When you run
rails generate rspec:install, the
includes the following configuration:
RSpec.configure do |config| config.use_transactional_fixtures = true end
The name of this setting is a bit misleading. What it really means in Rails is "run every test method within a transaction." In the context of rspec-rails, it means "run every example within a transaction."
The idea is to start each example with a clean database, create whatever data is necessary for that example, and then remove that data by simply rolling back the transaction at the end of the example.
If you prefer to manage the data yourself, or using another tool like database_cleaner to do it for you, simply tell RSpec to tell Rails not to manage transactions:
RSpec.configure do |config| config.use_transactional_fixtures = false end
Data created in
before(:each) are rolled back
Any data you create in a
before(:each) hook will be rolled back at the end of
the example. This is a good thing because it means that each example is
isolated from state that would otherwise be left around by the examples that
already ran. For example:
describe Widget do before(:each) do @widget = Widget.create end it "does something" do expect(@widget).to do_something end it "does something else" do expect(@widget).to do_something_else end end
@widget is recreated in each of the two examples above, so each example
has a different object, and the underlying data is rolled back so the data
@widget in each example is new.
Data created in
before(:all) are not rolled back
before(:all) hooks are invoked before the transaction is opened. You can use
this to speed things up by creating data once before any example in a group is
run, however, this introduces a number of complications and you should only do
this if you have a firm grasp of the implications. Here are a couple of
Be sure to clean up any data in an
before(:all) do @widget = Widget.create! end after(:all) do @widget.destroy end
If you don't do that, you'll leave data lying around that will eventually interfere with other examples.
Reload the object in a
before(:all) do @widget = Widget.create! end before(:each) do @widget.reload end
Even though database updates in each example will be rolled back, the object won't know about those rollbacks so the object and its backing data can easily get out of sync.