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# Copyright 2011 Keith Rarick
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
# of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
# in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
# to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
# furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
# all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
# IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
# THE SOFTWARE.

# See https://github.com/kr/okjson for updates.

require 'stringio'

# Some parts adapted from
# http://golang.org/src/pkg/json/decode.go and
# http://golang.org/src/pkg/utf8/utf8.go
module OkJson
  extend self


  # Decodes a json document in string s and
  # returns the corresponding ruby value.
  # String s must be valid UTF-8. If you have
  # a string in some other encoding, convert
  # it first.
  #
  # String values in the resulting structure
  # will be UTF-8.
  def decode(s)
    ts = lex(s)
    v, ts = textparse(ts)
    if ts.length > 0
      raise Error, 'trailing garbage'
    end
    v
  end


  # Parses a "json text" in the sense of RFC 4627.
  # Returns the parsed value and any trailing tokens.
  # Note: this is almost the same as valparse,
  # except that it does not accept atomic values.
  def textparse(ts)
    if ts.length < 0
      raise Error, 'empty'
    end

    typ, _, val = ts[0]
    case typ
    when '{' then objparse(ts)
    when '[' then arrparse(ts)
    else
      raise Error, "unexpected #{val.inspect}"
    end
  end


  # Parses a "value" in the sense of RFC 4627.
  # Returns the parsed value and any trailing tokens.
  def valparse(ts)
    if ts.length < 0
      raise Error, 'empty'
    end

    typ, _, val = ts[0]
    case typ
    when '{' then objparse(ts)
    when '[' then arrparse(ts)
    when :val,:str then [val, ts[1..-1]]
    else
      raise Error, "unexpected #{val.inspect}"
    end
  end


  # Parses an "object" in the sense of RFC 4627.
  # Returns the parsed value and any trailing tokens.
  def objparse(ts)
    ts = eat('{', ts)
    obj = {}

    if ts[0][0] == '}'
      return obj, ts[1..-1]
    end

    k, v, ts = pairparse(ts)
    obj[k] = v

    if ts[0][0] == '}'
      return obj, ts[1..-1]
    end

    loop do
      ts = eat(',', ts)

      k, v, ts = pairparse(ts)
      obj[k] = v

      if ts[0][0] == '}'
        return obj, ts[1..-1]
      end
    end
  end


  # Parses a "member" in the sense of RFC 4627.
  # Returns the parsed values and any trailing tokens.
  def pairparse(ts)
    (typ, _, k), ts = ts[0], ts[1..-1]
    if typ != :str
      raise Error, "unexpected #{k.inspect}"
    end
    ts = eat(':', ts)
    v, ts = valparse(ts)
    [k, v, ts]
  end


  # Parses an "array" in the sense of RFC 4627.
  # Returns the parsed value and any trailing tokens.
  def arrparse(ts)
    ts = eat('[', ts)
    arr = []

    if ts[0][0] == ']'
      return arr, ts[1..-1]
    end

    v, ts = valparse(ts)
    arr << v

    if ts[0][0] == ']'
      return arr, ts[1..-1]
    end

    loop do
      ts = eat(',', ts)

      v, ts = valparse(ts)
      arr << v

      if ts[0][0] == ']'
        return arr, ts[1..-1]
      end
    end
  end


  def eat(typ, ts)
    if ts[0][0] != typ
      raise Error, "expected #{typ} (got #{ts[0].inspect})"
    end
    ts[1..-1]
  end


  # Sans s and returns a list of json tokens,
  # excluding white space (as defined in RFC 4627).
  def lex(s)
    ts = []
    while s.length > 0
      typ, lexeme, val = tok(s)
      if typ == nil
        raise Error, "invalid character at #{s[0,10].inspect}"
      end
      if typ != :space
        ts << [typ, lexeme, val]
      end
      s = s[lexeme.length..-1]
    end
    ts
  end


  # Scans the first token in s and
  # returns a 3-element list, or nil
  # if no such token exists.
  #
  # The first list element is one of
  # '{', '}', ':', ',', '[', ']',
  # :val, :str, and :space.
  #
  # The second element is the lexeme.
  #
  # The third element is the value of the
  # token for :val and :str, otherwise
  # it is the lexeme.
  def tok(s)
    case s[0]
    when ?{ then ['{', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?} then ['}', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?: then [':', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?, then [',', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?[ then ['[', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?] then [']', s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?n then nulltok(s)
    when ?t then truetok(s)
    when ?f then falsetok(s)
    when ?" then strtok(s)
    when Spc then [:space, s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?\t then [:space, s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?\n then [:space, s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    when ?\r then [:space, s[0,1], s[0,1]]
    else numtok(s)
    end
  end


  def nulltok(s); s[0,4] == 'null' && [:val, 'null', nil] end
  def truetok(s); s[0,4] == 'true' && [:val, 'true', true] end
  def falsetok(s); s[0,5] == 'false' && [:val, 'false', false] end


  def numtok(s)
    m = /-?([1-9][0-9]+|[0-9])([.][0-9]+)?([eE][+-]?[0-9]+)?/.match(s)
    if m && m.begin(0) == 0
      if m[3] && !m[2]
        [:val, m[0], Integer(m[1])*(10**Integer(m[3][1..-1]))]
      elsif m[2]
        [:val, m[0], Float(m[0])]
      else
        [:val, m[0], Integer(m[0])]
      end
    end
  end


  def strtok(s)
    m = /"([^"\\]|\\["\/\\bfnrt]|\\u[0-9a-fA-F]{4})*"/.match(s)
    if ! m
      raise Error, "invalid string literal at #{abbrev(s)}"
    end
    [:str, m[0], unquote(m[0])]
  end


  def abbrev(s)
    t = s[0,10]
    p = t['`']
    t = t[0,p] if p
    t = t + '...' if t.length < s.length
    '`' + t + '`'
  end


  # Converts a quoted json string literal q into a UTF-8-encoded string.
  # The rules are different than for Ruby, so we cannot use eval.
  # Unquote will raise an error if q contains control characters.
  def unquote(q)
    q = q[1...-1]
    a = q.dup # allocate a big enough string
    r, w = 0, 0
    while r < q.length
      c = q[r]
      case true
      when c == ?\\
        r += 1
        if r >= q.length
          raise Error, "string literal ends with a \"\\\": \"#{q}\""
        end

        case q[r]
        when ?",?\\,?/,?'
          a[w] = q[r]
          r += 1
          w += 1
        when ?b,?f,?n,?r,?t
          a[w] = Unesc[q[r]]
          r += 1
          w += 1
        when ?u
          r += 1
          uchar = begin
            hexdec4(q[r,4])
          rescue RuntimeError => e
            raise Error, "invalid escape sequence \\u#{q[r,4]}: #{e}"
          end
          r += 4
          if surrogate? uchar
            if q.length >= r+6
              uchar1 = hexdec4(q[r+2,4])
              uchar = subst(uchar, uchar1)
              if uchar != Ucharerr
                # A valid pair; consume.
                r += 6
              end
            end
          end
          w += ucharenc(a, w, uchar)
        else
          raise Error, "invalid escape char #{q[r]} in \"#{q}\""
        end
      when c == ?", c < Spc
        raise Error, "invalid character in string literal \"#{q}\""
      else
        # Copy anything else byte-for-byte.
        # Valid UTF-8 will remain valid UTF-8.
        # Invalid UTF-8 will remain invalid UTF-8.
        a[w] = c
        r += 1
        w += 1
      end
    end
    a[0,w]
  end


  # Encodes unicode character u as UTF-8
  # bytes in string a at position i.
  # Returns the number of bytes written.
  def ucharenc(a, i, u)
    case true
    when u <= Uchar1max
      a[i] = (u & 0xff).chr
      1
    when u <= Uchar2max
      a[i+0] = (Utag2 | ((u>>6)&0xff)).chr
      a[i+1] = (Utagx | (u&Umaskx)).chr
      2
    when u <= Uchar3max
      a[i+0] = (Utag3 | ((u>>12)&0xff)).chr
      a[i+1] = (Utagx | ((u>>6)&Umaskx)).chr
      a[i+2] = (Utagx | (u&Umaskx)).chr
      3
    else
      a[i+0] = (Utag4 | ((u>>18)&0xff)).chr
      a[i+1] = (Utagx | ((u>>12)&Umaskx)).chr
      a[i+2] = (Utagx | ((u>>6)&Umaskx)).chr
      a[i+3] = (Utagx | (u&Umaskx)).chr
      4
    end
  end


  def hexdec4(s)
    if s.length != 4
      raise Error, 'short'
    end
    (nibble(s[0])<<12) | (nibble(s[1])<<8) | (nibble(s[2])<<4) | nibble(s[3])
  end


  def subst(u1, u2)
    if Usurr1 <= u1 && u1 < Usurr2 && Usurr2 <= u2 && u2 < Usurr3
      return ((u1-Usurr1)<<10) | (u2-Usurr2) + Usurrself
    end
    return Ucharerr
  end


  def unsubst(u)
    if u < Usurrself || u > Umax || surrogate?(u)
      return Ucharerr, Ucharerr
    end
    u -= Usurrself
    [Usurr1 + ((u>>10)&0x3ff), Usurr2 + (u&0x3ff)]
  end


  def surrogate?(u)
    Usurr1 <= u && u < Usurr3
  end


  def nibble(c)
    case true
    when ?0 <= c && c <= ?9 then c.ord - ?0.ord
    when ?a <= c && c <= ?z then c.ord - ?a.ord + 10
    when ?A <= c && c <= ?Z then c.ord - ?A.ord + 10
    else
      raise Error, "invalid hex code #{c}"
    end
  end


  # Encodes x into a json text. It may contain only
  # Array, Hash, String, Numeric, true, false, nil.
  # (Note, this list excludes Symbol.)
  # X itself must be an Array or a Hash.
  # No other value can be encoded, and an error will
  # be raised if x contains any other value, such as
  # Nan, Infinity, Symbol, and Proc, or if a Hash key
  # is not a String.
  # Strings contained in x must be valid UTF-8.
  def encode(x)
    case x
    when Hash then objenc(x)
    when Array then arrenc(x)
    else
      raise Error, 'root value must be an Array or a Hash'
    end
  end


  def valenc(x)
    case x
    when Hash then objenc(x)
    when Array then arrenc(x)
    when String then strenc(x)
    when Numeric then numenc(x)
    when true then "true"
    when false then "false"
    when nil then "null"
    else
      raise Error, "cannot encode #{x.class}: #{x.inspect}"
    end
  end


  def objenc(x)
    '{' + x.map{|k,v| keyenc(k) + ':' + valenc(v)}.join(',') + '}'
  end


  def arrenc(a)
    '[' + a.map{|x| valenc(x)}.join(',') + ']'
  end


  def keyenc(k)
    case k
    when String then strenc(k)
    else
      raise Error, "Hash key is not a string: #{k.inspect}"
    end
  end


  def strenc(s)
    t = StringIO.new
    t.putc(?")
    r = 0
    while r < s.length
      case s[r]
      when ?" then t.print('\\"')
      when ?\\ then t.print('\\\\')
      when ?\b then t.print('\\b')
      when ?\f then t.print('\\f')
      when ?\n then t.print('\\n')
      when ?\r then t.print('\\r')
      when ?\t then t.print('\\t')
      else
        c = s[r]
        case true
        when Spc <= c && c <= ?~
          t.putc(c)
        when true
          u, size = uchardec(s, r)
          r += size - 1 # we add one more at the bottom of the loop
          if u < 0x10000
            t.print('\\u')
            hexenc4(t, u)
          else
            u1, u2 = unsubst(u)
            t.print('\\u')
            hexenc4(t, u1)
            t.print('\\u')
            hexenc4(t, u2)
          end
        else
          # invalid byte; skip it
        end
      end
      r += 1
    end
    t.putc(?")
    t.string
  end


  def hexenc4(t, u)
    t.putc(Hex[(u>>12)&0xf])
    t.putc(Hex[(u>>8)&0xf])
    t.putc(Hex[(u>>4)&0xf])
    t.putc(Hex[u&0xf])
  end


  def numenc(x)
    if x.nan? || x.infinite?
      return 'null'
    end rescue nil
    "#{x}"
  end


  # Decodes unicode character u from UTF-8
  # bytes in string s at position i.
  # Returns u and the number of bytes read.
  def uchardec(s, i)
    n = s.length - i
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if n < 1

    c0 = s[i].ord

    # 1-byte, 7-bit sequence?
    if c0 < Utagx
      return [c0, 1]
    end

    # unexpected continuation byte?
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if c0 < Utag2

    # need continuation byte
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if n < 2
    c1 = s[i+1].ord
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if c1 < Utagx || Utag2 <= c1

    # 2-byte, 11-bit sequence?
    if c0 < Utag3
      u = (c0&Umask2)<<6 | (c1&Umaskx)
      return [Ucharerr, 1] if u <= Uchar1max
      return [u, 2]
    end

    # need second continuation byte
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if n < 3
    c2 = s[i+2].ord
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if c2 < Utagx || Utag2 <= c2

    # 3-byte, 16-bit sequence?
    if c0 < Utag4
      u = (c0&Umask3)<<12 | (c1&Umaskx)<<6 | (c2&Umaskx)
      return [Ucharerr, 1] if u <= Uchar2max
      return [u, 3]
    end

    # need third continuation byte
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if n < 4
    c3 = s[i+3].ord
    return [Ucharerr, 1] if c3 < Utagx || Utag2 <= c3

    # 4-byte, 21-bit sequence?
    if c0 < Utag5
      u = (c0&Umask4)<<18 | (c1&Umaskx)<<12 | (c2&Umaskx)<<6 | (c3&Umaskx)
      return [Ucharerr, 1] if u <= Uchar3max
      return [u, 4]
    end

    return [Ucharerr, 1]
  end


  class Error < ::StandardError
  end


  Utagx = 0x80 # 1000 0000
  Utag2 = 0xc0 # 1100 0000
  Utag3 = 0xe0 # 1110 0000
  Utag4 = 0xf0 # 1111 0000
  Utag5 = 0xF8 # 1111 1000
  Umaskx = 0x3f # 0011 1111
  Umask2 = 0x1f # 0001 1111
  Umask3 = 0x0f # 0000 1111
  Umask4 = 0x07 # 0000 0111
  Uchar1max = (1<<7) - 1
  Uchar2max = (1<<11) - 1
  Uchar3max = (1<<16) - 1
  Ucharerr = 0xFFFD # unicode "replacement char"
  Usurrself = 0x10000
  Usurr1 = 0xd800
  Usurr2 = 0xdc00
  Usurr3 = 0xe000
  Umax = 0x10ffff

  Spc = ' '[0]
  Unesc = {?b=>?\b, ?f=>?\f, ?n=>?\n, ?r=>?\r, ?t=>?\t}
  Hex = '0123456789abcdef'
end
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