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git: |-
Setup
-----
git clone <repo>
clone the repository specified by <repo>; this is similar to "checkout" in some other version control systems such as Subversion and CVS
Who doesn't like colors? Optionally add the following to your ~/.gitconfig file:
[color]
branch = auto
diff = auto
status = auto
[color "branch"]
current = yellow reverse
local = yellow
remote = green
[color "diff"]
meta = yellow bold
frag = magenta bold
old = red bold
new = green bold
[color "status"]
added = yellow
changed = green
untracked = cyan
Configuration
-------------
git config user.email johndoe@example.com
Sets your email for commit messages.
git config user.name 'John Doe'
Sets your name for commit messages.
git config branch.autosetupmerge true
Tells git-branch and git-checkout to setup new branches so that git-pull(1) will appropriately merge from that remote branch. Recommended. Without this, you will have to add --track to your branch command or manually merge remote tracking branches with "fetch" and then "merge".
You can add "--global" after "git config" to any of these commands to make it apply to all git repos (writes to ~/.gitconfig).
Info
----
git diff
show a diff of the changes made since your last commit
git status
show files added to the index, files with changes, and untracked files
git log
show recent commits, most recent on top
git show <rev>
show the changeset (diff) of a commit specified by <rev>, which can be any SHA1 commit ID, branch name, or tag
git blame <file>
show who authored each line in <file>
git blame <file> <rev>
show who authored each line in <file> as of <rev> (allows blame to go back in time)
Adding / Deleting
-----------------
git add <file1> <file2> ...
add <file1>, <file2>, etc... to the project
git add <dir>
add all files under directory <dir> to the project, including subdirectories
git add .
add all files under the current directory to the project
git rm <file1> <file2> ...
remove <file1>, <file2>, etc... from the project
Committing
----------
git commit <file1> <file2> ... [-m <msg>]
commit <file1>, <file2>, etc..., optionally using commit message <msg>, otherwise opening your editor to let you type a commit message
git commit -a [-m <msg>]
commit all files changed since your last commit, optionally using commit message <msg>
git commit -v [-m <msg>]
commit verbosely, i.e. includes the diff of the contents being committed in the commit message screen
git commit --amend <file1> <file2> ...
include changes made to <file1>, <file2>, etc..., and recommit with previous commit message
Sharing
-------
git pull
update the current branch with changes from the server. Note: .git/config must have a [branch "some_name"] section for the current branch. Git 1.5.3 and above adds this automatically.
git push
update the server with your commits across all branches that are *COMMON* between your local copy and the server. Local branches that were never pushed to the server in the first place are not shared.
git push origin <branch>
update the server with your commits made to <branch> since your last push. This is always *required* for new branches that you wish to share. After the first explicity push, "git push" by itself is sufficient.
Branching
---------
git branch
list all local branches
git branch -r
list all remote branches
git branch -a
list all local and remote branches
git branch <branch>
create a new branch named <branch>, referencing the same point in history as the current branch
git branch <branch> <start-point>
create a new branch named <branch>, referencing <start-point>, which may be specified any way you like, including using a branch name or a tag name
git branch --track <branch> <remote-branch>
create a tracking branch. Will push/pull changes to/from another repository. Example: git branch --track experimental origin/experimental
git fetch <name of remote>
git branch <name of branch> <name of remote>/<branch>
(I couldn't get the git branch --track to work for me. Here is a way to do it with >= git 1.5.4)
Example:
git remote add stevenbristol git://github.com/stevenbristol/lovd-by-less.git
git fetch stevenbristol
git branch stevenbristol stevenbristol/master
git branch -r -d <remote branch>
delete a "local remote" branch, used to delete a tracking branch.
Example: git branch -r -d wycats/master
git branch -d <branch>
delete the branch <branch>; if the branch you are deleting points to a commit which is not reachable from the current branch, this command will fail with a warning.
git branch -D <branch>
even if the branch points to a commit not reachable from the current branch, you may know that that commit is still reachable from some other branch or tag. In that case it is safe to use this command to force git to delete the branch.
git checkout <branch>
make the current branch <branch>, updating the working directory to reflect the version referenced by <branch>
git checkout -b <new> <start-point>
create a new branch <new> referencing <start-point>, and check it out.
git remote add <branch> <remote branch>
adds a remote branch to your git config. Can be then fetched locally.
Example: git remote add coreteam git://github.com/wycats/merb-plugins.git
git push <repository> :heads/<branch>
removes a branch from a remote repository. Example: git push origin :refs/old_branch_to_be_deleted
Merging
-------
git merge <branch>
merge branch <branch> into the current branch; this command is idempotent and can be run as many times as needed to keep the current branch up-to-date with changes in <branch>
git merge <branch> --no-commit
merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but do not autocommit the result; allows you to make further tweaks
git merge <branch> -s ours
merge branch <branch> into the current branch, but in the case of any conflicts, the files in the current branch win.
Conflicts
---------
git mergetool
Work through conflicted files by opening them in your mergetool (opendiff, kdiff3, etc.) and choosing left/right chunks. The merged result is staged for commit.
For binary files or if mergetool won't do, resolve the conflict(s) manually and then do:
git add <file1> [<file2> ...]
Once all conflicts are resolved and staged, commit the pending merge with:
git commit
Reverting
---------
git revert <rev>
reverse commit specified by <rev> and commit the result. This does *not* do the same thing as similarly named commands in other VCS's such as "svn revert" or "bzr revert", see below
git checkout <file>
re-checkout <file>, overwriting any local changes
git checkout .
re-checkout all files, overwriting any local changes. This is most similar to "svn revert" if you're used to Subversion commands
Undo
----
git reset --hard
abandon everything since your last commit; this command can be DANGEROUS. If merging has resulted in conflicts and you'd like to just forget about the merge, this command will do that
git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
undo your most recent *successful* merge *and* any changes that occurred after. Useful for forgetting about the merge you just did. If there are conflicts (the merge was not successful), use "git reset --hard" (above) instead.
git reset --soft HEAD^
undo your last commit
Plumbing
--------
test <sha1-A> = $(git merge-base <sha1-A> <sha1-B>)
determine if merging sha1-B into sha1-A is achievable as a fast forward; non-zero exit status is false.
Stashing
--------
git stash save <optional-name>
save your local modifications to a new stash so you can "git svn rebase" or "git pull"
git stash apply
restore the changes recorded in the stash on top of the current working tree state
git stash pop
restore the changes from the most recent stash, and remove it from the stack of stashed changes
Environment Variables
---------------------
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
Your full name to be recorded in any newly created commits. Overrides user.name in .git/config
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
Your email address to be recorded in any newly created commits. Overrides user.email in .git/config
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