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include::license.txt[]
:language: C
The Libevent Reference Manual: Preliminaries
--------------------------------------------
Libevent from 10,000 feet
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Libevent is a library for writing fast portable nonblocking IO. Its
design goals are:
Portability::
A program written using Libevent should work across all the
platforms Libevent supports. Even when there is no really _good_
way to do nonblocking IO, Libevent should support the so-so
ways, so that your program can run in restricted environments.
Speed::
Libevent tries to use the fastest available nonblocking IO
implementations on each platform, and not to introduce much
overhead as it does so.
Scalability::
Libevent is designed to work well even with programs that need to
have tens of thousands of active sockets.
Convenience::
Whenever possible, the most natural way to write a program with
Libevent should be the stable, portable way.
Libevent is divided into the following components:
evutil::
Generic functionality to abstract out the differences between
different platforms' networking implementations.
event and event_base::
This is the heart of Libevent. It provides an abstract API to
the various platform-specific, event-based nonblocking IO backends.
It can let you know when sockets are ready to read or write, do
basic timeout functionality, and detect OS signals.
bufferevent::
These functions provide a more convenient wrapper around
Libevent's event-based core. They let your application request
buffered reads and writes, and rather than informing you when
sockets are ready to do, they let you know when IO has actually
occurred.
The bufferevent interface also has multiple backends, so that
it can take advantage of systems that provide faster ways to do
nonblocking IO, such as the Windows IOCP API.
evbuffer::
This module implements the buffers underlying bufferevents,
and provides functions for efficient and/or convenient access.
evhttp::
A simple HTTP client/server implementation.
evdns::
A simple DNS client/server implementation.
evrpc::
A simple RPC implementation.
The Libraries
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When Libevent is built, by default it installs the following
libraries:
libevent_core::
All core event and buffer functionality. This
library contains all the event_base, evbuffer, bufferevent,
and utility functions.
libevent_extra::
This library defines protocol-specific functionality that
you may or may not want for your application, including HTTP, DNS,
and RPC.
libevent::
This library exists for historical reasons; it contains the
contents of both libevent_core and libevent_extra. You shouldn't
use it; it may go away in a future version of Libevent.
The following libraries are installed only on some platforms:
libevent_pthreads::
This library adds threading and locking implementations based on
the pthreads portable threading library. It is separated from
libevent_core so that you don't need to link against pthreads
to use Libevent unless you are _actually_ using Libevent in a
multithreaded way.
libevent_openssl::
This library provides support for encrypted communications using
bufferevents and the OpenSSL library. It is separated from
libevent_core so that you don't need to link against OpenSSL
to use Libevent unless you are _actually_ using encrypted
connections.
The Headers
~~~~~~~~~~~
All current public Libevent headers are installed under the 'event2'
directory. Headers fall into three broad classes:
API headers::
An API header is one that defines current public interfaces to
Libevent. These headers have no special suffix.
Compatibility headers::
A compatibility header includes definitions for deprecated
functions. You shouldn't include it unless you're porting a
program from an older version of Libevent.
Structure headers::
These headers define structures with relatively volatile layouts.
Some of these are exposed in case you need fast access to
structure component; some are exposed for historical reasons.
Relying on any of the structures in headers directly can break
your program's binary compatibility with other versions of
Libevent, sometimes in hard-to-debug ways. These headers have the
suffix "_struct.h"
(There are also older versions of the Libevent headers without the
'event2' directory. See "If you have to work with an old version of
Libevent" below.)
If you have to work with an old version of Libevent
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Libevent 2.0 has revised its APIs to be generally more rational and
less error-prone. If it's possible, you should write new programs to
use the Libevent 2.0 APIs. But sometimes you might need to work with
the older APIs, either to update an existing application, or to
support an environment where for some reason you can't install
Libevent 2.0 or later.
Older versions of Libevent had fewer headers, and did not install them
under "event2":
[options="header",width="80%",cols="30%,70%"]
|======================================================================
| OLD HEADER... | ...REPLACED BY CURRENT HEADERS
| event.h | event2/event*.h, event2/buffer*.h event2/bufferevent*.h
event2/tag*.h
| evdns.h | event2/dns*.h
| evhttp.h | event2/http*.h
| evrpc.h | event2/rpc*.h
| evutil.h | event2/util*.h
|======================================================================
In Libevent 2.0 and later, the old headers still exist as wrappers for
the new headers.
Some other notes on working with older versions:
- Before 1.4, there was only one library, "libevent", that contained
the functionality currently split into libevent_core and
libevent_extra.
- Before 2.0, there was no support for locking; Libevent could be
thread-safe, but only if you made sure to never use the same
structure from two threads at the same time.
Individual sections below will discuss the obsolete APIs that you
might encounter for specific areas of the codebase.
Notes on version status
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Versions of Libevent before 1.4.7 or so should be considered totally
obsolete. Versions of Libevent before 1.3e or so should be considered
hopelessly bug-ridden.
(Also, please don't send the Libevent maintainers any new features for
1.4.x or earlier---it's supposed to stay as a stable release. And
if you encounter a bug in 1.3x or earlier, please make sure that it
still exists in the latest stable version before you report it:
subsequent releases have happened for a reason.)