Cucumber-like BDD Framework for Perl6
Perl 6 Gherkin
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Latest commit a357c69 Oct 19, 2017 Robert Lemmen Robert Lemmen farsi example and fixes for it

README.md

Cucumis Sextus

... a Cucumber-like Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) Test Framework for Perl 6.

State

This is still in development, but already works for most basic cases. There are bound to be many bugs, please let me know how you get along.

Missing Features

  • Harness improvements to allow parallel execution
  • TAP integration
  • Different types of reporting
  • Neater printing of featrues/scenarios/steps as they are being executed

Usage

This is trying to be faithful and compatible to the "consensus" Cucumber implementation, which also means that most of this documentation applies and will also explain background and theory better than I possibly could: https://github.com/cucumber/cucumber/wiki/A-Table-Of-Content

Please let me know if there are any surprising discrepancies.

Basic Feature Files

By default, cucumis will search for feature files under features/*.feature, the syntax of these is the same as in other cumumber implementations. Currently only basic scenarios are supported, no tables or templates. An example:

Feature: Basic Calculator Functions
    In order to check I've written the Calculator class correctly
    As a developer I want to check some basic operations
    So that I can have confidence in my Calculator class.

Scenario: First Key Press on the Display
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having pressed 1
    Then the display should show 1

Step Definitions

Cucumis will load all .pm6 files under 'step_definitions' in the same directory that holds the feature file in question, e.g. "features/step_definitions/StepDefs.pm6":

unit module StepDefs;

use CucumisSextus::Glue;

Given /'a new Calculator object'/, sub () {
    # implement!
};

Step /'having pressed' \s* (\d+)/, sub ($num) {
    # implement!
};

Step definition modules are using semi-keywords from the CucumisSextus::Glue module and a regular expression to define step definitions. The "Step" keywords matches any ype/verb in the scenario steps, and serves as a sort of wildcard.

When cucumis executes a feature file, it will find the appropriate step definition for each step, and execute it. If there is no step definition or there is a problem with it, it will report an error.

Note that the step definitions can have arguments that are taken from captures within the regular expression, as in the "having pressed example above. You can even use non-capturing groups in the regex and slurpy arguments (quite cool!):

Step /'having pressed' \s+ (\S+) [\s+ 'and' \s+ (\S+)]*/, sub (+@btns) {
    for @btns -> $b {
        # implement!
    }
}

Within your glue code, you can use any exception (except X::CucumisSextus::FeatureExecFailure, which is to signal problems when trying to run the step, not within the step) to signal a failure. The next steps of the scenario will be skipped, but the remaining scenarios of the feature will be executed, as will be other features.

Then /'the display should be off'/, sub () {
    die "display should be off, but isn't";
}

Execution

In order to execute the tests described in a feature file, the "cucumis6" tool can be used:

cucumis6 features

Cucumis will execute your features, producing some more output, and then report the results:

14 scenarios executed, 4 skipped, 12 succeeded, 2 failed

The return code form the command will only be 0 if there are no problems executing cucumis, and if there are no failed scenarios.

Tags

You can tag your features and scenarios like this:

@calc @basic 
Feature: Basic Calculator Functions
    In order to check I've written the Calculator class correctly
    As a developer I want to check some basic operations
    So that I can have confidence in my Calculator class.

@positive
Scenario: First Key Press on the Display
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having pressed 1
    Then the display should show 1

And then select only certain features and scenarios (the latter inherit all the tags from the corresponding feature as well as have their own tags) when executing cucumis:

cucumis6 --tags=@calc

You can negate the matches with a '~', and OR them together with commas:

cucumis6 --tags=@calc,@print
cucumis6 --tags=~@positive

And you can AND them together by repeatedly specifying --tags:

cucumis6 --tags=@calc --tags@basic

Background Scenarios

You can define "background" scenarios:

Feature: Basic Calculator Functions
In order to check I've written the Calculator class correctly
As a developer I want to check some basic operations
So that I can have confidence in my Calculator class.

Background: Unboxing a new Calculator
    Given a freshly unboxed Calculator
    And having it switched on

Scenario: First Key Press on the Display
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having pressed 1
    Then the display should show 1

Scenario: Second Key Press on the Display
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having pressed 1
    And having pressed 2
    Then the display should show 12

These background scenarios will get executed before each of the other scenarios of the feature. There can only be one background scenario and it needs to be the first one in the feature.

Tables

Your steps can contain tabular data:

Scenario: Separation of calculations
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having successfully performed the following calculations
        | first | operator | second | result |
        | 0.5   | +        | 0.1    | 0.6    |
        | 0.01  | /        | 0.01   | 1      |
        | 10    | *        | 1      | 10     |
    And having pressed 3
    Then the display should show 3

Your step definition code will get the table passed in as a array of hashes, in the final parameter after the captures. The keys come from the first line of the table in your feature file, and you get one entry per following row:

Step /'having successfully performed the following calculations'/, sub (@table) {
    say @table.perl;
}

would yield:

[{:first("0.5"), :operator("+"), :result("0.6"), :second("0.1")}, 
 {:first("0.01"), :operator("/"), :result("1"), :second("0.01")}, 
 {:first("10"), :operator("*"), :result("10"), :second("1")}]

Multiline Data

In a way similar to tables, you can add multiline verbatim data to your step definitions by starting and ending such a section with three quotes:

Feature: Basic Calculator Functions
In order to check I've written the Calculator class correctly
As a developer I want to check some basic operations
So that I can have confidence in my Calculator class.

Scenario: Ticker Tape
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having entered the following sequence
    """
    1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 -
    100
    * 13 \=\=\= + 2 =
    """
    Then the display should show -1025

Note that while the indentation of the three quotes themselves, like any other line in a feature file, is not relevant, that indentation is removed from each line in the multiline data. This also means that your indentation needs to be somewhat conistent or cucumis will fail to do so.

The multiline data is passed to your step definition as a single argument after any captures, just like with tables. Note that you can only use multiline data or tables in a step, not both.

Hooks

You can create "before" and "after" hooks in your glue code, these will be executed before and after each scenario respectively. Before hooks will be executed in the order they are registered, and after hooks in reverse order. Note however that registration order is unpredicatble across multiple glue code modules. These hooks get executed for any scenario, so you typically want to inspect the feature and scenario passed in before doing anything:

Before sub ($feature, $scenario) {
    if $feature.tags.first(* ~~ 'hooked') {
        # implement!
    }
}

After sub ($feature, $scenario) {
    # implement!
}

Outlines and Examples

You can write a single scenario and execute it multiple times for different sets of input and output values using outlines and examples:

Scenario Outline: Basic arithmetic
    Given a new Calculator object
    And having keyed <first>
    And having keyed <operator>
    And having keyed <second>
    And having pressed =
    Then the display should show <result>
    Examples:
    | first | operator | second | result |
    | 5.0   | +        | 5.0    | 10     |
    | 6     | /        | 3      | 2      |
    | 10    | *        | 7.550  | 75.5   |
    | 3     | -        | 10     | -7     |

Note that the glue code regular expression has to match the substituted value, not the original one from the step text.

Other Languages

If you want to write your feature files in your native language rather than in english, you can certianly do that by putting a language directive into the first line of your feature file:

#language: hi
रूप लेख: मूलभूत गणक कार्य
    जाँच करने के लिए मैंने गणक वर्ग को सही ढंग से लिखा है
    एक विकासक के रूप में मैं कुछ बुनियादी कार्यों की जांच करना चाहता हूं
    ताकि मेरे गणक वर्ग में मुझे भरोसा हो।
परिदृश्य: प्रदर्शन पर प्रथम कुंजी दबाएं
    पूर्वानुमान एक नई गणक वस्तु
    और 1 दबाया हुआ
    अतः प्रदर्शन 1 दिखाना चाहिए

And then write the appropriate step definition code:

Then /'प्रदर्शन' \s+ (\d+) \s+ 'दिखाना चाहिए'/, sub ($num) {
    # XXX implement
}

Note that you could even use Hindi number literals like १ instead of the arabic ones in the example above, the \d does detect them correctly and $num.Int will convert to a number as well!

This should even work for right-to-left languages, but of course you get the usual problems with shells, editors and the like:

#language: fa
ویژگی: عملیات ساده ماشین حساب
    جهت ارزیابی اینکه کلاس ماشین حساب را به درستی نوشته ام
    به عنوان یک برنامه نویس چند عملیات ساده ریاضی را ارزیابی می کنم
    تا از کلاس ماشین حسابم اطمینان حاصل کنم

سناریو: اولین دکمه فشرده شده در صفحه نمایش
    با فرض یک شی جدید ماشین حساب 
    و فشرده شدن ۱۲۳
    آنگاه صفحه نمایش باید ۱۲۳ را نشان بدهد

Feedback and Contact

Please let me know what you think: Robert Lemmen robertle@semistable.com