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/*
* AUTHOR
*
* Rob Mueller <cpan@robm.fastmail.fm>
*
* COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
*
* Copyright (C) 2003 by FastMail IP Partners
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the same terms as Perl itself.
*
* mmap_cache
*
* Uses an mmap'ed file to act as a shared memory interprocess cache
*
* The C interface is quite explicit in it's use, in that you have to
* call individual functions to hash a key, lock a page, and find a
* value. This allows a simpler higher level interface to be written
*
* #include <mmap_cache.h>
*
* mmap_cache * cache = mmc_new();
* cache->param = val;
* mmc_init(cache);
*
* // Read a key
*
* // Hash get to find page and slot
* mmc_hash(cache, (void *)key_ptr, (int)key_len, &hash_page, &hash_slot);
* // Lock page
* mmc_lock(cache, hash_page);
* // Get pointer to value data
* mmc_read(cache, hash_slot, (void *)key_ptr, (int)key_len, (void **)&val_ptr, (int *)val_len, &flags);
* // Unlock page
* mmc_unlock(cache);
*
* // Write a key
*
* // Hash get to find page and slot
* mmc_hash(cache, (void *)key_ptr, (int)key_len, &hash_page, &hash_slot);
* // Lock page
* mmc_lock(cache, hash_page);
* // Get pointer to value data
* mmc_write(cache, hash_slot, (void *)key_ptr, (int)key_len, (void *)val_ptr, (int)val_len);
* // Unlock page
* mmc_unlock(cache);
*
* DESCRIPTION
*
* This class implements a shared memory cache through an mmap'ed file. It
* uses locking to ensure multiple processes can safely access the cache
* at the same time. It uses a basic LRU algorithm to keep the most used
* entries in the cache.
*
* It tries to be quite efficient through a number of means:
*
* It uses multiple pages within a file, and uses Fcntl to only lock
* a page at a time to reduce contention when multiple processes access
* the cache.
*
* It uses a dual level hashing system (hash to find page, then hash
* within each page to find a slot) to make most I<read> calls O(1) and
* fast
*
* On each I<write>, if there are slots and page space available, only
* the slot has to be updated and the data written at the end of the used
* data space. If either runs out, a re-organisation of the page is
* performed to create new slots/space which is done in an efficient way
*
* The locking is explicitly done in the C interface, so you can create
* a 'read_many' or 'write_many' function that reduces the number of
* locks required
*
*
* IMPLEMENTATION
*
* Each file is made up of a number of 'pages'. The number of
* pages and size of each page is specified when the class is
* constructed. These values are stored in the cache class
* and must be the same for each class connecting to the cache
* file.
*
* NumPages - Number of 'pages' in the cache
* PageSize - Size of each 'page' in the cache
*
* The layout of each page is:
*
* - Magic (4 bytes) - 0x92f7e3b1 magic page start marker
*
* - NumSlots (4 bytes) - Number of hash slots in this page
*
* - FreeSlots (4 bytes) - Number of free slots left in this page.
* This includes all slots with a last access time of 0
* (empty and don't search past) or 1 (empty, but keep searching
* because deleted slot)
*
* - OldSlots (4 bytes) - Of all the free slots, how many were in use
* and are now deleted. This is slots with a last access time of 1
*
* - FreeData (4 bytes) - Offset to free data area to place next item
*
* - FreeBytes (4 bytes) - Bytes left in free data area
*
* - N Reads (4 bytes) - Number of reads performed on this page
*
* - N Read Hits (4 bytes) - Number of reads on this page that have hit
* something in the cache
*
* - Slots (4 bytes * NumSlots) - Hash slots
*
* - Data (to end of page) - Key/value data
*
* Each slot is made of:
*
* - Offset (4 bytes) - offset from start of page to actual data. This
* is 0 if slot is empty, 1 if was used but now empty. This is needed
* so deletes don't require a complete rehash with the linear
* searching method we use
*
* Each data item is made of:
*
* - LastAccess (4 bytes) - Unix time data was last accessed
*
* - ExpireTime (4 bytes) - Unix time data should expire. This is 0 if it
* should never expire
*
* - HashValue (4 bytes) - Value key was hashed to, so we don't have to
* rehash on a re-organisation of the hash table
*
* - Flags (4 bytes) - Various flags
*
* - KeyLen (4 bytes) - Length of key
*
* - ValueLen (4 bytes) - Length of value
*
* - Key (KeyLen bytes) - Key data
*
* - Value (ValueLen bytes) - Value data
*
* Each set/get/delete operation involves:
*
* - Find the page for the key
* - Lock the page
* - Read the page header
* - Find the hash slot for the key
*
* For get's:
*
* - Use linear probing to find correct key, or empty slot
*
* For set's:
*
* - Use linear probing to find empty slot
* - If not enough free slots, do an 'expunge' run
* - Store key/value at FreeData offset, update, and store in slot
* - If not enough space at FreeData offset, do an 'expunge' run
* then store data
*
* For delete's:
*
* - Use linear probing to find correct key, or empty slot
* - Set slot to empty (data cleaned up in expunge run)
*
* An expunge run consists of:
*
* - Scan slots to find used key/value parts. Remove older items
* - If ratio used/free slots too high, increase slot count
* - Compact key/value data into one memory block
* - Restore and update offsets in slots
*
*/
/* Main cache structure passed as a pointer to each function */
typedef struct mmap_cache mmap_cache;
/* Iterator structure for iterating over items in cache */
typedef struct mmap_cache_it mmap_cache_it;
/* Unsigned 32 bit integer */
typedef unsigned int MU32;
/* Initialisation/closing/error functions */
mmap_cache * mmc_new();
int mmc_init(mmap_cache *);
int mmc_set_param(mmap_cache *, char *, char *);
int mmc_get_param(mmap_cache *, char *);
int mmc_close(mmap_cache *);
char * mmc_error(mmap_cache *);
/* Functions for find/locking a page */
int mmc_hash(mmap_cache *, void *, int, MU32 *, MU32 *);
int mmc_lock(mmap_cache *, MU32);
int mmc_unlock(mmap_cache *);
int mmc_is_locked(mmap_cache *);
/* Functions for getting/setting/deleting values in current page */
int mmc_read(mmap_cache *, MU32, void *, int, void **, int *, MU32 *);
int mmc_write(mmap_cache *, MU32, void *, int, void *, int, MU32, MU32);
int mmc_delete(mmap_cache *, MU32, void *, int, MU32 *);
/* Functions of expunging values in current page */
int mmc_calc_expunge(mmap_cache *, int, int, MU32 *, MU32 ***);
int mmc_do_expunge(mmap_cache *, int, MU32, MU32 **);
/* Functions for iterating over items in a cache */
mmap_cache_it * mmc_iterate_new(mmap_cache *);
MU32 * mmc_iterate_next(mmap_cache_it *);
void mmc_iterate_close(mmap_cache_it *);
/* Retrieve details of a cache page/entry */
void mmc_get_details(mmap_cache *, MU32 *, void **, int *, void **, int *, MU32 *, MU32 *, MU32 *);
void mmc_get_page_details(mmap_cache * cache, MU32 * nreads, MU32 * nreadhits);
void mmc_reset_page_details(mmap_cache * cache);
/* Internal functions */
int _mmc_set_error(mmap_cache *, int, char *, ...);
void _mmc_init_page(mmap_cache *, MU32);
MU32 * _mmc_find_slot(mmap_cache * , MU32 , void *, int, int );
void _mmc_delete_slot(mmap_cache * , MU32 *);
int _mmc_check_expunge(mmap_cache * , int);
int _mmc_test_page(mmap_cache *);
int _mmc_dump_page(mmap_cache *);