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A JavaScript interpreter in Go (golang)
branch: master

Merge pull request #103 from multiplay/multi-return

Support go multiple return values as an array
latest commit c2346f4ada
Robert Krimen authored
Failed to load latest commit information.
ast Improve error reporting
dbg Update dbg
file Improve error reporting
otto Improve error reporting
parser Improve error reporting
registry Add Array.reduceRight (sdgoij)
terst terst
test New parser
token Fix string representation of GREATER_OR_EQUAL
underscore terst
.gitignore New parser
DESIGN.markdown Partially fix ReferenceError origin reporting
LICENSE Add MIT license
Makefile Fix toReflectValue to handle Struct, Map, Slice, etc.
README.markdown Improve error reporting
array_test.go terst
bug_test.go Fix behavior when breaking a loop into an outer block
builtin.go Improve error reporting
builtin_array.go Improve error reporting
builtin_boolean.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
builtin_date.go Improve error reporting
builtin_error.go Improve error reporting (again)
builtin_function.go Improve error reporting
builtin_json.go Improve error reporting
builtin_math.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
builtin_number.go Improve error reporting
builtin_object.go Improve error reporting
builtin_regexp.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
builtin_string.go Improve error reporting
builtin_test.go terst
clone.go Improve error reporting
cmpl.go Improve error reporting
cmpl_evaluate.go Improve error reporting
cmpl_evaluate_expression.go Improve error reporting (again)
cmpl_evaluate_statement.go Fix behavior when breaking a loop into an outer block
cmpl_parse.go Improve error reporting
cmpl_test.go Improve error reporting
console.go The zero value of Value is now defined to be undefined
date_test.go go vet
dbg.go Update dbg
documentation_test.go Improve error reporting
error.go Improve error reporting (again)
error_test.go Improve error reporting (again)
evaluate.go Improve error reporting
function_test.go Improve error reporting
global.go Improve error reporting (again)
global_test.go Improve error reporting
inline The zero value of Value is now defined to be undefined
inline.go The zero value of Value is now defined to be undefined
json_test.go terst
math_test.go terst
number_test.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
object.go Improve error reporting
object_class.go Improve error reporting
object_test.go terst
otto.go Improve error reporting
otto_.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
otto_error_test.go Improve error reporting
otto_test.go Improve error reporting
panic_test.go terst
parser_test.go terst
property.go Improve error reporting
reflect_test.go Merge pull request #103 from multiplay/multi-return
regexp_test.go go vet
result.go The zero value of Value is now defined to be undefined
runtime.go Merge pull request #103 from multiplay/multi-return
runtime_test.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
scope.go Improve error reporting
script.go Add internal compilation step
script_test.go go vet
stash.go Improve error reporting
string_test.go terst
testing_test.go Improve error reporting
type_arguments.go Improve error reporting
type_array.go Improve error reporting
type_boolean.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
type_date.go Improve error reporting
type_error.go Improve error reporting (again)
type_function.go Improve error reporting
type_go_array.go Improve error reporting
type_go_map.go Improve error reporting
type_go_slice.go Improve error reporting
type_go_struct.go Fix toReflectValue to handle Struct, Map, Slice, etc.
type_number.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
type_reference.go Improve error reporting
type_regexp.go Improve error reporting
type_string.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
underscore_arrays_test.go terst
underscore_chaining_test.go terst
underscore_collections_test.go terst
underscore_functions_test.go terst
underscore_objects_test.go go vet
underscore_test.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
underscore_utility_test.go terst
value.go Improve error reporting
value_boolean.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
value_number.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
value_primitive.go The zero value of Value is now defined to be undefined
value_string.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.
value_test.go Value.string(), .float64(), .bool(), etc.

README.markdown

otto

import "github.com/robertkrimen/otto"

Package otto is a JavaScript parser and interpreter written natively in Go.

http://godoc.org/github.com/robertkrimen/otto

import (
    "github.com/robertkrimen/otto"
)

Run something in the VM

vm := otto.New()
vm.Run(`
    abc = 2 + 2;
    console.log("The value of abc is " + abc); // 4
`)

Get a value out of the VM

value, err := vm.Get("abc")
    value, _ := value.ToInteger()
}

Set a number

vm.Set("def", 11)
vm.Run(`
    console.log("The value of def is " + def);
    // The value of def is 11
`)

Set a string

vm.Set("xyzzy", "Nothing happens.")
vm.Run(`
    console.log(xyzzy.length); // 16
`)

Get the value of an expression

value, _ = vm.Run("xyzzy.length")
{
    // value is an int64 with a value of 16
    value, _ := value.ToInteger()
}

An error happens

value, err = vm.Run("abcdefghijlmnopqrstuvwxyz.length")
if err != nil {
    // err = ReferenceError: abcdefghijlmnopqrstuvwxyz is not defined
    // If there is an error, then value.IsUndefined() is true
    ...
}

Set a Go function

vm.Set("sayHello", func(call otto.FunctionCall) otto.Value {
    fmt.Printf("Hello, %s.\n", call.Argument(0).String())
    return otto.Value{}
})

Set a Go function that returns something useful

vm.Set("twoPlus", func(call otto.FunctionCall) otto.Value {
    right, _ := call.Argument(0).ToInteger()
    result, _ := vm.ToValue(2 + right)
    return result
})

Use the functions in JavaScript

result, _ = vm.Run(`
    sayHello("Xyzzy");      // Hello, Xyzzy.
    sayHello();             // Hello, undefined

    result = twoPlus(2.0); // 4
`)

Parser

A separate parser is available in the parser package if you're just interested in building an AST.

http://godoc.org/github.com/robertkrimen/otto/parser

Parse and return an AST

filename := "" // A filename is optional
src := `
    // Sample xyzzy example
    (function(){
        if (3.14159 > 0) {
            console.log("Hello, World.");
            return;
        }

        var xyzzy = NaN;
        console.log("Nothing happens.");
        return xyzzy;
    })();
`

// Parse some JavaScript, yielding a *ast.Program and/or an ErrorList
program, err := parser.ParseFile(nil, filename, src, 0)

otto

You can run (Go) JavaScript from the commandline with: http://github.com/robertkrimen/otto/tree/master/otto

$ go get -v github.com/robertkrimen/otto/otto

Run JavaScript by entering some source on stdin or by giving otto a filename:

$ otto example.js

underscore

Optionally include the JavaScript utility-belt library, underscore, with this import:

import (
    "github.com/robertkrimen/otto"
    _ "github.com/robertkrimen/otto/underscore"
)

// Now every otto runtime will come loaded with underscore

For more information: http://github.com/robertkrimen/otto/tree/master/underscore

Caveat Emptor

The following are some limitations with otto:

* "use strict" will parse, but does nothing.
* The regular expression engine (re2/regexp) is not fully compatible with the ECMA5 specification.

Regular Expression Incompatibility

Go translates JavaScript-style regular expressions into something that is "regexp" compatible via parser.TransformRegExp. Unfortunately, RegExp requires backtracking for some patterns, and backtracking is not supported by the standard Go engine: https://code.google.com/p/re2/wiki/Syntax

Therefore, the following syntax is incompatible:

(?=)  // Lookahead (positive), currently a parsing error
(?!)  // Lookahead (backhead), currently a parsing error
\1    // Backreference (\1, \2, \3, ...), currently a parsing error

A brief discussion of these limitations: "Regexp (?!re)" https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#%21topic/golang-nuts/7qgSDWPIh_E

More information about re2: https://code.google.com/p/re2/

In addition to the above, re2 (Go) has a different definition for \s: [\t\n\f\r ]. The JavaScript definition, on the other hand, also includes \v, Unicode "Separator, Space", etc.

Halting Problem

If you want to stop long running executions (like third-party code), you can use the interrupt channel to do this:

package main

import (
    "errors"
    "fmt"
    "os"
    "time"

    "github.com/robertkrimen/otto"
)

var halt = errors.New("Stahp")

func main() {
    runUnsafe(`var abc = [];`)
    runUnsafe(`
    while (true) {
        // Loop forever
    }`)
}

func runUnsafe(unsafe string) {
    start := time.Now()
    defer func() {
        duration := time.Since(start)
        if caught := recover(); caught != nil {
            if caught == halt {
                fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Some code took to long! Stopping after: %v\n", duration)
                return
            }
            panic(caught) // Something else happened, repanic!
        }
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Ran code successfully: %v\n", duration)
    }()

    vm := otto.New()
    vm.Interrupt = make(chan func(), 1) // The buffer prevents blocking

    go func() {
        time.Sleep(2 * time.Second) // Stop after two seconds
        vm.Interrupt <- func() {
            panic(halt)
        }
    }()

    vm.Run(unsafe) // Here be dragons (risky code)
}

Where is setTimeout/setInterval?

These timing functions are not actually part of the ECMA-262 specification. Typically, they belong to the windows object (in the browser). It would not be difficult to provide something like these via Go, but you probably want to wrap otto in an event loop in that case.

For an example of how this could be done in Go with otto, see natto:

http://github.com/robertkrimen/natto

Here is some more discussion of the issue:

Usage

var ErrVersion = errors.New("version mismatch")

type Error

type Error struct {
}

An Error represents a runtime error, e.g. a TypeError, a ReferenceError, etc.

func (Error) Error

func (err Error) Error() string

Error returns a description of the error

TypeError: 'def' is not a function

func (Error) String

func (err Error) String() string

String returns a description of the error and a trace of where the error occurred.

TypeError: 'def' is not a function
    at xyz (<anonymous>:3:9)
    at <anonymous>:7:1/

type FunctionCall

type FunctionCall struct {
    This         Value
    ArgumentList []Value
    Otto         *Otto
}

FunctionCall is an encapsulation of a JavaScript function call.

func (FunctionCall) Argument

func (self FunctionCall) Argument(index int) Value

Argument will return the value of the argument at the given index.

If no such argument exists, undefined is returned.

type Object

type Object struct {
}

Object is the representation of a JavaScript object.

func (Object) Call

func (self Object) Call(name string, argumentList ...interface{}) (Value, error)

Call a method on the object.

It is essentially equivalent to:

var method, _ := object.Get(name)
method.Call(object, argumentList...)

An undefined value and an error will result if:

1. There is an error during conversion of the argument list
2. The property is not actually a function
3. An (uncaught) exception is thrown

func (Object) Class

func (self Object) Class() string

Class will return the class string of the object.

The return value will (generally) be one of:

Object
Function
Array
String
Number
Boolean
Date
RegExp

func (Object) Get

func (self Object) Get(name string) (Value, error)

Get the value of the property with the given name.

func (Object) Keys

func (self Object) Keys() []string

Get the keys for the object

Equivalent to calling Object.keys on the object

func (Object) Set

func (self Object) Set(name string, value interface{}) error

Set the property of the given name to the given value.

An error will result if the setting the property triggers an exception (i.e. read-only), or there is an error during conversion of the given value.

func (Object) Value

func (self Object) Value() Value

Value will return self as a value.

type Otto

type Otto struct {
    // Interrupt is a channel for interrupting the runtime. You can use this to halt a long running execution, for example.
    // See "Halting Problem" for more information.
    Interrupt chan func()
}

Otto is the representation of the JavaScript runtime. Each instance of Otto has a self-contained namespace.

func New

func New() *Otto

New will allocate a new JavaScript runtime

func Run

func Run(src interface{}) (*Otto, Value, error)

Run will allocate a new JavaScript runtime, run the given source on the allocated runtime, and return the runtime, resulting value, and error (if any).

src may be a string, a byte slice, a bytes.Buffer, or an io.Reader, but it MUST always be in UTF-8.

src may also be a Script.

src may also be a Program, but if the AST has been modified, then runtime behavior is undefined.

func (Otto) Call

func (self Otto) Call(source string, this interface{}, argumentList ...interface{}) (Value, error)

Call the given JavaScript with a given this and arguments.

If this is nil, then some special handling takes place to determine the proper this value, falling back to a "standard" invocation if necessary (where this is undefined).

If source begins with "new " (A lowercase new followed by a space), then Call will invoke the function constructor rather than performing a function call. In this case, the this argument has no effect.

// value is a String object
value, _ := vm.Call("Object", nil, "Hello, World.")

// Likewise...
value, _ := vm.Call("new Object", nil, "Hello, World.")

// This will perform a concat on the given array and return the result
// value is [ 1, 2, 3, undefined, 4, 5, 6, 7, "abc" ]
value, _ := vm.Call(`[ 1, 2, 3, undefined, 4 ].concat`, nil, 5, 6, 7, "abc")

func (*Otto) Compile

func (self *Otto) Compile(filename string, src interface{}) (*Script, error)

Compile will parse the given source and return a Script value or nil and an error if there was a problem during compilation.

script, err := vm.Compile("", `var abc; if (!abc) abc = 0; abc += 2; abc;`)
vm.Run(script)

func (*Otto) Copy

func (in *Otto) Copy() *Otto

Copy will create a copy/clone of the runtime.

Copy is useful for saving some time when creating many similar runtimes.

This method works by walking the original runtime and cloning each object, scope, stash, etc. into a new runtime.

Be on the lookout for memory leaks or inadvertent sharing of resources.

func (Otto) Get

func (self Otto) Get(name string) (Value, error)

Get the value of the top-level binding of the given name.

If there is an error (like the binding does not exist), then the value will be undefined.

func (Otto) Object

func (self Otto) Object(source string) (*Object, error)

Object will run the given source and return the result as an object.

For example, accessing an existing object:

object, _ := vm.Object(`Number`)

Or, creating a new object:

object, _ := vm.Object(`({ xyzzy: "Nothing happens." })`)

Or, creating and assigning an object:

object, _ := vm.Object(`xyzzy = {}`)
object.Set("volume", 11)

If there is an error (like the source does not result in an object), then nil and an error is returned.

func (Otto) Run

func (self Otto) Run(src interface{}) (Value, error)

Run will run the given source (parsing it first if necessary), returning the resulting value and error (if any)

src may be a string, a byte slice, a bytes.Buffer, or an io.Reader, but it MUST always be in UTF-8.

If the runtime is unable to parse source, then this function will return undefined and the parse error (nothing will be evaluated in this case).

src may also be a Script.

src may also be a Program, but if the AST has been modified, then runtime behavior is undefined.

func (Otto) Set

func (self Otto) Set(name string, value interface{}) error

Set the top-level binding of the given name to the given value.

Set will automatically apply ToValue to the given value in order to convert it to a JavaScript value (type Value).

If there is an error (like the binding is read-only, or the ToValue conversion fails), then an error is returned.

If the top-level binding does not exist, it will be created.

func (Otto) ToValue

func (self Otto) ToValue(value interface{}) (Value, error)

ToValue will convert an interface{} value to a value digestible by otto/JavaScript.

type Script

type Script struct {
}

Script is a handle for some (reusable) JavaScript. Passing a Script value to a run method will evaluate the JavaScript.

func (*Script) String

func (self *Script) String() string

type Value

type Value struct {
}

Value is the representation of a JavaScript value.

func FalseValue

func FalseValue() Value

FalseValue will return a value representing false.

It is equivalent to:

ToValue(false)

func NaNValue

func NaNValue() Value

NaNValue will return a value representing NaN.

It is equivalent to:

ToValue(math.NaN())

func NullValue

func NullValue() Value

NullValue will return a Value representing null.

func ToValue

func ToValue(value interface{}) (Value, error)

ToValue will convert an interface{} value to a value digestible by otto/JavaScript

This function will not work for advanced types (struct, map, slice/array, etc.) and you should use Otto.ToValue instead.

func TrueValue

func TrueValue() Value

TrueValue will return a value representing true.

It is equivalent to:

ToValue(true)

func UndefinedValue

func UndefinedValue() Value

UndefinedValue will return a Value representing undefined.

func (Value) Call

func (value Value) Call(this Value, argumentList ...interface{}) (Value, error)

Call the value as a function with the given this value and argument list and return the result of invocation. It is essentially equivalent to:

value.apply(thisValue, argumentList)

An undefined value and an error will result if:

1. There is an error during conversion of the argument list
2. The value is not actually a function
3. An (uncaught) exception is thrown

func (Value) Class

func (value Value) Class() string

Class will return the class string of the value or the empty string if value is not an object.

The return value will (generally) be one of:

Object
Function
Array
String
Number
Boolean
Date
RegExp

func (Value) Export

func (self Value) Export() (interface{}, error)

Export will attempt to convert the value to a Go representation and return it via an interface{} kind.

Export returns an error, but it will always be nil. It is present for backwards compatibility.

If a reasonable conversion is not possible, then the original value is returned.

undefined   -> nil (FIXME?: Should be Value{})
null        -> nil
boolean     -> bool
number      -> A number type (int, float32, uint64, ...)
string      -> string
Array       -> []interface{}
Object      -> map[string]interface{}

func (Value) IsBoolean

func (value Value) IsBoolean() bool

IsBoolean will return true if value is a boolean (primitive).

func (Value) IsDefined

func (value Value) IsDefined() bool

IsDefined will return false if the value is undefined, and true otherwise.

func (Value) IsFunction

func (value Value) IsFunction() bool

IsFunction will return true if value is a function.

func (Value) IsNaN

func (value Value) IsNaN() bool

IsNaN will return true if value is NaN (or would convert to NaN).

func (Value) IsNull

func (value Value) IsNull() bool

IsNull will return true if the value is null, and false otherwise.

func (Value) IsNumber

func (value Value) IsNumber() bool

IsNumber will return true if value is a number (primitive).

func (Value) IsObject

func (value Value) IsObject() bool

IsObject will return true if value is an object.

func (Value) IsPrimitive

func (value Value) IsPrimitive() bool

IsPrimitive will return true if value is a primitive (any kind of primitive).

func (Value) IsString

func (value Value) IsString() bool

IsString will return true if value is a string (primitive).

func (Value) IsUndefined

func (value Value) IsUndefined() bool

IsUndefined will return true if the value is undefined, and false otherwise.

func (Value) Object

func (value Value) Object() *Object

Object will return the object of the value, or nil if value is not an object.

This method will not do any implicit conversion. For example, calling this method on a string primitive value will not return a String object.

func (Value) String

func (value Value) String() string

String will return the value as a string.

This method will make return the empty string if there is an error.

func (Value) ToBoolean

func (value Value) ToBoolean() (bool, error)

ToBoolean will convert the value to a boolean (bool).

ToValue(0).ToBoolean() => false
ToValue("").ToBoolean() => false
ToValue(true).ToBoolean() => true
ToValue(1).ToBoolean() => true
ToValue("Nothing happens").ToBoolean() => true

If there is an error during the conversion process (like an uncaught exception), then the result will be false and an error.

func (Value) ToFloat

func (value Value) ToFloat() (float64, error)

ToFloat will convert the value to a number (float64).

ToValue(0).ToFloat() => 0.
ToValue(1.1).ToFloat() => 1.1
ToValue("11").ToFloat() => 11.

If there is an error during the conversion process (like an uncaught exception), then the result will be 0 and an error.

func (Value) ToInteger

func (value Value) ToInteger() (int64, error)

ToInteger will convert the value to a number (int64).

ToValue(0).ToInteger() => 0
ToValue(1.1).ToInteger() => 1
ToValue("11").ToInteger() => 11

If there is an error during the conversion process (like an uncaught exception), then the result will be 0 and an error.

func (Value) ToString

func (value Value) ToString() (string, error)

ToString will convert the value to a string (string).

ToValue(0).ToString() => "0"
ToValue(false).ToString() => "false"
ToValue(1.1).ToString() => "1.1"
ToValue("11").ToString() => "11"
ToValue('Nothing happens.').ToString() => "Nothing happens."

If there is an error during the conversion process (like an uncaught exception), then the result will be the empty string ("") and an error.

godocdown http://github.com/robertkrimen/godocdown

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