Jeeves is a dependency management library for Ruby.
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README.md

Jeeves

Jeeves is a personal valet for your Ruby code. It is used to manage dependencies between loosely coupled classes via explicit declaraion.

It is not a traditional dependency injection framework, although it can easily fill that role.

Motivation

Writing loosely-coupled code obeying the Single-Responsibility Principle often leads to some headaches wiring dependencies together. There are a number of ways to deal with this in Ruby, each with different trade-offs.

The goal of Jeeves is to:

  • declare dependencies explicity using simple syntax
  • resolve dependencies solely via naming conventions
  • simplify the mocking of dependencies in unit tests

Explicit Declaration

Flexible code design is intimately connected with keeping dependencies under control. In Ruby it is easy for implicit dependencies to get out of hand. Jeeves uses explicit dependency declarations via Python-like import statements:

import :my_dependency

The import declaration creates an instance method which delegates to the external dependency. The dependency may be a static method, a class with a call method or a constant.

With Jeeves, it is easy to program in a more functional style using classes that define a single behavior. For example:

module MyApp
  class InvoiceCustomers
    extend Jeeves

    import :customers, from: Repository
    import :generate_invoice, :email_invoice

    def call
      customers.each do |customer|
        invoice = generate_invoice(customer)
        email_invoice(invoice)
      end
    end

  end
end

Resolution via Naming Convention

Instead of relying on a gnarly XML file to tie dependencies together, Jeeves resolves an imported dependency by looking in a few places until it finds it.

First, it looks for a static method of the same name:

module MyApp
  class Config
    def self.redis
      @redis ||= Redis.new(host: "localhost", port: 6379)
    end
  end

  class DoSomething
    extend Jeeves

    import :redis, from: Config

    def call
      redis.get("mykey")
    end
  end
end

Next, it looks for a class with the same name (CamelCased) and a call method:

module MyApp
  class CalculateSomething
    def call(value)
      value**2 - value + 1.2
    end
  end

  class DoSomething
    extend Jeeves

    import :calculate_something

    def call(value)
      calculate_something(value)
    end
  end
end

Finally, it looks for a constant with the same name (UPCASED):

module MyApp
  class CalculateArea
    extend Jeeves

    import :pi, from: Math

    def call(radius)
      pi * radius**2
    end
  end
end

Simplified Mocking

During isolated unit testing, external constants and direct class references cause annoyance because they must be redeclared.

For example, consider the RSpec unit test:

require 'my_app/widget'

describe MyApp::Widget do
  it "does something with my external class" do
    MyApp::MyExternalClass.stub(foo: "bar")
    subject.do_something.should == "bar"
  end
end

In order for this code to work, you have to either require my_external_class or redefine it like so:

require 'my_app/widget'

module MyApp
  class MyExternalClass
  end
end

describe MyApp::Widget do
  it "does something with my external class" do
    MyApp::MyExternalClass.stub(foo: "bar")
    subject.do_something.should == "bar"
  end
end

Jeeves simplifies this by dynamically delegating all unresolvable dependencies to the Jeeves module when used inside of RSpec or Test::Unit. With Jeeves, the same unit test looks like so:

require 'my_app/widget'

describe MyApp::Widget do
  it "does something with my external class" do
    Jeeves.stub(my_external_class: stub(foo: "bar"))
    subject.do_something.should == "bar"
  end
end

Usage

Extend your class with Jeeves and use the import method to declare external dependencies, like so:

module MyApp
  class Widget
    extend Jeeves

    import :my_dependency

    def do_something
      my_dependency.a_method_on_my_dependency
    end

  end
end

This will resolve the dependency during class definition, by looking for:

  • the method MyApp.my_dependency
  • a class method MyApp::MyDependency.call
  • an instance method MyApp::MyDependency.new.call
  • a constant MyApp::MY_DEPENDENCY
  • otherwise, it raises an Jeeves::UnresolvedDependency error

Multiple dependencies can be imported at once:

import :first_dependency, :second_dependency, :third_dependency

Dependencies can be looked up in a specific scope, rather than the default scope (the scope in which the current class lives):

import :my_dependency, from: MyApp::SomeOtherModule

Dependencies can be aliased, so that the current class refers to the dependency by its alias, rather than its actual external name:

import [:my_dependency, :my_alias]

Dependencies can be declared lazy, so that resolution occurs each time the method is called, rather than once during class definition:

import :my_dependency, lazy: true

If you're feeling reckless, you can monkey-patch Jeeves into your project with Class.send(:include, Jeeves) instead of writing extend Jeeves everywhere.

History

Version 0.2.3

  • Bug fix -- was importing methods into Class, now using singleton classes

Version 0.2.2

  • Default to smart dependency resolution - resolve once on first call
  • Mock undefined dependency scope within RSpec or Test::Unit

Version 0.2.1

  • Import dependencies as class methods (rather than just instance methods)
  • Raise Jeeves::UnresolvedDependency when a dependency is not found
  • Mocked dependencies override real dependencies

Version 0.2.0

  • Import dependency as an alias
  • Import callable classes (rather than just callable instances)
  • Mockable dependencies within RSpec or Test::Unit
  • Lazy dependency resolution

Version 0.1.0

  • Import defaults to current class's scope
  • Import multiple dependencies in one call
  • Raise ArgumentError when a dependency is not found

Version 0.0.1

  • Import a method, callable or constant from a specified scope

License

Copyright (C) 2012 Ronald C. Hopper

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.