp-helper
   /usr/lib/connman/scripts/dhclient-script
   /usr/sbin/tcpdump
   docker-default
   lxc-container-default
   lxc-container-default-with-mounting
   lxc-container-default-with-nesting
0 profiles are in complain mode.
2 processes have profiles defined.
2 processes are in enforce mode.
   /sbin/dhclient (610)
0 processes are in complain mode.
0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.

The command may require admin credentials.

Notice the docker-default profile is in enforce mode. This is the AppArmor profile that will be applied to new containers unless overridden with the --security-opts flag.

  1. Run a new container and put it in the back ground.
$ sudo docker run -dit alpine sh
  1. Confirm that the container is running.

    $ sudo docker ps
    CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
    

1bb16561bc06 alpine "sh" 2 seconds ago Up 2 seconds sick_booth


4. Run the `apparmor_status` command again.

$ apparmor_status apparmor module is loaded. 10 profiles are loaded. 10 profiles are in enforce mode. /sbin/dhclient docker-default 0 profiles are in complain mode. 3 processes have profiles defined. 3 processes are in enforce mode. /sbin/dhclient (610) docker-default (19810) 0 processes are in complain mode. 0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.


Notice that `docker-default` is now also listed under **processes are in enforcing mode.** The value in parenthesis is the PID of the container's process as seen from the PID namespace of the Docker Host. If you have multiple containers running you will see multiple `docker-default` policies listed under **processes in enforcing mode**.

 Profiles in *enforce mode* will actively deny operations based on the AppArmor profile. Profiles in *complain mode* will log profile violations but will not block functionality.

5. Stop and remove the container started in the previous steps.

The example below uses the Container ID "1bb16561bc06". This will be different in your environment.

$ sudo docker rm -f 1bb16561bc06 1bb16561bc06


In this step you learned how to check the AppArmor status on your Docker Host and how to check if a container is running with the `default-docker` AppArmor profile.

# <a name="no-profile"></a>Step 3: Running a container without an AppArmor profile

In this step you will see how to run a new container without an AppArmor profile.

1. If you haven't already done so, stop and remove all containers on your system.

$ sudo docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq)


2. Use the `--security-opt apparmor=unconfined` flag to start a new container in the background without an AppArmor profile.

$ sudo docker run -dit --security-opt apparmor=unconfined alpine sh ace79581a19ace7b85009480a64fd378d43844f82559bd1178fce431e292277d


3. Confirm that the container is running.

$ sudo docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES ace79581a19a alpine "sh" 41 seconds ago Up 40 seconds sharp_knuth


4. Use the `apparmor_status` command to verify that the new container is not running with an AppArmor profile.

$ apparmor_status apparmor module is loaded. 1 processes are in enforce mode. /sbin/dhclient (610) 0 processes are in complain mode. 0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.


Notice that there are no instances of the `docker-default` AppArmor profile loaded under the **processes in enforce mode** section. This means that the container you just started does not have the `docker-default` AppArmor profile attached to it.

5. Stop and remove the container started in the previous steps.

The example below uses the Container ID "ace79581a19a". This will be different in your environment.

$ sudo docker rm -f ace79581a19a ace79581a19a


In this step you learned that the `--security-opt apparmor=unconfined` flag will start a new container without an AppArmor profile.

# <a name="depth"></a>Step 4: AppArmor and defense in depth

Defense in depth is a model where multiple different lines of defense work together to provide increased overall defensive capabilities. Docker uses AppArmor, seccomp, and Capabilities to form a deep defense system.

In this step you will see how AppArmor can protect a Docker Host even when other lines of defense such as seccomp and Capabilities are not effective.

1. If you haven't already done so, stop and remove all containers on your system.

$ sudo docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq)


2. Start a new Ubuntu container with seccomp disabled and the `SYS_ADMIN` *capability* added.

$ sudo docker run --rm -it --cap-add SYS_ADMIN --security-opt seccomp=unconfined ubuntu sh


This command will start a new container with the `default-docker` AppArmor profile automatically attached. seccomp will be disabled and the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability added. This means that AppArmor will be the only effective line of defense for this container.

3. Make two new directories and bind mount them as shown below.

Run this command from within the container you just created.

mkdir 1; mkdir 2; mount --bind 1 2

mount: mount /1 on /2 failed: Permission denied


The operation failed because the `default-docker` AppArmor profile denied the operation.

4. Exit the container.

5. Confirm that it was the `default-docker` AppArmor profile that denied the operation by starting a new container without an AppArmor profile and retrying the same operation.

$ sudo docker run --rm -it --cap-add SYS_ADMIN --security-opt seccomp=unconfined --security-opt apparmor=unconfined ubuntu sh

mkdir 1; mkdir 2; mount --bind 1 2

ls -l

total 456 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 26 11:44 1 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 26 11:44 2 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 6 23:15 bin drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 12 20:14 boot


The operation succeeded this time. This proves that it was the `default-docker` AppArmor profile that prevented the operation in the previous attempt.

In this step you have seen how AppArmor works together with seccomp and Capabilities to form a defense in depth security model for Docker. You saw a scenario where even with seccomp and Capabilities not preventing an action, AppArmor still prevented it.

# <a name="custom"></a>Step 5: Custom AppArmor profile

The [Panama Papers hack](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_Papers) exposed millions of documents from Mossack Fonseca, a Panamanian law firm.  

A probable cause, as described by [Wordfence](https://www.wordfence.com/blog/2016/04/mossack-fonseca-breach-vulnerable-slider-revolution/) and other reports, was an unpatched WordPress plugin. In particular, it has been suggested that the Revolution Slider plugin contained buggy code that allowed another plugin to take its place by making an [unauthenticated AJAX call to the plugin](https://www.wordfence.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Screen-Shot-2016-04-07-at-10.31.37-AM.png).

WordPress and its plugins run as PHP. This means an attacker could upload their own malicious plugin to start a shell on WordPress by simply sending a request to the PHP resource to run the malicious code and spin up the shell.

In this step we'll show how a custom AppArmor profile could have protected Dockerized WordPress from this attack vector.

1.  If you have not already, `cd` into the lab's `wordpress` directory.

$ cd dockercon-workshop/apparmor/wordpress


2.  List the files in the directory.

$ ls -l total 24 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 628 Jul 11 10:47 docker-compose.yml -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 443 Jul 11 10:47 Dockerfile drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Jul 11 10:47 html -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 172 Jul 11 10:47 php.ini -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1697 Jul 11 10:47 wparmor drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 Jul 11 10:47 zues


3. View the contents of the Docker Compose YAML file.

cat docker-compose.yml wordpress: image: endophage/wordpress:lean links: - mysql ports: - "8080:80" environment: - DB_PASSWORD=2671d40f658f595f49cd585db8e522cc955d916ee92b67002adcf8127196e6b2 cpuset: "0" cap_drop: - ALL cap_add: - SETUID - SETGID - DAC_OVERRIDE - NET_BIND_SERVICE # YOUR WORK HERE # Add an apparmor profile to this image mysql: image: mariadb:10.1.10 environment: - MYSQL_DATABASE=wordpress - MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=2671d40f658f595f49cd585db8e522cc955d916ee92b67002adcf8127196e6b2 ports: - "3306"


You can see that the file is describing a WordPress application with two services:
 - **wordpress:** a wordpress container that wraps Apache PHP
 - **mysql:** a database to store data  

4. Bring the application up.

$ sudo docker-compose up & Pulling mysql (mariadb:10.1.10)... 10.1.10: Pulling from library/mariadb 03e1855d4f31: Pull complete a3ed95caeb02: Pull complete mysql_1 | Version: '10.1.10-MariaDB-1~jessie' socket: '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' port: 3306 mariadb.org binary distribution wordpress_1 | [Tue Jul 26 12:51:36.992860 2016] [mpm_prefork:notice] [pid 1] AH00163: Apache/2.4.10 (Debian) PHP/5.6.18 configured -- resuming normal operations wordpress_1 | [Tue Jul 26 12:51:36.992956 2016] [core:notice] [pid 1] AH00094: Command line: 'apache2 -D FOREGROUND'


5.  Point your browser to the public IP of your lab instance on port 8080.

You should have received the IP addresses of all of your lab instances from the lab administrator).

![](http://i.imgur.com/13Pf7Zm.png)

6. Select your language, click **Continue** and complete the information required on the Welcome page. Make sure you remember the username and password you choose.

7. Login with the username and password you created.

8. Click **Plugins** from the left-hand navigation pane and install a plugin.

You should notice that the `docker-default` AppArmor prfile does not restrict the plugin installation.
We could be exposed to malicious plugins like in the Panama Papers incident!

In the next few steps you'll apply a new Apparmor profile to a new WordPress container. The purpose of this is to prevent malicious themes and plugins from being uploaded and installed on our WordPress instance.

9. Bring the WordPress application down.

Run this command from the shell of your Docker Host, not the shell of the `wordpress` container.

$ sudo docker-compose down Stopping wordpress_wordpress_1 ... Stopping wordpress_mysql_1 ... Stopping wordpress_mysql_1 ... done Removing wordpress_wordpress_1 ... done Removing wordpress_mysql_1 ... done


10. Add the `wparmor` profile to the `wordpress` service in the `docker-compose.yml` file.

wordpress: image: endophage/wordpress:lean links: - mysql security_opt: - apparmor=wparmor mysql: image: mariadb:10.1.10 environment: - MYSQL_DATABASE=wordpress - MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=2671d40f658f595f49cd585db8e522cc955d916ee92b67002adcf8127196e6b2 ports: - "3306"


If you look closely at the output above, you will see that two new lines have been added above the start of the `mysql` service definition -

**security_opt:**
    - **apparmor=wparmor**

11. Edit the `wparmor` profile to deny every directory under `/var/www/html/wp-content` except for the `uploads` directory (which is used for media).

To do this, add the following three lines towards the bottom of the file where it says "**YOUR WORK HERE**".

deny /var/www/html/wp-content/plugins/** wlx, deny /var/www/html/wp-content/themes/** wlx, owner /var/www.html/wp-content/uploads/** rw,


The `*` wildcard is only for files at a single level. The `**` wildcard will traverse subdirectories.

12. Parse the `wparmor` profile.

$ sudo apparmor_parser wparmor


13. Bring the Docker Compose WordPress app back up.

$ sudo docker-compose up & Pulling mysql (mariadb:10.1.10)... 10.1.10: Pulling from library/mariadb 03e1855d4f31: Pull complete a3ed95caeb02: Pull complete mysql_1 | Version: '10.1.10-MariaDB-1~jessie' socket: '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' port: 3306 mariadb.org binary distribution wordpress_1 | [Tue Jul 26 12:51:36.992860 2016] [mpm_prefork:notice] [pid 1] AH00163: Apache/2.4.10 (Debian) PHP/5.6.18 configured -- resuming normal operations wordpress_1 | [Tue Jul 26 12:51:36.992956 2016] [core:notice] [pid 1] AH00094: Command line: 'apache2 -D FOREGROUND'


14. Verify that the app is up.

$ sudo docker-compose ps Name Command State Ports

wordpress_mysql_1 /docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld Up 0.0.0.0:32770->3306/tcp wordpress_wordpress_1 apache2-foreground Up 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp


15. Test that the AppArmor profile is working by uploading an image to the site via the WordPress UI and then trying to upload a plugin. The image upload will work but the plugin upload will fail (when the usual method for uploading plugins fails, WordPress prompts you to upload via FTP - this is a sign that the AppArmor profile has worked).

16. Bring the application down.

$ sudo docker-compose down


Congratulations!  You've secured a WordPress instance against adding malicious plugins :)

# <a name="extra"></a>Step 5: Extra for experts

AppArmor profiles are very application-specific. Although we've had some practice writing our own profiles, the preferred method is using tools to generate and debug them. In this step We'll explore `aa-complain` and `aa-genprof` that ship as part of the `apparmor-utils` package.

The following steps assume you are using a modern Ubuntu Linux Docker Host with a GUI installed and the FireFox web browser.

1.  Install the `apparmor-utils` package.

 ```
 $ sudo apt install apparmor-utils -y
 ```

2.  Start `aa-genprof` to automatically generate a new AppArmor profile for the FireFox app.

$ sudo aa-genprof firefox


 Your terminal will go into interactive mode. This is AppArmor watching the Firefox app.

3. Open Firefox and perform normal web browsing activities such as browsing websites and downloading content.

4. Go back to the terminal running `aa-genprof` and press `s` to view events from the system log and decide whether or not to include these events in your AppArmor profile as an allow or deny statement.  

5. When you're done, press `f` to finish.

The AppArmor profile will be called `usr.bin.firefox` and will be stored in `/etc/apparmor.d/` on Ubuntu systems.

You can also use `aa-autodep` to automatically generate profiles, but this will create an even more minimal profile.

To further refine an existing profile, `aa-logprof` operates in the same manner as `aa-genprof` but for amending a profile by scanning logs.

You can debug AppArmor profiles with `aa-complain`. As described earlier, AppArmor has a "complain" mode that logs disallowed events instead of actively blocking them. This is a great tool for testing and debugging.

Type the following command to view the Firefox profile - `sudo aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.firefox`. Confirm that this set the Firefox policy to complain mode by running `apparmor_status`.  

To view any complaints from apparmor, run `dmesg`.

Congratulations you have completed this lab on AppArmor!