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:language: C
Working with events
Libevent's basic unit of operation is the 'event'. Every event
represents a set of conditions, including:
- A file descriptor being ready to read from or write to.
- A file descriptor _becoming_ ready to read from or write to
(Edge-triggered IO only).
- A timeout expiring.
- A signal occurring.
- A user-triggered event.
Events have similar lifecycles. Once you call a Libevent function to
set up an event and associate it with an event base, it becomes
*initialized*. At this point, you can 'add', which makes it
*pending* in the base. When the event is pending, if the conditions
that would trigger an event occur (e.g., its file descriptor changes
state or its timeout expires), the event becomes *active*, and its
(user-provided) callback function is run. If the event is configured
*persistent*, it remains pending. If it is not persistent, it stops
being pending when its callback runs. You can make a pending event
non-pending by 'deleting' it, and you can 'add' a non-pending event to
make it pending again.
Constructing event objects
To create a new event, use the event_new() interface.
#define EV_TIMEOUT 0x01
#define EV_READ 0x02
#define EV_WRITE 0x04
#define EV_SIGNAL 0x08
#define EV_PERSIST 0x10
#define EV_ET 0x20
typedef void (*event_callback_fn)(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
struct event *event_new(struct event_base *base, evutil_socket_t fd,
short what, event_callback_fn cb,
void *arg);
void event_free(struct event *event);
The event_new() function tries to allocate and construct a new event
for use with 'base'. The 'what' argument is a set of the flags listed
above. (Their semantics are described below.) If 'fd' is
nonnegative, it is the file that we'll observe for read or write
events. When the event is active, Libevent will invoke the provided
'cb' function, passing it as arguments: the file descriptor 'fd', a
bitfield of _all_ the events that triggered, and the value that was passed
in for 'arg' when the function was constructed.
On an internal error, or invalid arguments, event_new() will return NULL.
All new events are initialized and non-pending. To make an event
pending, call event_add() (documented below).
To deallocate an event, call event_free(). It is safe to call
event_free() on an event that is pending or active: doing so makes the
event non-pending and inactive before deallocating it.
#include <event2/event.h>
void cb_func(evutil_socket_t fd, short what, void *arg)
const char *data = arg;
printf("Got an event on socket %d:%s%s%s%s [%s]",
(int) fd,
(what&EV_TIMEOUT) ? " timeout" : "",
(what&EV_READ) ? " read" : "",
(what&EV_WRITE) ? " write" : "",
(what&EV_SIGNAL) ? " signal" : "",
void main_loop(evutil_socket_t fd1, evutil_socket_t fd2)
struct event *ev1, *ev2;
struct timeval five_seconds = {5,0};
struct event_base *base = event_base_new();
/* The caller has already set up fd1, fd2 somehow, and make them
nonblocking. */
ev1 = event_new(base, fd1, EV_TIMEOUT|EV_READ|EV_PERSIST, cb_func,
(char*)"Reading event");
ev2 = event_new(base, fd2, EV_WRITE|EV_PERSIST, cb_func,
(char*)"Writing event");
event_add(ev1, &five_seconds);
event_add(ev2, NULL);
The above functions are defined in <event2/event.h>, and first
appeared in Libevent 2.0.1-alpha. The event_callback_fn type
first appeared as a typedef in Libevent 2.0.4-alpha.
The event flags
This flag indicates an event that becomes active after a timeout
The EV_TIMEOUT flag is ignored when constructing an event: you
can either set a timeout when you add the event, or not. It is
set in the 'what' argument to the callback function when a timeout
has occurred.
This flag indicates an event that becomes active when the provided
file descriptor is ready for reading.
This flag indicates an event that becomes active when the provided
file descriptor is ready for writing.
Used to implement signal detection. See "Constructing signal events"
Indicates that the event is 'persistent'. See "About Event
Persistence" below.
Indicates that the event should be edge-triggered, if the
underlying event_base backend supports edge-triggered events.
This affects the semantics of EV_READ and EV_WRITE.
Since Libevent 2.0.1-alpha, any number of events may be pending for
the same conditions at the same time. For example, you may have two
events that will become active if a given fd becomes ready to read.
The order in which their callbacks are run is undefined.
These flags are defined in <event2/event.h>. All have existed since
before Libevent 1.0, except for EV_ET, which was introduced in
Libevent 2.0.1-alpha.
About Event Persistence
By default, whenever a pending event becomes active (because its fd is
ready to read or write, or because its timeout expires), it becomes
non-pending right before its
callback is executed. Thus, if you want to make the event pending
again, you can call event_add() on it again from inside
the callback function.
If the EV_PERSIST flag is set on an event, however, the event is
'persistent.' This means that event remains pending even when its
callback is activated. If you want to make it non-pending from within its
callback, you can call event_del() on it.
The timeout on a persistent event resets whenever the event's callback
runs. Thus, if you have an event with flags EV_READ|EV_PERSIST and a
timeout of five seconds, the event will become active:
- Whenever the socket is ready for reading.
- Whenever five seconds have passed since the event last became
Creating an event as its own callback argument
Frequently, you might want to create an event that receives itself as a
callback argument. You can't just pass a pointer to the event as an argument
to event_new(), though, because it does not exist yet. To solve this problem,
you can use event_self_cbarg().
void *event_self_cbarg();
The event_self_cbarg() function returns a "magic" pointer which, when passed
as an event callback argument, tells event_new() to create an event receiving
itself as its callback argument.
#include <event2/event.h>
static int n_calls = 0;
void cb_func(evutil_socket_t fd, short what, void *arg)
struct event *me = arg;
printf("cb_func called %d times so far.\n", ++n_calls);
if (n_calls > 100)
void run(struct event_base *base)
struct timeval one_sec = { 1, 0 };
struct event *ev;
/* We're going to set up a repeating timer to get called called 100
times. */
ev = event_new(base, -1, EV_PERSIST, cb_func, event_self_cbarg());
event_add(ev, &one_sec);
This function can also be used with event_new(), evtimer_new(),
evsignal_new(), event_assign(), evtimer_assign(), and evsignal_assign(). It
won't work as a callback argument for non-events, however.
The event_self_cbarg() function was introduced in Libevent 2.1.1-alpha.
Timeout-only events
As a convenience, there are a set of macros beginning with evtimer_ that
you can use in place of the event_* calls to allocate and manipulate
pure-timeout events. Using these macros provides no benefit beyond
improving the clarity of your code.
#define evtimer_new(base, callback, arg) \
event_new((base), -1, 0, (callback), (arg))
#define evtimer_add(ev, tv) \
#define evtimer_del(ev) \
#define evtimer_pending(ev, what, tv_out) \
event_pending((ev), (what), (tv_out))
These macros have been present since Libevent 0.6, except for evtimer_new(),
which first appeared in Libevent 2.0.1-alpha.
Constructing signal events
Libevent can also watch for POSIX-style signals. To construct a
handler for a signal, use:
#define evsignal_new(base, signum, callback, arg) \
event_new(base, signum, EV_SIGNAL|EV_PERSIST, cb, arg)
The arguments are as for event_new, except that we provide a signal
number instead of a file descriptor.
struct event *hup_event;
struct event_base *base = event_base_new();
/* call sighup_function on a HUP signal */
hup_event = evsignal_new(base, SIGHUP, sighup_function, NULL);
Note that signal callbacks are run in the event loop after the signal
occurs, so it is safe for them to call functions that you are not
supposed to call from a regular POSIX signal handler.
WARNING: Don't set a timeout on a signal event. It might not be
supported. [FIXME: is this true?]
There are also a set of convenience macros you can use when working
with signal events.
#define evsignal_add(ev, tv) \
#define evsignal_del(ev) \
#define evsignal_pending(ev, what, tv_out) \
event_pending((ev), (what), (tv_out))
The evsignal_* macros have been present since Libevent 2.0.1-alpha.
Prior versions called them signal_add(), signal_del(), and so on.
Caveats when working with signals
With current versions of Libevent, with most backends, only one event_base
per process at a time can be listening for signals. If you add signal events
to two event_bases at once ---even if the signals are different!--- only one
event_base will receive signals.
The kqueue backend does not have this limitation.
Setting up events without heap-allocation
For performance and other reasons, some people like to allocate events
as a part of a larger structure. For each use of the event, this
saves them:
- The memory allocator overhead for allocating a small object on
the heap.
- The time overhead for dereferencing the pointer to the
struct event.
- The time overhead from a possible additional cache miss if the
event is not already in the cache.
Using this method risks breaking binary compatibility with other
versions of of Libevent, which may have different sizes for the event
These are _very_ small costs, and do not matter for most applications.
You should just stick to using event_new() unless you *know* that
you're incurring a significant performance penalty for heap-allocating
your events. Using event_assign() can cause hard-to-diagnose errors
with future versions of Libevent if they use a larger event structure
than the one you're building with.
int event_assign(struct event *event, struct event_base *base,
evutil_socket_t fd, short what,
void (*callback)(evutil_socket_t, short, void *), void *arg);
All the arguments of event_assign() are as for event_new(), except for
the 'event' argument, which must point to an uninitialized event. It returns
0 on success, and -1 on an internal error or bad arguments.
#include <event2/event.h>
/* Watch out! Including event_struct.h means that your code will not
* be binary-compatible with future versions of Libevent. */
#include <event2/event_struct.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
struct event_pair {
evutil_socket_t fd;
struct event read_event;
struct event write_event;
void readcb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
void writecb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
struct event_pair *event_pair_new(struct event_base *base, evutil_socket_t fd)
struct event_pair *p = malloc(sizeof(struct event_pair));
if (!p) return NULL;
p->fd = fd;
event_assign(&p->read_event, base, fd, EV_READ|EV_PERSIST, readcb, p);
event_assign(&p->write_event, base, fd, EV_WRITE|EV_PERSIST, writecb, p);
return p;
You can also use event_assign() to initialize stack-allocated or
statically allocated events.
Never call event_assign() on an event that is already pending in an
event base. Doing so can lead to extremely hard-to-diagnose
errors. If the event is already initialized and pending, call
event_del() on it *before* you call event_assign() on it again.
There are convenience macros you can use to event_assign() a timeout-only or
a signal event:
#define evtimer_assign(event, base, callback, arg) \
event_assign(event, base, -1, 0, callback, arg)
#define evsignal_assign(event, base, signum, callback, arg) \
event_assign(event, base, signum, EV_SIGNAL|EV_PERSIST, callback, arg)
If you need to use event_assign() *and* retain binary compatibility with
future versions of Libevent, you can ask the Libevent library to tell
you at runtime how large a 'struct event' should be:
size_t event_get_struct_event_size(void);
This function returns the number of bytes you need to set aside for
a struct event. As before, you should only be using this function if
you know that heap-allocation is actually a significant problem in your
program, since it can make your code much harder to read and write.
Note that event_get_struct_event_size() may in the future give you a value
_smaller_ than 'sizeof(struct event)'. If this happens, it means that
any extra bytes at the end of 'struct event' are only padding bytes reserved
for use by a future version of Libevent.
Here's the same example as above, but instead of relying on the size
of 'struct event' from event_struct.h, we use event_get_struct_size()
to use the correct size at runtime.
#include <event2/event.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
/* When we allocate an event_pair in memory, we'll actually allocate
* more space at the end of the structure. We define some macros
* to make accessing those events less error-prone. */
struct event_pair {
evutil_socket_t fd;
/* Macro: yield the struct event 'offset' bytes from the start of 'p' */
#define EVENT_AT_OFFSET(p, offset) \
((struct event*) ( ((char*)(p)) + (offset) ))
/* Macro: yield the read event of an event_pair */
#define READEV_PTR(pair) \
EVENT_AT_OFFSET((pair), sizeof(struct event_pair))
/* Macro: yield the write event of an event_pair */
#define WRITEEV_PTR(pair) \
sizeof(struct event_pair)+event_get_struct_event_size())
/* Macro: yield the actual size to allocate for an event_pair */
#define EVENT_PAIR_SIZE() \
(sizeof(struct event_pair)+2*event_get_struct_event_size())
void readcb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
void writecb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
struct event_pair *event_pair_new(struct event_base *base, evutil_socket_t fd)
struct event_pair *p = malloc(EVENT_PAIR_SIZE());
if (!p) return NULL;
p->fd = fd;
event_assign(READEV_PTR(p), base, fd, EV_READ|EV_PERSIST, readcb, p);
event_assign(WRITEEV_PTR(p), base, fd, EV_WRITE|EV_PERSIST, writecb, p);
return p;
The event_assign() function defined in <event2/event.h>. It has existed
since Libevent 2.0.1-alpha. It has returned an int since 2.0.3-alpha;
previously, it returned void. The event_get_struct_event_size()
function was introduced in Libevent 2.0.4-alpha. The event structure
itself is defined in <event2/event_struct.h>.
Making events pending and non-pending
Once you have constructed an event, it won't actually do anything
until you have made it 'pending' by adding it. You do this with
int event_add(struct event *ev, const struct timeval *tv);
Calling event_add on a non-pending event makes it pending in its
configured base. The function returns 0 on success, and -1 on
failure. If 'tv' is NULL, the event is added with no timeout.
Otherwise, 'tv' is the size of the timeout in seconds and
If you call event_add() on an event that is _already_ pending, it will
leave it pending, and reschedule it with the provided timeout.
NOTE: Do not set 'tv' to the time at which you want the timeout to
run. If you say "tv->tv_sec = time(NULL)+10;" on 1 January 2010, your
timeout will wait 40 years, not 10 seconds.
int event_del(struct event *ev);
Calling event_del on an initialized event makes it non-pending and
non-active. If the event was not pending or active, there is no
effect. The return value is 0 on success, -1 on failure.
NOTE: If you delete an event after it becomes active but before
its callback has a chance to execute, the callback will not be
These functions are defined in <event2/event.h>; they have existed
since Libevent 0.1.
Events with priorities
When multiple events trigger at the same time, Libevent does not
define any order with respect to when their callbacks will be
executed. You can define some events as more important than others by
using priorities.
As discussed in an earlier section, each event_base has one or more
priority values associated with it. Before adding an event to the
event_base, but after initializing it, you can set its priority.
int event_priority_set(struct event *event, int priority);
The priority of the event is a number between 0 and the number of
priorities in an event_base, minus 1. The function returns 0 on
success, and -1 on failure.
When multiple events of multiple priorities become active, the
low-priority events are not run. Instead, Libevent runs the high
priority events, then checks for events again. Only when no
high-priority events are active are the low-priority events run.
#include <event2/event.h>
void read_cb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
void write_cb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
void main_loop(evutil_socket_t fd)
struct event *important, *unimportant;
struct event_base *base;
base = event_base_new();
event_base_priority_init(base, 2);
/* Now base has priority 0, and priority 1 */
important = event_new(base, fd, EV_WRITE|EV_PERSIST, write_cb, NULL);
unimportant = event_new(base, fd, EV_READ|EV_PERSIST, read_cb, NULL);
event_priority_set(important, 0);
event_priority_set(unimportant, 1);
/* Now, whenever the fd is ready for writing, the write callback will
happen before the read callback. The read callback won't happen at
all until the write callback is no longer active. */
When you do not set the priority for an event, the default is the
number of queues in the event base, divided by 2.
This function is declared in <event2/event.h>. It has existed since
Libevent 1.0.
Inspecting event status
Sometimes you want to tell whether an event has been added, and check
what it refers to.
int event_pending(const struct event *ev, short what, struct timeval *tv_out);
#define event_get_signal(ev) /* ... */
evutil_socket_t event_get_fd(const struct event *ev);
struct event_base *event_get_base(const struct event *ev);
short event_get_events(const struct event *ev);
event_callback_fn event_get_callback(const struct event *ev);
void *event_get_callback_arg(const struct event *ev);
void event_get_assignment(const struct event *event,
struct event_base **base_out,
evutil_socket_t *fd_out,
short *events_out,
event_callback_fn *callback_out,
void **arg_out);
The event_pending function determines whether the given event is
pending or active. If it is, and any of the flags EV_READ, EV_WRITE,
EV_SIGNAL, and EV_TIMEOUT are set in the 'what' argument, the function
returns all of the flags that the event is currently pending or active
on. If 'tv_out' is provided, and EV_TIMEOUT is set in 'what', and the
event is currently pending or active on a timeout, then 'tv_out' is
set to hold the time when the event's timeout will expire.
The event_get_fd() and event_get_signal() functions return the
configured file descriptor or signal number for an event. The
event_get_base() function returns its configured event_base. The
event_get_events() function returns the event flags (EV_READ, EV_WRITE,
etc) of the event. The event_get_callback() and
event_get_callback_arg() functions return the callback function and
argument pointer.
The event_get_assignment() function copies all of the assigned fields of
the event into the provided pointers. If any of the pointers is NULL,
it is ignored.
#include <event2/event.h>
#include <stdio.h>
/* Change the callback and callback_arg of 'ev', which must not be
* pending. */
int replace_callback(struct event *ev, event_callback_fn new_callback,
void *new_callback_arg)
struct event_base *base;
evutil_socket_t fd;
short events;
int pending;
pending = event_pending(ev, EV_READ|EV_WRITE|EV_SIGNAL|EV_TIMEOUT,
if (pending) {
/* We want to catch this here so that we do not re-assign a
* pending event. That would be very very bad. */
"Error! replace_callback called on a pending event!\n");
return -1;
event_get_assignment(ev, &base, &fd, &events,
NULL /* ignore old callback */ ,
NULL /* ignore old callback argument */);
event_assign(ev, base, fd, events, new_callback, new_callback_arg);
return 0;
These functions are declared in <event2/event.h>. The event_pending()
function has existed since Libevent 0.1. Libevent 2.0.1-alpha
introduced event_get_fd() and event_get_signal(). Libevent 2.0.2-alpha
introduced event_get_base(). The others were new in Libevent
Finding the currently running event
For debugging or other purposes, you can get a pointer to the currently
running event.
struct event *event_base_get_running_event(struct event_base *base);
Note that this function's behavior is only defined when it's called from
within the provided event_base's loop. Calling it from another thread is not
supported, and can cause undefined behavior.
This function is declared in <event2/event.h>. It was introduced in Libevent
Configuring one-off events
If you don't need to add an event more than once, or delete it once it
has been added, and it doesn't have to be persistent, you can use
int event_base_once(struct event_base *, evutil_socket_t, short,
void (*)(evutil_socket_t, short, void *), void *, const struct timeval *);
This function's interface is the same as event_new(), except that it
does not support EV_SIGNAL or EV_PERSIST. The scheduled event is
inserted and run with the default priority. When the callback is
finally done, Libevent frees the internal event structure itself.
The return value is 0 on success, -1 on failure.
Events inserted with event_base_once cannot be deleted or manually
activated: if you want to be able to cancel an event, create it with the
regular event_new() or event_assign() interfaces.
Manually activating an event
Rarely, you may want to make an event active even though its
conditions have not triggered.
void event_active(struct event *ev, int what, short ncalls);
This function makes an event 'ev' become active with the flags 'what'
(a combination of EV_READ, EV_WRITE, and EV_TIMEOUT). The event does
not need to have previously been pending, and activating it does not
make it pending.
This function is defined in <event2/event.h>. It has existed
since Libevent 0.3.
Optimizing common timeouts
Current versions of Libevent use a binary heap algorithm to keep track
of pending events' timeouts. A binary heap gives performance of order
O(lg n) for adding and deleting each event timeout. This is optimal if
you're adding events with a randomly distributed set of timeout values,
but not if you have a large number of events with the same timeout.
For example, suppose you have ten thousand events, each of which should
trigger its timeout five seconds after it was added. In a situation
like this, you could get O(1) performance for each timeout by using a
doubly-linked queue implementation.
Naturally, you wouldn't want to use a queue for all of your timeout
values, since a queue is only faster for constant timeout values. If
some of the timeouts are more-or-less randomly distributed, then adding
one of those timeouts to a queue would take O(n) time, which would be
significantly worse than a binary heap.
Libevent lets you solve this by placing some of your timeouts in queues,
and others in the binary heap. To do this, you ask Libevent for a
special "common timeout" timeval, which you then use to add events
having that timeval. If you have a very large number of events with
a single common timeout, using this optimization should improve
timeout performance.
const struct timeval *event_base_init_common_timeout(
struct event_base *base, const struct timeval *duration);
This function takes as its arguments an event_base, and the duration
of the common timeout to initialize. It returns a pointer to a special
struct timeval that you can use to indicate that an event should be
added to an O(1) queue rather than the O(lg n) heap. This special
timeval can be copied or assigned freely in your code. It will only
work with the specific base you used to construct it. Do not rely on
its actual contents: Libevent uses them to tell itself which queue to
#include <event2/event.h>
#include <string.h>
/* We're going to create a very large number of events on a given base,
* nearly all of which have a ten-second timeout. If initialize_timeout
* is called, we'll tell Libevent to add the ten-second ones to an O(1)
* queue. */
struct timeval ten_seconds = { 10, 0 };
void initialize_timeout(struct event_base *base)
struct timeval tv_in = { 10, 0 };
const struct timeval *tv_out;
tv_out = event_base_init_common_timeout(base, &tv_in);
memcpy(&ten_seconds, tv_out, sizeof(struct timeval));
int my_event_add(struct event *ev, const struct timeval *tv)
/* Note that ev must have the same event_base that we passed to
initialize_timeout */
if (tv && tv->tv_sec == 10 && tv->tv_usec == 0)
return event_add(ev, &ten_seconds);
return event_add(ev, tv);
As with all optimization functions, you should avoid using the
common_timeout functionality unless you're pretty sure that it matters
for you.
This functionality was introduced in Libevent 2.0.4-alpha.
Telling a good event apart from cleared memory
Libevent provides functions that you can use to distinguish an
initialized event from memory that has been cleared by setting it to 0
(for example, by allocating it with calloc() or clearing it with
memset() or bzero()).
int event_initialized(const struct event *ev);
#define evsignal_initialized(ev) event_initialized(ev)
#define evtimer_initialized(ev) event_initialized(ev)
These functions can't reliably distinguish between an initialized event
and a hunk of uninitialized memory. You should not use them
unless you know that the memory in question is either cleared or
initialized as an event.
Generally, you shouldn't need to use these functions unless you've got a
pretty specific application in mind. Events returned by event_new() are
always initialized.
#include <event2/event.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
struct reader {
evutil_socket_t fd;
(sizeof(struct reader) + \
#define READER_EVENT_PTR(r) \
((struct event *) (((char*)(r))+sizeof(struct reader)))
struct reader *allocate_reader(evutil_socket_t fd)
struct reader *r = calloc(1, READER_ACTUAL_SIZE());
if (r)
r->fd = fd;
return r;
void readcb(evutil_socket_t, short, void *);
int add_reader(struct reader *r, struct event_base *b)
struct event *ev = READER_EVENT_PTR(r);
if (!event_initialized(ev))
event_assign(ev, b, r->fd, EV_READ, readcb, r);
return event_add(ev, NULL);
The event_initialized() function has been present since Libevent 0.3.
Obsolete event manipulation functions
Pre-2.0 versions of Libevent did not have event_assign() or
event_new(). Instead, you had event_set(), which associated the event
with the "current" base. If you had more than one base, you needed to
remember to call event_base_set() afterwards to make sure that the
event was associated with the base you actually wanted to use.
void event_set(struct event *event, evutil_socket_t fd, short what,
void(*callback)(evutil_socket_t, short, void *), void *arg);
int event_base_set(struct event_base *base, struct event *event);
The event_set() function was like event_assign(), except for its use
of the current base. The event_base_set() function changes the base
associated with an event.
There were variants of event_set() for dealing more conveniently with
timers and signals: evtimer_set() corresponded roughly to evtimer_assign(),
and evsignal_set() corresponded roughly to evsignal_assign().
Versions of Libevent before 2.0 used "signal_" as the prefix for the
signal-based variants of event_set() and so on, rather than "evsignal_".
(That is, they had signal_set(), signal_add(), signal_del(),
signal_pending(), and signal_initialized().) Truly ancient versions of
Libevent (before 0.6) used "timeout_" instead of "evtimer_". Thus, if you're
doing code archeology, you might see timeout_add(), timeout_del(),
timeout_initialized(), timeout_set(), timeout_pending(), and so on.
In place of the event_get_fd() and event_get_signal() functions, older
versions of Libevent (before 2.0) used two macros called EVENT_FD() and
EVENT_SIGNAL(). These macros inspected the event structure's contents
directly and so prevented binary compatibility between versions; in 2.0 and
later they are just aliases for event_get_fd() and event_get_signal().
Since versions of Libevent before 2.0 did not have
locking support, it wasn't safe to call any of the functions that
change an event's state with respect to a base from outside the thread
running the base. These include event_add(), event_del(),
event_active(), and event_base_once().
There was also an event_once() function that played the role of
event_base_once(), but used the current base.
The EV_PERSIST flag did not interoperate sensibly with timeouts before
Libevent 2.0. Instead resetting the timeout whenever the event was
activated, the EV_PERSIST flag did nothing with the timeout.
Libevent versions before 2.0 did not support having multiple events
inserted at the same time with the same fd and the same READ/WRITE.
In other words, only one event at a time could be waiting for read on
each fd, and only one event at a time could be waiting for write on
each fd.