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1 <h1>Version Compatibility</h1>
2
3 <table>
4 <tr><th>CouchDB</th><th>couchdb-lucene</th></tr>
5 <tr><td>0.9.1, 0.10</td><td>0.4</td></tr>
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6 <tr><td>0.11</td><td>0.4-maint (0.4 with patch for trunk compatibility)</td></tr>
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7 <tr><td>0.10.x, 0.11.x, 1.0.x</td><td>0.5.x</td></tr>
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8 </table>
9
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10 <h1>Breaking Changes</h1>
11
12 <ul>
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13 <li>couchdb-lucene 0.5.x runs as a standalone daemon (0.4 was run directly by couchdb).
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14 <li>URL's now require the full design document id (where you would say "foo", you must now say "_design/foo").
15 </ul>
16
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17 <h1>Issue Tracking</h1>
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18
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19 Issue tracking at <a href="http://github.com/rnewson/couchdb-lucene/issues">github</a>.
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20
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21 <h1>Minimum System Requirements</h1>
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22
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23 Java 1.5 (or above) is required; the Sun version is recommended as it's regularly tested against.
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24
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25 <h1>Build couchdb-lucene</h1>
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26
27 <ol>
28 <li>Install Maven 2.
29 <li>checkout repository
30 <li>type 'mvn'
31 <li>configure couchdb (see below)
32 </ol>
33
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34 You will now have a zip file in the target/ directory. This contains all the couchdb-lucene code, dependencies, startup scripts and configuration files to run couchdb-lucene.
35
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36 <h1>Configure CouchDB</h1>
37
38 <pre>
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39 [couchdb]
40 os_process_timeout=60000 ; increase the timeout from 5 seconds.
41
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42 [external]
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43 fti=/path/to/python /path/to/couchdb-lucene/tools/couchdb-external-hook.py
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44
45 [httpd_db_handlers]
46 _fti = {couch_httpd_external, handle_external_req, <<"fti">>}
47 </pre>
48
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49 <h2>Hook options</h2>
50
51 <table>
52 <tr><th>Option</th><th>Meaning</th><th>Default Value</th></tr>
53 <tr><td>--remote-host</td><td>The hostname of the couchdb-lucene server</td><td>localhost</td></tr>
54 <tr><td>--remote-port</td><td>The port of the couchdb-lucene server</td><td>5985</td></tr>
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55 <tr><td>--local-key</td><td>The key for the local couchdb instance as known to the couchdb-lucene server</td><td>local</td></tr>
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56 </table>
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57
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58 <h1>Configure couchdb-lucene</h1>
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59
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60 couchdb-lucene runs in a single, standalone JVM. As such, you can choose to locate your couchdb-lucene server on a different machine to couchdb if you wish, or keep it on the same machine, it's your call.
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61
62 <h1>Start couchdb-lucene</h1>
63
64 To start couchdb-lucene, run;
65 <pre>
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66 bin/run
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67 </pre>
68
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69 To stop couchdb-lucene, simply kill the Java process.
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70
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71 <h1>Indexing Strategy</h1>
72
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73 <h2>Document Indexing</h2>
74
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75 You must supply a index function in order to enable couchdb-lucene as, by default, nothing will be indexed. To suppress a document from the index, return null. It's more typical to return a single Document object which contains everything you'd like to query and retrieve. You may also return an array of Document objects if you wish.
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76
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77 You may add any number of index views in any number of design documents. All searches will be constrained to documents emitted by the index functions.
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78
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79 Here's an complete example of a design document with couchdb-lucene features:
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80
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81 <pre>
82 {
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83 "_id":"_design/foo",
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84 "fulltext": {
85 "by_subject": {
86 "index":"function(doc) { var ret=new Document(); ret.add(doc.subject); return ret }"
87 },
88 "by_content": {
89 "index":"function(doc) { var ret=new Document(); ret.add(doc.content); return ret }"
90 }
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91 }
92 }
93 </pre>
94
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95 Here are some example URL's for the given design document;
96
97 <pre>
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98 http://localhost:5984/database/_fti/_design/foo/by_subject?q=hello
99 http://localhost:5984/database/_fti/_design/foo/by_content?q=hello
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100 </pre>
101
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102 A fulltext object contains multiple index view declarations. An index view consists of;
103
104 <dl>
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105 <dt>analyzer</dt><dd>(optional) The analyzer to use</dd>
106 <dt>defaults</dt><dd>(optional) The default for numerous indexing options can be overridden here. A full list of options follows.</dd>
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107 <dt>index</dt><dd>The indexing function itself, documented below.</dd>
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108 </dl>
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109
110 <h3>The Defaults Object</h3>
111
112 The following indexing options can be defaulted;
113
114 <table>
115 <tr>
116 <th>name</th>
117 <th>description</th>
118 <th>available options</th>
119 <th>default</th>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
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122 <th>field</th>
123 <td>the field name to index under</td>
124 <td>user-defined</td>
125 <td>default</td>
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126 </tr>
127 <tr>
128 <th>type</th>
129 <td>the type of the field</td>
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130 <td>date, double, float, int, long, string</td>
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131 <td>string</td>
132 </tr>
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133 <tr>
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134 <th>store</th>
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135 <td>whether the data is stored. The value will be returned in the search result.</td>
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136 <td>yes, no</td>
137 <td>no</td>
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138 </tr>
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139 <tr>
140 <th>index</th>
141 <td>whether (and how) the data is indexed</td>
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142 <td>analyzed, analyzed_no_norms, no, not_analyzed, not_analyzed_no_norms</td>
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143 <td>analyzed</td>
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144 </tr>
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145 <tr>
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146 <th>termvector</th>
147 <td>whether and how a field should have term vectors</td>
148 <td>no, with_offsets, with_positions, with_positions_offsets, yes</td>
149 <td>no</td>
150 </tr>
151 <tr>
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152 <th>boost</th>
153 <td>Sets the boost factor hits on this field. This value will be multiplied into the score of all hits on this this field of this document.</td>
154 <td>floating-point value</td>
155 <td>1.0</td>
156 </tr>
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157 </table>
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158
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159 <h3>The Analyzer Option</h3>
160
161 Lucene has numerous ways of converting free-form text into tokens, these classes are called Analyzer's. By default, the StandardAnalyzer is used which lower-cases all text, drops common English words ("the", "and", and so on), among other things. This processing might not always suit you, so you can choose from several others by setting the "analyzer" field to one of the following values;
162
163 <ul>
164 <li>brazilian</li>
165 <li>chinese</li>
166 <li>cjk</li>
167 <li>czech</li>
168 <li>dutch</li>
169 <li>english</li>
170 <li>french</li>
171 <li>german</li>
172 <li>keyword</li>
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173 <li>perfield</li>
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174 <li>porter</li>
175 <li>russian</li>
176 <li>simple</li>
177 <li>standard</li>
178 <li>thai</li>
179 </ul>
180
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181 The "perfield" option lets you use a different analyzer for different fields and is configured as follows;
182
183 <pre>
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184 "analyzer":"perfield:{field_name:\"analyzer_name\"}"
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185 </pre>
186
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187 Unless overridden, any field name not specified will be handled by the standard analyzer. To change the default, use the special default field name;
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188
189 <pre>
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190 "analyzer":"perfield:{default:\"keyword\"}"
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191 </pre>
192
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193 <h3>The Document class</h3>
194
195 You may construct a new Document instance with;
196
197 <pre>
198 var doc = new Document();
199 </pre>
200
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201 Data may be added to this document with the add method which takes an optional second object argument that can override any of the above default values.
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202
203 <pre>
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204 // Add with all the defaults.
205 doc.add("value");
206
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207 // Add a numeric field.
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208 doc.add(35, {"type":"int"});
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209
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210 // Add a date field.
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211 doc.add(new Date("January 6, 1972 16:05:00"), {"type":"date"});
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212
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213 // Add a date field (object must be a Date object
214
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215 // Add a subject field.
216 doc.add("this is the subject line.", {"field":"subject"});
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217
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218 // Add but ensure it's stored.
219 doc.add("value", {"store":"yes"});
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220
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221 // Add but don't analyze.
222 doc.add("don't analyze me", {"index":"not_analyzed"});
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223
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224 // Extract text from the named attachment and index it to a named field
225 doc.attachment("attachment field", "attachment name");
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226
227 // log an event (trace, debug, info, warn and error are available)
228 if (doc.foo) {
229 log.info("doc has foo property!");
230 }
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231 </pre>
232
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233 <h3>Example Transforms</h3>
234
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235 <h4>Index Everything</h4>
236
237 <pre>
238 function(doc) {
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239 var ret = new Document();
240
241 function idx(obj) {
242 for (var key in obj) {
243 switch (typeof obj[key]) {
244 case 'object':
245 idx(obj[key]);
246 break;
247 case 'function':
248 break;
249 default:
250 ret.add(obj[key]);
251 break;
252 }
253 }
254 };
255
256 idx(doc);
257
258 if (doc._attachments) {
259 for (var i in doc._attachments) {
260 ret.attachment("attachment", i);
261 }
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262 }
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263
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264 return ret;
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265 }
266 </pre>
267
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268 <h4>Index Nothing</h4>
269
270 <pre>
271 function(doc) {
272 return null;
273 }
274 </pre>
275
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276 <h4>Index Select Fields</h4>
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277
278 <pre>
279 function(doc) {
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280 var result = new Document();
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281 result.add(doc.subject, {"field":"subject", "store":"yes"});
282 result.add(doc.content, {"field":"subject"});
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283 result.add(new Date(), {"field":"indexed_at"});
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284 return result;
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285 }
286 </pre>
287
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288 <h4>Index Attachments</h4>
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289
290 <pre>
291 function(doc) {
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292 var result = new Document();
293 for(var a in doc._attachments) {
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294 result.attachment("attachment", a);
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295 }
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296 return result;
297 }
298 </pre>
299
300 <h4>A More Complex Example</h4>
301
302 <pre>
303 function(doc) {
304 var mk = function(name, value, group) {
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305 var ret = new Document();
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306 ret.add(value, {"field": group, "store":"yes"});
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307 ret.add(group, {"field":"group", "store":"yes"});
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308 return ret;
309 };
310 if(doc.type != "reference") return null;
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311 var ret = new Array();
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312 for(var g in doc.groups) {
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313 ret.push(mk("library", doc.groups[g].library, g));
314 ret.push(mk("method", doc.groups[g].method, g));
315 ret.push(mk("target", doc.groups[g].target, g));
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316 }
317 return ret;
318 }
319 </pre>
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320
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321 <h2>Attachment Indexing</h2>
322
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323 Couchdb-lucene uses <a href="http://lucene.apache.org/tika/">Apache Tika</a> to index attachments of the following types, assuming the correct content_type is set in couchdb;
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324
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325 <h3>Supported Formats</h3>
326
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327 <ul>
328 <li>Excel spreadsheets (application/vnd.ms-excel)
329 <li>HTML (text/html)
330 <li>Images (image/*)
331 <li>Java class files
332 <li>Java jar archives
333 <li>MP3 (audio/mp3)
334 <li>OpenDocument (application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.*)
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335 <li>Outlook (application/vnd.ms-outlook)
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336 <li>PDF (application/pdf)
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337 <li>Plain text (text/plain)
338 <li>Powerpoint presentations (application/vnd.ms-powerpoint)
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339 <li>RTF (application/rtf)
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340 <li>Visio (application/vnd.visio)
341 <li>Word documents (application/msword)
342 <li>XML (application/xml)
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343 </ul>
344
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345 <h1>Searching with couchdb-lucene</h1>
346
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347 You can perform all types of queries using Lucene's default <a href="http://lucene.apache.org/java/2_4_0/queryparsersyntax.html">query syntax</a>.
348
349 <h2>Numeric range queries</h2>
350
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351 In addition to normal text-based range searches (using the "field:[lower TO upper]" syntax), couchdb-lucene also supports numeric range searches for the following types: int, long, float, double and date. The type is specified after the field name, as follows;
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352
353 <table>
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354 <tr><td>type</td><td>example</td></tr>
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355 <tr><td>int</td><td>field&lt;int>:[0 TO 100]</td></tr>
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356 <tr><td>long</td><td>field&lt;long>:[0 TO 100]</td></tr>
357 <tr><td>float</td><td>field&lt;float>:[0.0 TO 100.0]</td></tr>
358 <tr><td>double</td><td>field&lt;double>:[0.0 TO 100.0]</td></tr>
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359 <tr><td>date</td><td>field&lt;date>:[from TO to] where from and to match any of these patterns: "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ssZ"", "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss", "yyyy-MM-ddZ", "yyyy-MM-dd", "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.SSSZ", "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.SSS"</td></tr>
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360 </table>
361
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362 An example numeric range query for spatial searching.
363
364 <pre>
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365 ?q=pizza AND lat&lt;double>:[51.4707 TO 51.5224] AND long&lt;double>:[-0.6622 TO -0.5775]
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366 </pre>
367
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368 <h2>Numeric term queries</h2>
369
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370 Fields indexed with numeric types can still be queried as normal terms, couchdb-lucene just needs to know the type. For example, ?q=age&lt;long&gt;:12 will find all documents where the field called 'age' has a value of 12 (when the field was indexed as "type":"int".
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371
372 <h2>Search parameters</h2>
373
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374 The following parameters can be passed for more sophisticated searches;
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375
376 <dl>
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377 <dt>callback</dt><dd>Specify a JSONP callback wrapper. The full JSON result will be prepended with this parameter and also placed with parentheses."
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378 <dt>debug</dt><dd>Setting this to true disables response caching (the query is executed every time) and indents the JSON response for readability.</dd>
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379 <dt>force_json<dt><dd>Usually couchdb-lucene determines the Content-Type of its response based on the presence of the Accept header. If Accept contains "application/json", you get "application/json" in the response, otherwise you get "text/plain;charset=utf8". Some tools, like JSONView for FireFox, do not send the Accept header but do render "application/json" responses if received. Setting force_json=true forces all response to "application/json" regardless of the Accept header.</dd>
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380 <dt>include_docs</dt><dd>whether to include the source docs</dd>
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381 <dt>limit</dt><dd>the maximum number of results to return</dd>
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382 <dt>q</dt><dd>the query to run (e.g, subject:hello). If not specified, the default field is searched. Multiple queries can be supplied, separated by commas; the resulting JSON will be an array of responses.</dd>
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383 <dt>skip</dt><dd>the number of results to skip</dd>
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384 <dt>sort</dt><dd>the comma-separated fields to sort on. Prefix with / for ascending order and \ for descending order (ascending is the default if not specified). Type-specific sorting is also available by appending the type between angle brackets (e.g, sort=amount&lt;float&gt;). Supported types are 'float', 'double', 'int', 'long' and 'date'.</dd>
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385 <dt>stale=ok</dt><dd>If you set the <i>stale</i> option to <i>ok</i>, couchdb-lucene will not block if the index is not up to date and it will immediately return results. Therefore searches may be faster as Lucene caches important data (especially for sorting). A query without stale=ok will block and use the latest data committed to the index. Unlike CouchDBs stale=ok option for views, couchdb-lucene will trigger an index update unless one is already running.</dd>
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386 </dl>
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387
388 <i>All parameters except 'q' are optional.</i>
389
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390 <h2>Special Fields</h2>
391
392 <dl>
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393 <dt>_id</dt><dd>The _id of the document.</dd>
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394 </dl>
395
396 <h2>Dublin Core</h2>
397
398 All Dublin Core attributes are indexed and stored if detected in the attachment. Descriptions of the fields come from the Tika javadocs.
399
400 <dl>
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401 <dt>_dc.contributor</dt><dd> An entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource.</dd>
402 <dt>_dc.coverage</dt><dd>The extent or scope of the content of the resource.</dd>
403 <dt>_dc.creator</dt><dd>An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource.</dd>
404 <dt>_dc.date</dt><dd>A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource.</dd>
405 <dt>_dc.description</dt><dd>An account of the content of the resource.</dd>
406 <dt>_dc.format</dt><dd>Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource.</dd>
407 <dt>_dc.identifier</dt><dd>Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.</dd>
408 <dt>_dc.language</dt><dd>A language of the intellectual content of the resource.</dd>
409 <dt>_dc.modified</dt><dd>Date on which the resource was changed.</dd>
410 <dt>_dc.publisher</dt><dd>An entity responsible for making the resource available.</dd>
411 <dt>_dc.relation</dt><dd>A reference to a related resource.</dd>
412 <dt>_dc.rights</dt><dd>Information about rights held in and over the resource.</dd>
413 <dt>_dc.source</dt><dd>A reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived.</dd>
414 <dt>_dc.subject</dt><dd>The topic of the content of the resource.</dd>
415 <dt>_dc.title</dt><dd>A name given to the resource.</dd>
416 <dt>_dc.type</dt><dd>The nature or genre of the content of the resource.</dd>
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417 </dl>
418
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419 <h2>Examples</h2>
420
421 <pre>
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422 http://localhost:5984/dbname/_fti/_design/foo/view_name?q=field_name:value
423 http://localhost:5984/dbname/_fti/_design/foo/view_name?q=field_name:value&sort=other_field
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424 http://localhost:5984/dbname/_fti/_design/foo/view_name?debug=true&sort&lt;long&gt;=billing_size&q=body:document AND customer:[A TO C]
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425 </pre>
426
427 <h2>Search Results Format</h2>
428
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429 The search result contains a number of fields at the top level, in addition to your search results.
430
431 <dl>
432 <dt>etag</dt><dd>An opaque token that reflects the current version of the index. This value is also returned in an ETag header to facilitate HTTP caching.</dd>
433 <dt>fetch_duration</dt><dd>The number of milliseconds spent retrieving the documents.</dd>
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434 <dt>limit</dt><dd>The maximum number of results that can appear.</dd>
435 <dt>q</dt><dd>The query that was executed.</dd>
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436 <dt>rows</dt><dd>The search results array, described below.</dd>
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437 <dt>search_duration</dt><dd>The number of milliseconds spent performing the search.</dd>
438 <dt>skip</dt><dd>The number of initial matches that was skipped.</dd>
439 <dt>total_rows</dt><dd>The total number of matches for this query.</dd>
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440 </dl>
441
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442 <h2>The search results array</h2>
443
444 The search results arrays consists of zero, one or more objects with the following fields;
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445
446 <dl>
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447 <dt>doc</dt><dd>The original document from couch, if requested with include_docs=true</dd>
448 <dt>fields</dt><dd>All the fields that were stored with this match</dd>
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449 <dt>id</dt><dd>The unique identifier for this match.</dd>
450 <dt>score</dt><dd>The normalized score (0.0-1.0, inclusive) for this match</dd>
451 </dl>
452
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453 Here's an example of a JSON response without sorting;
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454
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455 <pre>
456 {
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457 "q": "+content:enron",
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458 "skip": 0,
459 "limit": 2,
460 "total_rows": 176852,
461 "search_duration": 518,
462 "fetch_duration": 4,
463 "rows": [
464 {
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465 "id": "hain-m-all_documents-257.",
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466 "score": 1.601625680923462
467 },
468 {
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469 "id": "hain-m-notes_inbox-257.",
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470 "score": 1.601625680923462
471 }
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472 ]
473 }
474 </pre>
475
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476 And the same with sorting;
477
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478 <pre>
479 {
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480 "q": "+content:enron",
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481 "skip": 0,
482 "limit": 3,
483 "total_rows": 176852,
484 "search_duration": 660,
485 "fetch_duration": 4,
486 "sort_order": [
487 {
488 "field": "source",
489 "reverse": false,
490 "type": "string"
491 },
492 {
493 "reverse": false,
494 "type": "doc"
495 }
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496 ],
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497 "rows": [
498 {
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499 "id": "shankman-j-inbox-105.",
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500 "score": 0.6131107211112976,
501 "sort_order": [
502 "enron",
503 6
504 ]
505 },
506 {
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507 "id": "shankman-j-inbox-8.",
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508 "score": 0.7492915391921997,
509 "sort_order": [
510 "enron",
511 7
512 ]
513 },
514 {
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515 "id": "shankman-j-inbox-30.",
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516 "score": 0.507369875907898,
517 "sort_order": [
518 "enron",
519 8
520 ]
521 }
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522 ]
523 }
524 </pre>
525
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526 <h3>Content-Type of response</h3>
527
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528 The Content-Type of the response is negotiated via the Accept request header like CouchDB itself. If the Accept header includes "application/json" then that is also the Content-Type of the response. If not, "text/plain;charset=utf-8" is used.
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529
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530 <h1>Fetching information about the index</h1>
531
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532 Calling couchdb-lucene without arguments returns a JSON object with information about the index.
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533
534 <pre>
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535 http://127.0.0.1:5984/&lt;db>/_fti/_design/foo/&lt;index
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536 </pre>
537
538 returns;
539
540 <pre>
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541 {"current":true,"disk_size":110674,"doc_count":397,"doc_del_count":0,
542 "fields":["default","number"],"last_modified":"1263066382000",
543 "optimized":true,"ref_count":2}
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544 </pre>
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545
546 <h1>Index Maintenance</h1>
547
548 For optimal query speed you can optimize your indexes. This causes the index to be rewritten into a single segment.
549
550 <pre>
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551 curl -X POST http://localhost:5984/&lt;db>/_fti/_design/foo/&lt;index>/_optimize
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552 </pre>
553
554 If you just want to expunge pending deletes, then call;
555
556 <pre>
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557 curl -X POST http://localhost:5984/&lt;db>/_fti/_design/foo/&lt;index>/_expunge
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558 </pre>
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559
560 If you recreate databases or frequently change your fulltext functions, you will probably have old indexes lying around on disk. To remove all of them, call;
561
562 <pre>
563 curl -X POST http://localhost:5984/&lt;db>/_fti/_cleanup
564 </pre>
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565
566 <h1>Authentication</h1>
567
568 By default couchdb-lucene does not attempt to authenticate to CouchDB. If you have set CouchDB's require_valid_user to true, you will need to modify couchdb-lucene.ini. Change the url setting to include a valid username and password. e.g, the default setting is;
569
570 <pre>
571 [local]
572 url=http://localhost:5984/
573 </pre>
574
575 Change it to;
576
577 <pre>
578 [local]
579 url=http://foo:bar@localhost:5984/
580 </pre>
581
582 and couchdb-lucene will authenticate to couchdb.
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