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require 'benchmark'
require 'benchmark/ips'
# Algorithm based on "Introduction to Algorithms" by Cormen and others
class RedBlackTree
class Node
attr_accessor :color
attr_accessor :key
attr_accessor :left
attr_accessor :right
attr_accessor :parent
RED = :red
BLACK = :black
COLORS = [RED, BLACK].freeze
def initialize(key, color = RED)
raise ArgumentError, "Bad value for color parameter" unless COLORS.include?(color)
@color = color
@key = key
@left = @right = @parent = NilNode.instance
end
def black?
color == BLACK
end
def red?
color == RED
end
end
class NilNode < Node
class << self
private :new
@instance = nil
# it's not thread safe
def instance
if @instance.nil?
@instance = new
def instance
@instance
end
end
@instance
end
end
def initialize
self.color = BLACK
self.key = 0
self.left = nil
self.right = nil
self.parent = nil
end
def nil?
true
end
end
include Enumerable
attr_accessor :root
attr_accessor :size
def initialize
self.root = NilNode.instance
self.size = 0
end
def add(key)
insert(Node.new(key))
end
def insert(x)
insert_helper(x)
x.color = Node::RED
while x != root && x.parent.color == Node::RED
if x.parent == x.parent.parent.left
y = x.parent.parent.right
if !y.nil? && y.color == Node::RED
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
y.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.parent.color = Node::RED
x = x.parent.parent
else
if x == x.parent.right
x = x.parent
left_rotate(x)
end
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.parent.color = Node::RED
right_rotate(x.parent.parent)
end
else
y = x.parent.parent.left
if !y.nil? && y.color == Node::RED
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
y.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.parent.color = Node::RED
x = x.parent.parent
else
if x == x.parent.left
x = x.parent
right_rotate(x)
end
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.parent.color = Node::RED
left_rotate(x.parent.parent)
end
end
end
root.color = Node::BLACK
end
alias << insert
def delete(z)
y = (z.left.nil? || z.right.nil?) ? z : successor(z)
x = y.left.nil? ? y.right : y.left
x.parent = y.parent
if y.parent.nil?
self.root = x
else
if y == y.parent.left
y.parent.left = x
else
y.parent.right = x
end
end
z.key = y.key if y != z
if y.color == Node::BLACK
delete_fixup(x)
end
self.size -= 1
y
end
def minimum(x = root)
while !x.left.nil?
x = x.left
end
x
end
def maximum(x = root)
while !x.right.nil?
x = x.right
end
x
end
def successor(x)
if !x.right.nil?
return minimum(x.right)
end
y = x.parent
while !y.nil? && x == y.right
x = y
y = y.parent
end
y
end
def predecessor(x)
if !x.left.nil?
return maximum(x.left)
end
y = x.parent
while !y.nil? && x == y.left
x = y
y = y.parent
end
y
end
def inorder_walk(x = root)
x = self.minimum
while !x.nil?
yield x.key
x = successor(x)
end
end
alias each inorder_walk
def reverse_inorder_walk(x = root)
x = self.maximum
while !x.nil?
yield x.key
x = predecessor(x)
end
end
alias reverse_each reverse_inorder_walk
def search(key, x = root)
while !x.nil? && x.key != key
key < x.key ? x = x.left : x = x.right
end
x
end
def empty?
self.root.nil?
end
def black_height(x = root)
height = 0
while !x.nil?
x = x.left
height +=1 if x.nil? || x.black?
end
height
end
private
def left_rotate(x)
raise "x.right is nil!" if x.right.nil?
y = x.right
x.right = y.left
y.left.parent = x if !y.left.nil?
y.parent = x.parent
if x.parent.nil?
self.root = y
else
if x == x.parent.left
x.parent.left = y
else
x.parent.right = y
end
end
y.left = x
x.parent = y
end
def right_rotate(x)
raise "x.left is nil!" if x.left.nil?
y = x.left
x.left = y.right
y.right.parent = x if !y.right.nil?
y.parent = x.parent
if x.parent.nil?
self.root = y
else
if x == x.parent.left
x.parent.left = y
else
x.parent.right = y
end
end
y.right = x
x.parent = y
end
def insert_helper(z)
y = NilNode.instance
x = root
while !x.nil?
y = x
z.key < x.key ? x = x.left : x = x.right
end
z.parent = y
if y.nil?
self.root = z
else
z.key < y.key ? y.left = z : y.right = z
end
self.size += 1
end
def delete_fixup(x)
while x != root && x.color == Node::BLACK
if x == x.parent.left
w = x.parent.right
if w.color == Node::RED
w.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.color = Node::RED
left_rotate(x.parent)
w = x.parent.right
end
if w.left.color == Node::BLACK && w.right.color == Node::BLACK
w.color = Node::RED
x = x.parent
else
if w.right.color == Node::BLACK
w.left.color = Node::BLACK
w.color = Node::RED
right_rotate(w)
w = x.parent.right
end
w.color = x.parent.color
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
w.right.color = Node::BLACK
left_rotate(x.parent)
x = root
end
else
w = x.parent.left
if w.color == Node::RED
w.color = Node::BLACK
x.parent.color = Node::RED
right_rotate(x.parent)
w = x.parent.left
end
if w.right.color == Node::BLACK && w.left.color == Node::BLACK
w.color = Node::RED
x = x.parent
else
if w.left.color == Node::BLACK
w.right.color = Node::BLACK
w.color = Node::RED
left_rotate(w)
w = x.parent.left
end
w.color = x.parent.color
x.parent.color = Node::BLACK
w.left.color = Node::BLACK
right_rotate(x.parent)
x = root
end
end
end
x.color = Node::BLACK
end
end
class RedBlackTreeRunner
def initialize(n = 10_000)
@n = n
srand(1234) # repeatable random seq
@a1 = []; @n.times { @a1 << rand(99_999) }
srand(4321) # repeatable random seq
@a2 = []; @n.times { @a2 << rand(99_999) }
@tree = RedBlackTree.new
end
def run_delete
@tree = RedBlackTree.new
@n.times { |i| @tree.add(i)}
@n.times { @tree.delete(@tree.root) }
end
def run_add
@tree = RedBlackTree.new
@a1.each {|e| @tree.add(e) }
end
def run_search
@a2.each {|e| @tree.search(e) }
end
def run_inorder_walk
@tree.inorder_walk {|key| key + 1 }
end
def run_reverse_inorder_walk
@tree.reverse_inorder_walk {|key| key + 1 }
end
def run_min
@n.times { @tree.minimum }
end
def run_max
@n.times { @tree.maximum }
end
end
Benchmark.ips do |x|
b = RedBlackTreeRunner.new
x.report '#delete' do
b.run_delete
end
x.report '#add' do
b.run_add
end
x.report '#search' do
b.run_search
end
x.report '#inorder_walk' do
b.run_inorder_walk
end
x.report '#rev_inorder_walk' do
b.run_reverse_inorder_walk
end
x.report '#minimum' do
b.run_min
end
x.report '#maximum' do
b.run_max
end
end
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