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README.md

byte-data

Pack and unpack binary data.
Copyright (c) 2017-2018 Rafael da Silva Rocha.
https://github.com/rochars/byte-data

NPM version Docs Tests
Codecov Unix Build Windows Build Scrutinizer CII Best Practices

byte-data is a ES module to pack and unpack numbers and strings to and from byte buffers.

  • MIT licensed
  • Type safe
  • Compatible with IE6+ and browsers that support ES3/ES5/ES6+
  • Use it out of the box in Node.js
  • Use it out of the box with TypeScript
  • Tested in little-endian and big-endian machines!
  • Can be used where typed arrays can't
  • Less than 6kb minified!

Pack/unpack:

  • Integers, unsigned and signed (two's complement)
  • 16-bit half-precision floating-point numbers
  • 32-bit single-precision floating-point numbers
  • 64-bit double-precision floating-point numbers
  • Little-endian and big-endian words
  • UTF-8 strings (1 to 4 bytes per character, invalid characters are replaced)

Install

npm install byte-data

Browser

Use byte-data.umd.js in the /dist folder of this package:

<script src="./dist/byte-data.umd.js"></script>
<script>
  // Pack a 32-bit floating-point number
  var packed = byteData.pack(2.1474836, {bits: 32, fp: true});
</script>

Or load it from the jsDelivr CDN:

<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/byte-data"></script>

Or load it from unpkg:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/byte-data"></script>

Browser compatibility

The UMD dist (./dist/byte-data.umd.js) is transpiled to ES3 and compatible with IE6+. Should work in all modern browsers that support ES3/ES5/ES6+.

Cross-browser tests powered by

Node

import * as byteData from 'byte-data';

// Pack a signed 16-bit integer to a existing byte buffer
// Start writing on index '4' of the buffer
byteData.packTo(1077, {bits: 16, signed: true}, buffer, 4);

// Pack a usigned 8-bit unsigned integer, returns a
// array with the number represented as bytes
let packed = byteData.pack(128, {bits: 8});

Or import just what you need:

import {pack} from 'byte-data';

// Pack a 8-bit unsigned integer
let packed = pack(128, {bits: 8});

Or require:

const byteData = require('byte-data');

// Pack a 32-bit floating-point number
let packed = byteData.pack(2.1474836, {bits: 32, fp: true});

About

pack and packTo

pack(num, theType) will return a Array with the bytes of the passed value.

let packed = pack(123, {bits: 16});

packTo(num, theType, buffer, index) will write the bytes of the number to the provided buffer (Uint8Array or Array), start writing on index.

let buffer = new Uint8Array(4);
packTo(402, {bits: 16}, buffer, 2);

index can be ommited and will default to zero:

let buffer = new Uint8Array(4);
packTo(402, {bits: 16}, buffer);

Packing null, false, true and undefined

  • Packing undefined or null values throw 'Argument is not a valid number' error
  • true is packed as 1
  • false is packed as 0

Unpacking and input buffer length

unpack(buffer, theType, index=)

When unpacking a single value, a 'Bad buffer length' error is raised if the number of bytes is not sufficient (Ex: unpack a 32-bit number, but provide a input buffer with length smaller than 4) or if there are not enough bytes after the index.

byteData.unpack([0xff], {bits: 16}, 0); // throws a 'Bad buffer length' error
byteData.unpack([0xff, 0xff, 0xff], {bits: 16}, 2); // throws a 'Bad buffer length' error
byteData.unpack([0xff, 0xff, 0xff], {bits: 16}, 1); // ok

unpackArray(buffer, theType, start=, end=, safe=)

When unpacking a array of values, extra bytes in the end of the buffer are ignored and insufficient bytes will return a empty array by default:

byteData.unpackArray([0xff], {bits: 16}, 0, 1); // return a empty array
byteData.unpackArray([0xff, 0xff, 0xff], {bits: 16}, 0, 2); // return a array with one 16-bit unsigned int

You can unpack arrays in safe mode with the optional safe param set to true. In safe mode insufficient bytes in the input array or extra bytes in the end of the input array will cause a 'Bad buffer length' error:

byteData.unpackArray([0xff], {bits: 16}, 0, 1, true); // throws a 'Bad buffer length' error
byteData.unpackArray([0xff, 0xff, 0xff], {bits: 16}, 0, 3, true); // throws a 'Bad buffer length' error

Floating-point numbers

  • Floating-point numbers are IEEE 754 standard.
  • Overflows are rounded towards Infinity and -Infinity.
  • NaN is packed as quiet NaN. Both quiet NaN and signaling NaN can be unpacked.
  • Support packing and unpacking negative zeros.
  • Support packing and unpacking Infinity and negative Infinity

Minifloats

Currently only 16-bit half-precision.

Integers

  • Overflow on integers will throw a "Overflow" error.
  • packing NaN will throw a 'Argument is not a integer' error.
  • packing Infinity or -Infinity will throw a 'Argument is not a integer' error.

Signed integers

Signed integers are two's complement.

Strings

UTF-8 strings with 1 to 4 bytes per character can be packed and unpacked. BOM is kept untouched if present. Invalid characters are replaced with Unicode Character 'REPLACEMENT CHARACTER' (U+FFFD).

Reading strings from buffers

Use unpackString(buffer, index, end). The paramters index and end determine a slice of the buffer to read. End is non-inclusive. So to read the first 4 bytes of a buffer:

let str = unpackString(buffer, 0, 4);
// read from buffer[0], buffer[1], buffer[2], buffer[3]

If index and end are ommited unpackString(buffer) will read the entire buffer:

let str = unpackString(buffer);

Writing strings to buffers

packStringTo(str, buffer, index=0) will write the string to the provided buffer (Uint8Array or Array), starting on the index. Index defaults to zero if ommited (start from the beginning of the buffer).

let buffer = [];
packStringTo(str, buffer);
Packing strings to Uint8Array buffers

If you need to calculate the buffer length before writing you may use the utf8-buffer-size module:

import utf8BufferSize from 'utf8-buffer-size';
let buffer = new Uint8Array(utf8BufferSize(str));
packStringTo(str, buffer);

Types

Types are user-defined objects like this:

const binary32 = {
  bits: 32, // required
  signed: true, // optional, defaults to false
  fp: true, // optional, defaults to false, true for floating-point numbers
  be: false // optional, defaults to false, true for big-endian
}

Tests on big-endian systems

Use QEMU with this PowerPC/Debian image:
https://people.debian.org/~aurel32/qemu/powerpc/

API

// Strings
/**
 * Read a string of UTF-8 characters from a byte buffer.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer A byte buffer.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to start reading.
 * @param {number=} end The buffer index to stop reading, non inclusive.
 *   Assumes buffer length if undefined.
 * @return {string}
 */
function unpackString(buffer, index=0, len=buffer.length) {}

/**
 * Write a string of UTF-8 characters as a byte buffer.
 * @param {string} str The string to pack.
 * @return {!Array<number>} The UTF-8 string bytes.
 */ 
function packString(str) {}

/**
 * Write a string of UTF-8 characters to a byte buffer.
 * @param {string} str The string to pack.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The output buffer.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to start writing.
 *   Assumes zero if undefined.
 * @return {number} The next index to write in the buffer.
 */
function packStringTo(str, buffer, index=0) {}

// Numbers
/**
 * Pack a number as a byte buffer.
 * @param {number} value The number.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @return {!Array<number>} The packed value.
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid.
 * @throws {Error} If the value is not valid.
 */
function pack(value, theType) {}

/**
 * Pack a number to a byte buffer.
 * @param {number} value The value.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The output buffer.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to write. Assumes 0 if undefined.
 * @return {number} The next index to write.
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid.
 * @throws {Error} If the value is not valid.
 */
function packTo(value, theType, buffer, index=0) {}

/**
 * Pack an array of numbers as a byte buffer.
 * @param {!Array<number>|!TypedArray} values The values.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @return {!Array<number>} The packed values.
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid.
 * @throws {Error} If any of the values are not valid.
 */
function packArray(values, theType) {}

/**
 * Pack a array of numbers to a byte buffer.
 * @param {!Array<number>|!TypedArray} values The value.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The output buffer.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to start writing.
 *   Assumes zero if undefined.
 * @return {number} The next index to write.
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid.
 * @throws {Error} If the value is not valid.
 */
function packArrayTo(values, theType, buffer, index=0) {}

/**
 * Unpack a number from a byte buffer.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The byte buffer.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to read. Assumes zero if undefined.
 * @return {number}
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid
 * @throws {Error} On bad buffer length.
 */
function unpack(buffer, theType, index=0) {}

/**
 * Unpack an array of numbers from a byte buffer.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The byte buffer.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @param {number=} start The buffer index to start reading.
 *   Assumes zero if undefined.
 * @param {number=} end The buffer index to stop reading.
 *   Assumes the buffer length if undefined.
 * @param {boolean=} safe If set to false, extra bytes in the end of
 *   the array are ignored and input buffers with insufficient bytes will
 *   output a empty array. If safe is set to true the function
 *   will throw a 'Bad buffer length' error. Defaults to false.
 * @return {!Array<number>}
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid
 */
function unpackArray(
  buffer, theType, start=0, end=buffer.length, safe=false) {}

/**
 * Unpack a array of numbers to a typed array.
 * @param {!Uint8Array|!Array<number>} buffer The byte buffer.
 * @param {!Object} theType The type definition.
 * @param {!TypedArray|!Array<number>} output The output array.
 * @param {number=} index The buffer index to start reading.
 *   Assumes zero if undefined.
 * @param {number=} end The buffer index to stop reading.
 *   Assumes the buffer length if undefined.
 * @param {boolean=} safe If set to false, extra bytes in the end of
 *   the array are ignored and input buffers with insufficient bytes will
 *   write nothing to the output array. If safe is set to true the function
 *   will throw a 'Bad buffer length' error. Defaults to false.
 * @throws {Error} If the type definition is not valid
 */
function unpackArrayTo(
  buffer, theType, output, index=0, end=buffer.length, safe=false) {}

Contributing

byte-data welcomes all contributions from anyone willing to work in good faith with other contributors and the community. No contribution is too small and all contributions are valued.

See CONTRIBUTING.md for details.

Style guide

byte-data code should follow the Google JavaScript Style Guide:
https://google.github.io/styleguide/jsguide.html

Code of conduct

This project is bound by a code of conduct: The Contributor Covenant, version 1.4, also available at https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html

Reporting issues

Use the GitHub issue tracker.

Reporting security issues

Report security issues to this e-mail: rocha.rafaelsilva@gmail.com.

Legal

FOSSA Status

LICENSE

Copyright (c) 2017-2018 Rafael da Silva Rocha.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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