Clash Royale protocol definitions
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README.md
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README.md

Protocol Definition Files

Clash messages are passed between client and server in PDUs containing an integer message identifier and a binary payload. The files in this package are used to map the identifier to a message structure definition so that the binary payload can be parsed.

Each message structure is defined in an individual JSON file. The name of the file is not significant, but generally it corresponds to the type name of the message.

Type System

Each file defines a type. Types are referred to by their name attribute or, for top level messages, by their id attribute (the identifier passed in the PDU).

Using just the name and id attributes we can define simple structures such as the KeepAlive message:

{
  "id": 10108,
  "name": "KeepAlive"
}

To read more complex messages we need to define the field list that makes up the payload. For example, the EndClientTurn message comprises three fields; tick (the time that the command was issued), checksum (the game state checksum), and commands, an array of CommandComponent structures:

{
  "id": 14102,
  "name": "EndClientTurn",
  "fields": [
    {"name": "tick", "type": "INT"},
    {"name": "checksum", "type": "INT"},
    {"name": "commands", "type": "CommandComponent[]"}
  ]
}

Each field has a name attribute that is used to refer to it and a type attribute that defines its serialized structure. The type can refer to another structure or a built in primitive, or an array of structures or primitives.

Primitives

Five primitive types are defined.

  • BOOLEAN: A single bit, read in little endian order. All other primitives are read from byte boundaries.

  • BYTE: One byte.

  • INT: Four bytes, big-endian

  • INT32: Variable length integer

  • SINT32: Signed variable length integer

  • RRSINT32: Obfuscated signed variable length integer. The encoding takes the first byte of the varint, rotates the 7 bits after MSB to the right by 1. The LSB is wrapped around and get put in the 7th bit. MSB value is preserved.

  • RRSLONG: Two RRSINT32 representing high/low.

  • SCID: Clash Royale uses ID like 60000000 for achievements. In packets, they often appear as two RRSINT32 (in this case, 0x3C00). You will find this in Regions, Cards and Arenas, etc. (Usually defined in a csv file -- row 0 is 60000000, and so on.)

  • LONG: Eight bytes, big-endian

  • STRING: An integer length, then a UTF-8 encoded string.

  • ZIP_STRING: An integer length, then a little-endian integer unzipped length, then a zlib compressed UTF-8 encoded string.

Arrays

Arrays types are defined by appending square brackets to a type name, e.g. "INT[5]" defines an array of five ints. If the size specifier is omitted the size of the array will be read/written as an integer before the array contents. E.g. a field of type "CommandComponent[]" would be written as an INT (the array size), followed by the contents of the array, a list of command components.

Optionals

There is one other specialized structure, the optional field. Optionals are defined by prefixing a type name with "?", e.g. "?LONG". They are serialized as a BOOLEAN (indicating the presence of the value), followed by the value if it is present.

Extensions

Some structures have additional trailing fields that are conditionally included. Extension fields are read when their id attribute matches the id field of the structure that they extend (note: the field with the name "id" is matched against, not the id attribute of the structure). For example, the CommandComponent has extensions that are conditional on the command id:

{
  "name": "CommandComponent",
  "fields": [
    {"name": "id", "type": "INT"}
  ],
  "extensions": [
    {
      "id": 4,
      "comment": "Donate unit in response to troop request",
      "fields": [
        {"type": "INT"},
        {"name": "messageId", "type": "INT"},
        {"name": "unitId", "type": "INT"},
        {"type": "INT"},
        {"name": "tick", "type": "INT"}
      ]
    },
    {
      "id": 10,
      "comment": "Donate unit to clan war castle",
      "fields": [
        {"type": "INT"},
        {"name": "homeId", "type": "INT"},
        {"name": "unitId", "type": "INT"},
        {"name": "index", "type": "INT"},
        {"name": "tick", "type": "INT"}
      ]
    },

Default Values

Fields with primitive values may have a default attribute to indicate the value that should be used if the field is not set.

Comments

Messages and Fields may have a comment attribute to document their use.