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# The Singleton module implements the Singleton pattern.
#
# Usage:
# class Klass
# include Singleton
# # ...
# end
#
# * this ensures that only one instance of Klass lets call it
# ``the instance'' can be created.
#
# a,b = Klass.instance, Klass.instance
# a == b # => true
# a.new # NoMethodError - new is private ...
#
# * ``The instance'' is created at instantiation time, in other
# words the first call of Klass.instance(), thus
#
# class OtherKlass
# include Singleton
# # ...
# end
# ObjectSpace.each_object(OtherKlass){} # => 0.
#
# * This behavior is preserved under inheritance and cloning.
#
#
#
# This is achieved by marking
# * Klass.new and Klass.allocate - as private
#
# Providing (or modifying) the class methods
# * Klass.inherited(sub_klass) and Klass.clone() -
# to ensure that the Singleton pattern is properly
# inherited and cloned.
#
# * Klass.instance() - returning ``the instance''. After a
# successful self modifying (normally the first) call the
# method body is a simple:
#
# def Klass.instance()
# return @__instance__
# end
#
# * Klass._load(str) - calling Klass.instance()
#
# * Klass._instantiate?() - returning ``the instance'' or
# nil. This hook method puts a second (or nth) thread calling
# Klass.instance() on a waiting loop. The return value
# signifies the successful completion or premature termination
# of the first, or more generally, current "instantiation thread".
#
#
# The instance method of Singleton are
# * clone and dup - raising TypeErrors to prevent cloning or duping
#
# * _dump(depth) - returning the empty string. Marshalling strips
# by default all state information, e.g. instance variables and
# taint state, from ``the instance''. Providing custom _load(str)
# and _dump(depth) hooks allows the (partially) resurrections of
# a previous state of ``the instance''.
module Singleton
# disable build-in copying methods
def clone
raise TypeError, "can't clone instance of singleton #{self.class}"
end
def dup
raise TypeError, "can't dup instance of singleton #{self.class}"
end
# default marshalling strategy
def _dump(depth=-1)
''
end
end
class << Singleton
# Method body of first instance call.
FirstInstanceCall = proc do
# @__instance__ takes on one of the following values
# * nil - before and after a failed creation
# * false - during creation
# * sub_class instance - after a successful creation
# the form makes up for the lack of returns in progs
Thread.critical = true
if @__instance__.nil?
@__instance__ = false
Thread.critical = false
begin
@__instance__ = new
ensure
if @__instance__
class <<self
remove_method :instance
def instance; @__instance__ end
end
else
@__instance__ = nil # failed instance creation
end
end
elsif _instantiate?()
Thread.critical = false
else
@__instance__ = false
Thread.critical = false
begin
@__instance__ = new
ensure
if @__instance__
class <<self
remove_method :instance
def instance; @__instance__ end
end
else
@__instance__ = nil
end
end
end
@__instance__
end
module SingletonClassMethods
# cloning a Singleton class/module makes no sense, so just
# return self!
def clone
self
end
def _load(str)
instance
end
private
# ensure that the Singleton pattern is properly inherited
def inherited(sub_klass)
super
Singleton.__init__(sub_klass)
end
# waiting-loop hook
def _instantiate?()
while false.equal?(@__instance__)
Thread.critical = false
sleep(0.08) # timeout
Thread.critical = true
end
@__instance__
end
end
def __init__(klass)
klass.instance_eval { @__instance__ = nil }
class << klass
define_method(:instance,FirstInstanceCall)
end
klass
end
private
# extending an object with Singleton is a bad idea
undef_method :extend_object
def append_features(mod)
# help out people counting on transitive mixins
unless mod.instance_of?(Class)
raise TypeError, "Inclusion of the OO-Singleton module in module #{mod}"
end
super
end
def included(klass)
super
klass.private_class_method :new, :allocate
klass.extend SingletonClassMethods
Singleton.__init__(klass)
end
end
if __FILE__ == $0
def num_of_instances(klass)
"#{ObjectSpace.each_object(klass){}} #{klass} instance(s)"
end
# The basic and most important example.
class SomeSingletonClass
include Singleton
end
puts "There are #{num_of_instances(SomeSingletonClass)}"
a = SomeSingletonClass.instance
b = SomeSingletonClass.instance # a and b are same object
puts "basic test is #{a == b}"
begin
SomeSingletonClass.new
rescue NoMethodError => mes
puts mes
end
puts "\nThreaded example with exception and customized #_instantiate?() hook"; p
Thread.abort_on_exception = false
class Ups < SomeSingletonClass
def initialize
self.class.__sleep
puts "initialize called by thread ##{Thread.current[:i]}"
end
end
class << Ups
def _instantiate?
@enter.push Thread.current[:i]
while false.equal?(@__instance__)
Thread.critical = false
sleep 0.08
Thread.critical = true
end
@leave.push Thread.current[:i]
@__instance__
end
def __sleep
sleep(rand(0.08))
end
def new
begin
__sleep
raise "boom - thread ##{Thread.current[:i]} failed to create instance"
ensure
# simple flip-flop
class << self
remove_method :new
end
end
end
def instantiate_all
@enter = []
@leave = []
1.upto(9) {|i|
Thread.new {
begin
Thread.current[:i] = i
__sleep
instance
rescue RuntimeError => mes
puts mes
end
}
}
puts "Before there were #{num_of_instances(self)}"
sleep 3
puts "Now there is #{num_of_instances(self)}"
puts "#{@enter.join '; '} was the order of threads entering the waiting loop"
puts "#{@leave.join '; '} was the order of threads leaving the waiting loop"
end
end
Ups.instantiate_all
# results in message like
# Before there were 0 Ups instance(s)
# boom - thread #6 failed to create instance
# initialize called by thread #3
# Now there is 1 Ups instance(s)
# 3; 2; 1; 8; 4; 7; 5 was the order of threads entering the waiting loop
# 3; 2; 1; 7; 4; 8; 5 was the order of threads leaving the waiting loop
puts "\nLets see if class level cloning really works"
Yup = Ups.clone
def Yup.new
begin
__sleep
raise "boom - thread ##{Thread.current[:i]} failed to create instance"
ensure
# simple flip-flop
class << self
remove_method :new
end
end
end
Yup.instantiate_all
puts "\n\n","Customized marshalling"
class A
include Singleton
attr_accessor :persist, :die
def _dump(depth)
# this strips the @die information from the instance
Marshal.dump(@persist,depth)
end
end
def A._load(str)
instance.persist = Marshal.load(str)
instance
end
a = A.instance
a.persist = ["persist"]
a.die = "die"
a.taint
stored_state = Marshal.dump(a)
# change state
a.persist = nil
a.die = nil
b = Marshal.load(stored_state)
p a == b # => true
p a.persist # => ["persist"]
p a.die # => nil
puts "\n\nSingleton with overridden default #inherited() hook"
class Up
end
def Up.inherited(sub_klass)
puts "#{sub_klass} subclasses #{self}"
end
class Middle < Up
include Singleton
end
class Down < Middle; end
puts "and basic \"Down test\" is #{Down.instance == Down.instance}\n
Various exceptions"
begin
module AModule
include Singleton
end
rescue TypeError => mes
puts mes #=> Inclusion of the OO-Singleton module in module AModule
end
begin
'aString'.extend Singleton
rescue NoMethodError => mes
puts mes #=> undefined method `extend_object' for Singleton:Module
end
end
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