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# Greenspun
<http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2007/0709.careycascadia.html>:
> At the other college, however, things are … different. “Harder.” First of all, her professor never seems to explain anything. Instead, he’s constantly posing questions that seem deliberately vague, then he “tells you to go find the materials and figure out the answer for yourself.” She can’t skip class, even if it’s been a long day selling popcorn, because she’s part of a group of students who are all doing hands-on research and wrestling with tricky questions together; she doesn't want to let them down. She feels like she's learning a lot, sure, but she didn't realize college would be so much work.
>
> Yet Hayley's experience of the comparative advantage of Cascadia (which is located next to the University of Washington) is borne out by hard data. Although its enrollees typically have less promising academic backgrounds than UW freshman, Cascadia graduates who then continue at UW earn better grades than their peers. It's hard to imagine a clearer indication that the education students receive at Cascadia is superior.
>
> Indeed, other measures of teaching quality suggest that Cascadia is the best community college in America. Using data from a well-respected survey of educational best practices, the Community College Survey of Student Engagement, the Washington Monthly has created the first-ever list of the nation's top two-year colleges. (See “America's Best Community Colleges”) Cascadia places number two overall, and in those measures most closely correlated with high grades and graduation rates—the extent to which teaching is “active and collaborative”—Cascadia tops the list.
>
> Cascadia's success is extraordinary. But the difference doesn't depend on funding: the money spent per pupil at Cascadia is typical among community colleges, and about half that spent at the University of Washington. Nor is the college's achievement the result of some secret formula not known to other educators. Not explaining things and making students work in teams to discover answers turn out to be precisely the kinds of teaching practices that decades of research say help students learn most. Yet the vast majority of four-year colleges and universities don't teach their undergraduates this way. Instead, they rely far too often on the same old teaching methods nobody thinks are any good.
>
> Unfortunately, there was a problem: the old model turned out to be a terrible way to teach most undergraduates. The standard lecture did little to engage students or push them to do the hard, hands-on work necessary to truly grasp college-level material. The doctoral programs that produced the nation's college professors offered little or no instruction on the theory or practice of teaching. Instead, they trained and tenured PhDs in narrow areas of scholarship, who were then hired and promoted based wholly on their research, not their aptitude in the classroom.
>
> The sharpest observers realized the mistake in expanding a system ill-suited for its primary mission, educating undergraduates. In 1963, Clark Kerr, the legendary architect of the California higher education system, delivered a historic lecture series at Harvard where he warned of the “cruel paradox” that “a superior faculty results in an inferior concern for undergraduate teaching.” As he later explained, the emphasis on research and the emphasis on teaching “were not as compatible as we first assumed … the German Humboldt model assumed that teaching is always and in all ways improved by engagement with research. It is not.” The upshot, as Kerr foresaw and others later came to realize, was that “educational policy for undergraduates was neglected.”
>
> About the same time that the great expansion of higher education leveled off in the 1970s, a new wave of researchers studied and defined teaching methods superior to what most undergraduates actually received. Among the most famous was a seminal 1987 paper by researchers Arthur Chickering and Zelda Gamson, “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education.” Synthesizing years of cognitive science and educational research, Chickering and Gamson mapped out the fundamental principles of effective teaching: The more students actively engage with subject matter, the better they master material and develop critical skills. Undergraduates learn most when they're asked to solve problems, perform original research, work collaboratively—and receive regular feedback from the professor and their peers. The passive, impersonal lecture turned out to be the worst of all possible worlds.
>
> It's not often that a giant flaw in a vital public institution is known but almost completely ignored for decades on end. But that's exactly what's happened—Clark Kerr's words ring as true today as they did in 1963. Chickering and Gamson's seven principles were published twenty years ago, and now colleges like Cascadia offer proof positive that the ideas work in practice—not just in a class here or there, but college-wide. Yet poor teaching still abounds. As former Harvard President Derek Bok recently said, “Colleges and universities, for all the benefits they bring, accomplish far less for their students than they should.” That institutions built to educate and discover the truth refuse to implement the successful teaching practices that they themselves have discovered is a bitter and consequential irony.
>
> Fixing this won't be easy. New colleges and universities aren't built very often, and we can't just tear down the ones we have and replace them. There's no reason, moreover, to believe that our institutions of higher education will voluntarily change on their own.
>
> But there is at least one proven way to make many college presidents stand up, take notice, and rapidly implement reforms: alter their reputation in the marketplace. The U.S. News college rankings may be terribly flawed, but they're undeniably influential. When the magazine began including alumni giving rates in the rankings equation, hundreds of call centers sprang up across the land to start bugging people at dinnertime for donations. If institutional reputations hung on measures of quality teaching, higher education leaders would finally have a strong reason to make the difficult choices they have for decades managed to avoid. Reliable measures of educational excellence for four-year schools do exist, but right now college administrators are the only ones who ever see t/hem. Students and parents need information before they can exert pressure for reform, and Washington should mandate that we all have access to it.
<http://philip.greenspun.com/teaching/universities-and-economic-growth>:
> It made a lot of sense for professors to lecture in the 11th Century. What other means of broadcasting information from 1 person to 100 existed? Printing was very expensive and cumbersome. Having monks make 100 copies of a textbook by hand was not economically feasible.
>
> The university incorporated an important quality control mechanism: student associations paid professors according to how well they taught, how many students were attracted to their lectures, and whether they showed up on time.
>
> It made sense for students to show up to lecture and to do their homework. A student's lodging might not have been heated. It might make sense to come to lecture simply to get warm. Students in 1088 had no television, no radio, no Internet, no email, no instant messaging, no mobile phone. A student might come to lecture for entertainment.
>
> What about homework? Students in a pre-technological university would do homework either in the library or at home. Both places lacked television, video games, email, etc.
>
> How has this changed the way classes are conducted? We still have lectures and homework, just as in 1088. What other industry could survive without adopting at least some of the technologies of the last 1000 years into its core processes?
>
> Improved technology has rendered the traditional university instructional method far less effective. The student has a warm cozy apartment and will find sleeping late an attractive alternative to attending a lecture (or watching Good Morning America). The student sitting in lecture has some sort of device capable of browsing the Web, sending and receiving text messages, supporting games, displaying photos or video to an adjacent student.
>
> Focusing on homework has become much tougher. A modern dorm room has a television, Internet, YouTube, instant messaging, email, phone, and video games. The students who get the most out of their four years in college are not those who are most able, but rather those with the best study habits.
>
> No company would rely on this system for getting work done, despite the potential savings in having each employee work from home. Companies spend a fortune in commercial office space rent to create an environment with limited distractions and keep workers there for most of each day.
>
> I was asked by Neumont University, a startup for-profit computer science school in Utah, for advice on how to structure the school. They didn't know how unworkable these ideas were so they adopted most of them. Because their student body consists of kids from middle class families, there is no need for a long summer break for students to join their parents on a grand tour of Europe. Nor need the students take a month off in the winter to yacht around the Caribbean. Simply by being in session Monday through Friday, 8-5, for most of the year, Neumont is able to graduate CS majors in about 2.5 years. That's 1.5 years in which the kid is not coming home to ask his parents for more money.
>
> Neumont also adopted the idea of making most learning project-based. Neumont freshmen start with substantially lower SAT scores and high school grades than University of Utah freshmen. With brighter and better-prepared students plus a 150-year headstart, how does U. of Utah's faculty do compared to Neumont's? The graduate of U of U's traditional lecture-and-homework CS program will be 1.5 years older than a Neumont graduate, start at a lower salary, and have fewer job offers.
<http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/philg/2007/08/23/improving-undergraduate-computer-science-education/>:
> How about lectures? You need to broadcast some information to 100 people. Printing was expensive and cumbersome in 1865. Telephone, television, and Internet did not exist. A lecture was probably indeed the most efficient way of getting some information to a large group, despite the fact that humans can read 3X faster than they can listen.. Compare to 2007, however, when you could simply email a list of those 100 people or provide them with a URL.
>
> - Lecturing has been found to be extremely ineffective by all researchers. The FAA limits lectures to 20 minutes or so in U.S. flight schools.
> - Lab and project work are where students learn the most. The school that adopted lab/projects as the core of their approach quickly zoomed to the first position among American undergrad schools of engineering (<http://www.olin.edu>).
> - Engineers learn by doing progressively larger projects, not by doing what they're told in one-week homework assignments or doing small pieces of a big project
> - Everything that is part of a bachelor's in CS can be taught as part of a project that has all phases of the engineering cycle, e.g., teach physics and calculus by assigning students to build a flight simulator
> - It makes a lot of sense to separate teaching/coaching from grading and, in the Internet age, it is trivial to do so. Define the standard, but let others decide whether or not your students have met the standard.
<http://philip.greenspun.com/teaching/undergrad-cs>
<http://philip.greenspun.com/teaching/teaching-software-engineering>
Summer break badly affects learning and the learning of lower class kids the most <http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG1120.html> <http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2011/RAND_MG1120.pdf> :
> During summer vacation, many students lose knowledge and skills. By the end of summer, students perform, on average, one month behind where they left off in the spring. Of course, not all students experience “average” losses. Summer learning loss disproportionately affects low-income students. While all students lose some ground in mathematics over the summer, low-income students lose more ground in reading, while their higher-income peers may even gain. Most disturbing is that summer learning loss is cumulative; over time, the difference between the summer learning rates of low-income and higher-income students contributes substantially to the achievement gap.
- Cooper, Harris, Kelly Charlton, Jeff C. Valentine, and Laura Muhlenbruck, with Geoffrey D. Borman, Making the Most of Summer School: A Meta-Analytic and Narrative Review, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 65, No. 1, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000
- Cooper, Harris, Barbara Nye, Kelly Charlton, James Lindsay, and Scott Greathouse, “The Effects of Summer Vacation on Achievement Test Scores: A Narrative and Meta-Analytic Review,” Review of Educational Research, Vol. 66, No. 3, Fall 1996, pp. 227–268.
- Cooper, Harris, Jeffrey C. Valentine, Kelly Charlton, and April Melson, “The Effects of Modified School Calendars on Student Achievement and on School and Community Attitudes,” Review of Educational Research, Vol. 73, No. 1, Spring 2003, pp. 1–52.
> We modeled our literature search approach after the work of Cooper, Nye, et al. (1996), using keyword searches of computerized reference databases, sifting through reference lists for relevant sources, and leveraging the expertise of education researchers who are leaders in the out-of-school-time (OST) field. Cooper, Nye, et al. (1996) provide a rigorous summary of the early evidence of summer learning loss through an extensive meta-analysis of the research published between 1975 and 1994. The literature included in Cooper, Nye, et al. (1996) was found through the computerized reference databases ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and PsychLIT using the following keywords: summer loss, summer vacation, summer break, summer intercession, summer school, and summer variations.
>
> We identified the work by Cooper, Nye, et al. (1996), Heyns (1978, 1987), and Entwistle and Alexander (1992) as the foundational studies on summer learning loss. We searched for studies that had referenced these pieces. Google Scholar indexed 294 publications that cited Cooper, Nye, et al. (1996); similar searches were performed for each of the other key articles. We reviewed each indexed publication citing one or more of these key articles for inclusion in our study, considering whether (1) the students represented in the research were between kindergarten and eighth grade and (2) whether summer loss was measured for an academic content area.
>
> We also searched several computerized databases for articles published since 1994. The databases included in our search were ERIC, JSTOR, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Wherever possible, we made use of “thesaurus terms,” such as “summer programs,” pairing them with the keywords “loss,” “slide,” or “gap”; ERIC identified 41, 47, and 29 publications, respectively (for a total of 117 citations). Through Google Scholar, we found 69 references that matched a search for “summer program” and “academic achievement” with the same sequence of loss-related keywords, and 23 of these references had been published between 2000 and 2010. JSTOR indexed 38 articles related to “summer loss,” and the ISI Web of Knowledge was used to find 19 articles that had been published since 2000. We reviewed the abstracts to determine whether each article contained some information or assessment of summer learning loss and whether it fit our inclusion guidelines. Chapter Two presents a more detailed discussion of the extent of summer learning loss, its cumulative effects, and differences by subject and grade level.
> The loss of knowledge and educational skills during the summer months is cumulative over the course of a student's career and further widens the achievement gap between low- and upper-income students, according to a RAND Corporation study issued today.
>
> The study confirms that students who attend summer programs can disrupt the educational loss and do better in school than peers who do not attend the same programs.
>
> ..."It is becoming increasingly clear that the conventional six-hour, 180-day school year is insufficient to give many disadvantaged students the education they deserve," said Nancy Devine, director of communities at The Wallace Foundation. "This long-awaited and timely RAND study, 'Making Summer Count,' confirms the disproportionate impact of the 'summer slide' on low-income students, and suggests that high-quality summer learning programs, though challenging to develop, are a promising path forward."
Homework is wasted? ["Are we wasting our children's time by giving them more homework?"](http://ftp.iza.org/dp5547.pdf)
> Following an identification strategy that allows us to largely eliminate unobserved student and teacher traits, we examine the effect of homework on math, science, English and history test scores for eighth grade students in the United States. Noting that failure to control for these effects yields selection biases on the estimated effect of homework, we find that math homework has a large and statistically meaningful effect on math test scores throughout our sample. However, additional homework in science, English and history are shown to have little to no impact on their respective test scores.
> It is a sad story indeed when the astonishing linguistic incapacity of U.S. military forces and intelligence organizations is contrasted with the abundance of American civilians who speak all known foreign languages, and the brilliant record of foreign-language education in the U.S. Army and Navy, which used to produce as many good Chinese and Japanese speakers as they wanted by selecting for natural aptitude in the recruit pool, giving them a year of intensive courses (eight hours a day, six days a week), and quickly sending away those who failed to keep up with their classes. Nothing prevents the military from doing the same for Arabic, Persian and, say, Azeri now, except for an unwillingness to invest in the future, and probably a lack of disciplined volunteers willing to learn a language eight hours a day, six days a week, for a whole year or more.
<http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/02/0081384>
> Public school teachers are in much the same position as prison wardens. Wardens' main concern is to keep the prisoners on the premises. They also need to keep them fed, and as far as possible prevent them from killing one another. Beyond that, they want to have as little to do with the prisoners as possible, so they leave them to create whatever social organization they want. From what I've read, the society that the prisoners create is warped, savage, and pervasive, and it is no fun to be at the bottom of it....If I could go back and give my thirteen year old self some advice, the main thing I'd tell him would be to stick his head up and look around. I didn't really grasp it at the time, but the whole world we lived in was as fake as a Twinkie. Not just school, but the entire town. Why do people move to suburbia? To have kids! So no wonder it seemed boring and sterile. The whole place was a giant nursery, an artificial town created explicitly for the purpose of breeding children. And as for the schools, they were just holding pens within this fake world. Officially the purpose of schools is to teach kids. In fact their primary purpose is to keep kids locked up in one place for a big chunk of the day so adults can get things done. And I have no problem with this: in a specialized industrial society, it would be a disaster to have kids running around loose. What bothers me is not that the kids are kept in prisons, but that (a) they aren't told about it, and (b) the prisons are run mostly by the inmates. Kids are sent off to spend six years memorizing meaningless facts in a world ruled by a caste of giants who run after an oblong brown ball, as if this were the most natural thing in the world. And if they balk at this surreal cocktail, they're called misfits.
--Paul Graham, ["Why Nerds Are Unpopular"](http://www.paulgraham.com/nerds.html)
# Spaced repetition
[Spaced repetition]() is not in use in school systems except accidentally or by primitive experience & intuition. Even though tremendous amounts of lower education is memorization (and some areas - like foreign languages - are almost *entirely* based on memorization), and the principle has been scientifically proven for literally centuries.^[It was discovered and published in 1885, so that makes it 3 centuries old.]
# School hours
> That school schedules are so perverse in a way obvious to any teenager – the people who need to get up *last* have to get up *first* – is one of the best proofs, I feel, that quality education is only a secondary goal of public education.
<http://www.overcomingbias.com/2010/02/do-larks-repress-owls.html#comment-443100>
> Ask any current college student: many dread 8 AM classes. If you’re a lark, try looking in on some 8 AM classes at 8:30 or 9 or so, and see how many of the students struggle to pay attention or stay awake. You don’t see very many faces flat on the desk in afternoon classes…
<http://www.overcomingbias.com/2010/02/do-larks-repress-owls.html#comment-443555>
> In my school, there were two offered justifications for the obscene 7:40 starting time:
>
> 1. Students have to travel for extracurricular activities, such as sports, scheduled in the early afternoon. If the school starts later, they have to miss class to participate in them.
>
> 2. Students prefer to leave school earlier so they can get to their jobs.
>
> Both prompt a big WTF from me.
<http://www.overcomingbias.com/2010/02/do-larks-repress-owls.html#comment-443109>
monophasic sleep highly artificial: <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/106.2/ah000343.html>
stampi quote on primitives not monophasic: <http://blog.myzeo.com/forum/polyphasic-sleep-experiment-discussion/evolutionary-sleep-more-polyphasic/>
we revert to biphasic naturally: <http://jdmoyer.com/2010/03/04/sleep-experiment-a-month-with-no-artificial-light/>
hard to make up deficits: <http://www.futurepundit.com/archives/007378.html>
kids who go to bed late the smarter ones: <http://www.quora.com/Are-night-owls-generally-more-intelligent-than-other-people> (so early school hurts those who could benefit most from schooling) <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1173028/How-night-owls-cleverer-richer-people-rise-early.html> <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00054-9>
lack of sleep harmful: <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2010/05/sleep/max-text>
later school hours help grades: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/8579951.stm>
drop out rates, savings (!), easy schedule change, parental support etc.: <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6896471>
and help mood, health, and sleep quality: <http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/164/7/608?rss=1>
correlation: >9 hours is best for 6-7-year-olds? <http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3425319>
*highly* durable circadian rhythm changes: <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Sleepy+teens+haven%27t+got+circadian+rhythm.-a0134623686> <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/6341/title/Sleepy_teens_havent_got_circadian_rhythm>
TODO: what was on http://blog.myzeo.com/back-to-school-sleep-college-edition/ ?
> By the time they enter sixth grade, many middle-class children sleep so little during the school week that daytime drowsiness may compromise their ability to pay attention and learn, a new study suggests.
>
> This situation derives from a combination of factors, say psychologist Avi Sadeh of Tel Aviv University in Israel and his colleagues. Children tend to fall asleep at increasingly later times as they move from the second to the sixth grade, while continuing to be awakened at the same time for school.
>
> "Our study suggests that the sleep behavior of the older children may not be in accordance with their physiological needs," they contend. "These children are thus at risk of being chronically sleep deprived."
>
> What's more, Sadeh's team finds that nearly 20 percent of kids in the second, fourth, and sixth grades have serious sleep problems that typically aren't perceived by either the children or their parents. In the study, sleep disturbances consisted of regularly being awake for at least 10 percent of the night after falling asleep or waking three or more times during the night for at least 5 minutes each time.
>
> Children fell asleep at later times as they got older regardless of their supposed bedtimes. Sixth graders drifted into slumber slightly more than 1 hour after second graders did and about 25 minutes after fourth graders did, the researchers report in the May DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. Sleep quality, such as the number of night wakenings and length of sleep periods, was similar at all grades.
<http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_21_157/ai_62685139/> <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/487/title/Grade-Schoolers_Grow_into_Sleep_Loss>
shallow sleep linked with worse glucose processing & diabetes: <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/9302/title/Sleep_disruption_and_glucose_processing>
little sleep linked with obesity (elementary school): <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_20_172/ai_n27458933/> <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/9119/title/Too_little_sleep_may_fatten_kids>
bad sleep (sleep apnea) linked with low IQ & grades in kids: <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_11_170/ai_n26705324/> <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/7729/title/Sleep_disorder_tied_to_brain_ills_in_kids>
> A modest but constant sleep shortage undermines alertness and other mental faculties in a matter of days, according to according to a report in the March 15 Sleep. Moreover, people who get by on a modest sleep deficit are often not aware of their shrinking thinking capabilities and don't feel particularly drowsy drowsy, say Hans P.A. Van Dongen
<http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Sleep+debt+exacts+deceptive+cost.+%28Behavior%29.-a0100110931>
<http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/3735/title/Sleep_debt_exacts_deceptive_cost>
> This paper uses data on all middle school students in Wake County, NC from 1999-2006 to study the impact of start times on academic performance. … The differences in start time across schools is generated by bus scheduling concerns, while the differences within schools are driven by population growth. … I find that a one hour later start time increases standardized test scores on both math and reading test by three percentile points. Since start times may be correlated with other determinants of test scores, I also estimate the effect using only variation in start times within schools over time and find a two percentile point improvement. The effect of start times on academic performance is robust to different specifications and sources of variation. The magnitude of the effect is similar to the difference in test scores for one additional year of parental education.
>
> The impact of later start times on test scores is persistent. Conditional on a high school fixed effect, a one hour later start time in grade eight is associated with an increase in test scores in grade ten similar in magnitude to the increase in grade eight. … The impact of start times is greatest in grade eight (who are more likely to have begun puberty than those in the sixth or seventh grade). … Students who begin school later have fewer absences and spend more time on homework each week. … Over the seven years examined in this paper, [this school district] grew from 20,530 student enrolled in twenty-two middle schools … to 27,686 students enrolled in twenty-eight middle schools
<https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/fedward2/www/Edwards%20Start%20Times.pdf>
practical challenges to shifting school times: <http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/redistricting/startend.html>
review of research: <http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/redistricting/startend/starttimesummary.pdf>
overview: <http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/redistricting/startend/starttimesummary.pdf>
list of some schools who have changed: <http://www.icsd.k12.ny.us/redistricting/startend/StartTimeChanges-v3.pdf>
> Attendance rates for all students in grades 9, 10, and 11 in the district have shown to have improved statistically significantly in the years from 1995-2000. The greatest rate of improvement is for 9th grade students, where the daily rate of attendance went from 83%-87% after the later start was initiated. The probability that this would occur by chance is less than one in a thousand.
>
> ...Given the numerous obstacles to obtaining "clean data," it required nearly a year of time to conduct this analysis. The ultimate findings from the analysis of the letter grades earned by students in grades 9-12 in the three years prior to the change (starting time of 7:15 AM) versus the grades earned in the three years after the change (starting time of 8:40 AM) reveal a slight improvement in grades earned overall, but the differences were not statistically significant. A finding from this time-consuming and intensive data analysis is that the difficulty of making comparisons and subsequent judgments is likely to be a problem for any district attempting to judge the efficacy of a change using the letter grades earned as the primary indicator.
>
> ...Minneapolis high school students continue to get an hour's more sleep each school night or obtain five more hours' sleep per week than students whose high schools begin an hour earlier than Minneapolis schools. This finding supports the medical researchers' finding that nearly all teenagers become sleepy at about 11:00 PM. It also lays to rest the fears and expectations that a later start would mean that Minneapolis students would just end up staying up an hour later on school nights.
<http://www.cehd.umn.edu/CAREI/Reports/summary.html#SchoolStart>, from [executive summary](http://www.cehd.umn.edu/CAREI/Reports/docs/SST-2001ES.pdf)
> [abstract] In the early 1990s, medical research found that teenagers have biologically different sleep and wake patterns than the preadolescent or adult population. On the basis of that information, in 1997 the seven comprehensive high schools in the Minneapolis Public School District shifted the school start time from 7:15 a.m. to 8:40 a.m. This article examines that change, finding significant benefits such as improved attendance and enrollment rates, less sleeping in class, and less student-reported depression. Policy implications are briefly discussed, acknowledging this to be a highly charged issue in school districts across the United States.
>
> ...[page 10] Before the later school start time was instituted, many parents and administrators expressed a fear that students would merely use the later morning start time as an excuse to stay up an hour later on school nights. The data, however, show that this did not happen. Students continued to go to bed at the same time (approximately 15 minutes before 11 p.m.). This finding makes sense from a biological perspective, as it is likely that nighttime circadian rhythms were contributing to feelings of sleepiness around 11 p.m, regardless of what time the students woke up in the morning. Minneapolis students slept about an hour more each school night (due to the later school start time) than their peers whose school began at 7:30 a.m.
>
> ...[page 12] The students whose high schools started at 8:30 a.m. or later reported statistically significant less depressive feelings on those questions than did the early start students (p ranged from < .05 to < .001.)
>
> Similarly, scores on questions measuring daytime sleepiness, the struggle to stay awake in class, and sleepiness while doing homework all showed statistically significant better outcomes for the students whose school day started later. For example, students in late-start schools reported being less likely to arrive late to class because of oversleeping, or to fall asleep in a morning or afternoon class, or to feel sleepy while taking a test. They also reported statistically significant fewer feelings of sleepiness when at a computer, reading, or studying.
>
> ...Many of the benefits of the later start time were similar for both urban and suburban students, with their actual scores being nearly identical despite the differences in their local economic conditions. Again, if the need for and the benefits of more sleep are a biological phenomenon of the human body during the adolescent years, then one would expect those kinds of results, which are not related in any way to socioeconomic status.
["Changing Times: Findings From the First Longitudinal Study of Later High School Start Times"](http://www.cehd.umn.edu/CAREI/Reports/docs/SST-2002Bulletin.pdf)
> Between childhood and adulthood, we go through puberty and adolescence. While the end of puberty is defined as the point of cessation of bone growth (epiphyseal closure; girls: 16 y; boys: 17.5 y), the end of adolescence (∼19 y) is defined less clearly, by a mixture of physical, psychological, social, and mental measures [[1]]. One conspicuous property of adolescence is the apparently unsaturable capacity to stay up late and to sleep in. Investigating ‘chronotypes’ we observed an abrupt change in the timing of sleep at around the age of 20 and propose this change as the first biological marker of the end of adolescence.
<http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2804%2900928-5>
> "Most studies show a fairly consistent 9 1/4 hours sleep requirement," says Emsellem. "So there's a huge gap between what they're getting on an average school night and what they require."
>
> An adolescent's biology bears some of the blame for this sleep problem. As teens progress through puberty, unprecedented growth occurs in body and brain that requires a lot of sleep.
>
> In addition, something else is changing: The very brain chemical that makes one feel sleepy — a hormone called melatonin — is released later and later in the evening as teens get older.
>
> Because of this shift in the onset of melatonin, teenagers don't feel sleepy until later at night, says Stephanie Crowley, a sleep researcher at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.
>
> "A 16- or 17-year-old might be able to stay awake later compared to a 10-year-old who will likely fall asleep on the couch watching TV," Crowley explains.
>
> ...But this sleep-wake pattern makes things worse for the teen, not better, Emsellem says.
>
> "Even if you catch up by sleeping in late on your weekend mornings," she says, "by doing so, it makes it harder for you to fall asleep by 10 or 10:30 on Sunday night. And you start all over again, sleep restricted."
<http://www.npr.org/2011/05/16/136275658/late-to-bed-early-to-rise-makes-a-teen-sleepy>
>The 18 studies were performed in different contexts. Five studies were done only on school days,53,58,60-62 3 studies were performed on week ends or during summer time,54,52,59 and 2 studies included both school days and nonschool days.57,64 Eight studies did not specify the time of the year.
>
> ...In children and adolescents, the relation between age and TST [total sleep time] was moderated by the recording methods; studies that used in-laboratory PSG found significantly larger correlations than those using actigraphy (z statistic for contrast: -7.92; P < .0001). Similarly, the relation between age and TST was moderated by the time of recording. Studies that took place during school days (z statistic for contrast: -7.60; P < .0001) had larger correlations than those that were done on nonschool days. The results showed that TST decreased with age only when recordings took place on school days. On nonschool days, TST remained the same from childhood to the end of adolescence.
["Meta-Analysis of Quantitative Sleep Parameters From Childhood to Old Age in Healthy Individuals: Developing Normative Sleep Values Across the Human Lifespan"](http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/270702.pdf) 2004
> In response to recent sleep studies with students, Battle Ground schools will start and end the school day 30 minutes later beginning this fall. Multiple experts and studies show teenagers need more sleep at night to be successful learners in the morning. Kyla Wahlstrom, director of the Center for Applied Research and Education Improvement in St. Paul, Minn., says, "From the onset of puberty until late teen years, the brain chemical melatonin, which is responsible for sleepiness, is secreted from approximately 11 p.m. to 8 a.m."
<http://www.kptv.com/story/15084456/battle-ground-schools-let-students-sleep-in>
> "Recent sleep research finds that many adolescents are sleep-deprived because of both early school start times and changing sleep patterns during the teen years. This study identifies the causal effect of school start time on academic achievement by using two policy changes in the daily schedule at the US Air Force Academy along with the randomized placement of freshman students to courses and instructors. Results show that starting the school day 50 minutes later has a significant positive effect on student achievement, which is roughly equivalent to raising teacher quality by one standard deviation."
["A's from Zzzz's? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents"](http://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/aejpol/v3y2011i3p62-81.html)