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# -*- ruby encoding: utf-8 -*-
require 'ostruct'
module Net # :nodoc:
class LDAP
begin
require 'openssl'
##
# Set to +true+ if OpenSSL is available and LDAPS is supported.
HasOpenSSL = true
rescue LoadError
# :stopdoc:
HasOpenSSL = false
# :startdoc:
end
end
end
require 'socket'
require 'net/ber'
require 'net/ldap/pdu'
require 'net/ldap/filter'
require 'net/ldap/dataset'
require 'net/ldap/password'
require 'net/ldap/entry'
require 'net/ldap/instrumentation'
require 'net/ldap/connection'
require 'net/ldap/version'
require 'net/ldap/error'
require 'net/ldap/auth_adapter'
require 'net/ldap/auth_adapter/simple'
require 'net/ldap/auth_adapter/sasl'
Net::LDAP::AuthAdapter.register([:simple, :anon, :anonymous], Net::LDAP::AuthAdapter::Simple)
Net::LDAP::AuthAdapter.register(:sasl, Net::LDAP::AuthAdapter::Sasl)
# == Quick-start for the Impatient
# === Quick Example of a user-authentication against an LDAP directory:
#
# require 'rubygems'
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = your_server_ip_address
# ldap.port = 389
# ldap.auth "joe_user", "opensesame"
# if ldap.bind
# # authentication succeeded
# else
# # authentication failed
# end
#
#
# === Quick Example of a search against an LDAP directory:
#
# require 'rubygems'
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new :host => server_ip_address,
# :port => 389,
# :auth => {
# :method => :simple,
# :username => "cn=manager, dc=example, dc=com",
# :password => "opensesame"
# }
#
# filter = Net::LDAP::Filter.eq("cn", "George*")
# treebase = "dc=example, dc=com"
#
# ldap.search(:base => treebase, :filter => filter) do |entry|
# puts "DN: #{entry.dn}"
# entry.each do |attribute, values|
# puts " #{attribute}:"
# values.each do |value|
# puts " --->#{value}"
# end
# end
# end
#
# p ldap.get_operation_result
#
# === Setting connect timeout
#
# By default, Net::LDAP uses TCP sockets with a connection timeout of 5 seconds.
#
# This value can be tweaked passing the :connect_timeout parameter.
# i.e.
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new ...,
# :connect_timeout => 3
#
# == A Brief Introduction to LDAP
#
# We're going to provide a quick, informal introduction to LDAP terminology
# and typical operations. If you're comfortable with this material, skip
# ahead to "How to use Net::LDAP." If you want a more rigorous treatment of
# this material, we recommend you start with the various IETF and ITU
# standards that relate to LDAP.
#
# === Entities
# LDAP is an Internet-standard protocol used to access directory servers.
# The basic search unit is the <i>entity, </i> which corresponds to a person
# or other domain-specific object. A directory service which supports the
# LDAP protocol typically stores information about a number of entities.
#
# === Principals
# LDAP servers are typically used to access information about people, but
# also very often about such items as printers, computers, and other
# resources. To reflect this, LDAP uses the term <i>entity, </i> or less
# commonly, <i>principal, </i> to denote its basic data-storage unit.
#
# === Distinguished Names
# In LDAP's view of the world, an entity is uniquely identified by a
# globally-unique text string called a <i>Distinguished Name, </i> originally
# defined in the X.400 standards from which LDAP is ultimately derived. Much
# like a DNS hostname, a DN is a "flattened" text representation of a string
# of tree nodes. Also like DNS (and unlike Java package names), a DN
# expresses a chain of tree-nodes written from left to right in order from
# the most-resolved node to the most-general one.
#
# If you know the DN of a person or other entity, then you can query an
# LDAP-enabled directory for information (attributes) about the entity.
# Alternatively, you can query the directory for a list of DNs matching a
# set of criteria that you supply.
#
# === Attributes
#
# In the LDAP view of the world, a DN uniquely identifies an entity.
# Information about the entity is stored as a set of <i>Attributes.</i> An
# attribute is a text string which is associated with zero or more values.
# Most LDAP-enabled directories store a well-standardized range of
# attributes, and constrain their values according to standard rules.
#
# A good example of an attribute is <tt>sn, </tt> which stands for "Surname."
# This attribute is generally used to store a person's surname, or last
# name. Most directories enforce the standard convention that an entity's
# <tt>sn</tt> attribute have <i>exactly one</i> value. In LDAP jargon, that
# means that <tt>sn</tt> must be <i>present</i> and <i>single-valued.</i>
#
# Another attribute is <tt>mail, </tt> which is used to store email
# addresses. (No, there is no attribute called "email, " perhaps because
# X.400 terminology predates the invention of the term <i>email.</i>)
# <tt>mail</tt> differs from <tt>sn</tt> in that most directories permit any
# number of values for the <tt>mail</tt> attribute, including zero.
#
# === Tree-Base
# We said above that X.400 Distinguished Names are <i>globally unique.</i>
# In a manner reminiscent of DNS, LDAP supposes that each directory server
# contains authoritative attribute data for a set of DNs corresponding to a
# specific sub-tree of the (notional) global directory tree. This subtree is
# generally configured into a directory server when it is created. It
# matters for this discussion because most servers will not allow you to
# query them unless you specify a correct tree-base.
#
# Let's say you work for the engineering department of Big Company, Inc.,
# whose internet domain is bigcompany.com. You may find that your
# departmental directory is stored in a server with a defined tree-base of
# ou=engineering, dc=bigcompany, dc=com
# You will need to supply this string as the <i>tree-base</i> when querying
# this directory. (Ou is a very old X.400 term meaning "organizational
# unit." Dc is a more recent term meaning "domain component.")
#
# === LDAP Versions
# (stub, discuss v2 and v3)
#
# === LDAP Operations
# The essential operations are: #bind, #search, #add, #modify, #delete, and
# #rename.
#
# ==== Bind
# #bind supplies a user's authentication credentials to a server, which in
# turn verifies or rejects them. There is a range of possibilities for
# credentials, but most directories support a simple username and password
# authentication.
#
# Taken by itself, #bind can be used to authenticate a user against
# information stored in a directory, for example to permit or deny access to
# some other resource. In terms of the other LDAP operations, most
# directories require a successful #bind to be performed before the other
# operations will be permitted. Some servers permit certain operations to be
# performed with an "anonymous" binding, meaning that no credentials are
# presented by the user. (We're glossing over a lot of platform-specific
# detail here.)
#
# ==== Search
# Calling #search against the directory involves specifying a treebase, a
# set of <i>search filters, </i> and a list of attribute values. The filters
# specify ranges of possible values for particular attributes. Multiple
# filters can be joined together with AND, OR, and NOT operators. A server
# will respond to a #search by returning a list of matching DNs together
# with a set of attribute values for each entity, depending on what
# attributes the search requested.
#
# ==== Add
# #add specifies a new DN and an initial set of attribute values. If the
# operation succeeds, a new entity with the corresponding DN and attributes
# is added to the directory.
#
# ==== Modify
# #modify specifies an entity DN, and a list of attribute operations.
# #modify is used to change the attribute values stored in the directory for
# a particular entity. #modify may add or delete attributes (which are lists
# of values) or it change attributes by adding to or deleting from their
# values. Net::LDAP provides three easier methods to modify an entry's
# attribute values: #add_attribute, #replace_attribute, and
# #delete_attribute.
#
# ==== Delete
# #delete specifies an entity DN. If it succeeds, the entity and all its
# attributes is removed from the directory.
#
# ==== Rename (or Modify RDN)
# #rename (or #modify_rdn) is an operation added to version 3 of the LDAP
# protocol. It responds to the often-arising need to change the DN of an
# entity without discarding its attribute values. In earlier LDAP versions,
# the only way to do this was to delete the whole entity and add it again
# with a different DN.
#
# #rename works by taking an "old" DN (the one to change) and a "new RDN, "
# which is the left-most part of the DN string. If successful, #rename
# changes the entity DN so that its left-most node corresponds to the new
# RDN given in the request. (RDN, or "relative distinguished name, " denotes
# a single tree-node as expressed in a DN, which is a chain of tree nodes.)
#
# == How to use Net::LDAP
# To access Net::LDAP functionality in your Ruby programs, start by
# requiring the library:
#
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# If you installed the Gem version of Net::LDAP, and depending on your
# version of Ruby and rubygems, you _may_ also need to require rubygems
# explicitly:
#
# require 'rubygems'
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# Most operations with Net::LDAP start by instantiating a Net::LDAP object.
# The constructor for this object takes arguments specifying the network
# location (address and port) of the LDAP server, and also the binding
# (authentication) credentials, typically a username and password. Given an
# object of class Net:LDAP, you can then perform LDAP operations by calling
# instance methods on the object. These are documented with usage examples
# below.
#
# The Net::LDAP library is designed to be very disciplined about how it
# makes network connections to servers. This is different from many of the
# standard native-code libraries that are provided on most platforms, which
# share bloodlines with the original Netscape/Michigan LDAP client
# implementations. These libraries sought to insulate user code from the
# workings of the network. This is a good idea of course, but the practical
# effect has been confusing and many difficult bugs have been caused by the
# opacity of the native libraries, and their variable behavior across
# platforms.
#
# In general, Net::LDAP instance methods which invoke server operations make
# a connection to the server when the method is called. They execute the
# operation (typically binding first) and then disconnect from the server.
# The exception is Net::LDAP#open, which makes a connection to the server
# and then keeps it open while it executes a user-supplied block.
# Net::LDAP#open closes the connection on completion of the block.
class Net::LDAP
include Net::LDAP::Instrumentation
SearchScope_BaseObject = 0
SearchScope_SingleLevel = 1
SearchScope_WholeSubtree = 2
SearchScopes = [SearchScope_BaseObject, SearchScope_SingleLevel,
SearchScope_WholeSubtree]
DerefAliases_Never = 0
DerefAliases_Search = 1
DerefAliases_Find = 2
DerefAliases_Always = 3
DerefAliasesArray = [DerefAliases_Never, DerefAliases_Search, DerefAliases_Find, DerefAliases_Always]
primitive = { 2 => :null } # UnbindRequest body
constructed = {
0 => :array, # BindRequest
1 => :array, # BindResponse
2 => :array, # UnbindRequest
3 => :array, # SearchRequest
4 => :array, # SearchData
5 => :array, # SearchResult
6 => :array, # ModifyRequest
7 => :array, # ModifyResponse
8 => :array, # AddRequest
9 => :array, # AddResponse
10 => :array, # DelRequest
11 => :array, # DelResponse
12 => :array, # ModifyRdnRequest
13 => :array, # ModifyRdnResponse
14 => :array, # CompareRequest
15 => :array, # CompareResponse
16 => :array, # AbandonRequest
19 => :array, # SearchResultReferral
24 => :array, # Unsolicited Notification
}
application = {
:primitive => primitive,
:constructed => constructed,
}
primitive = {
0 => :string, # password
1 => :string, # Kerberos v4
2 => :string, # Kerberos v5
3 => :string, # SearchFilter-extensible
4 => :string, # SearchFilter-extensible
7 => :string, # serverSaslCreds
}
constructed = {
0 => :array, # RFC-2251 Control and Filter-AND
1 => :array, # SearchFilter-OR
2 => :array, # SearchFilter-NOT
3 => :array, # Seach referral
4 => :array, # unknown use in Microsoft Outlook
5 => :array, # SearchFilter-GE
6 => :array, # SearchFilter-LE
7 => :array, # serverSaslCreds
9 => :array, # SearchFilter-extensible
}
context_specific = {
:primitive => primitive,
:constructed => constructed,
}
universal = {
constructed: {
107 => :array, #ExtendedResponse (PasswdModifyResponseValue)
},
}
AsnSyntax = Net::BER.compile_syntax(:application => application,
:universal => universal,
:context_specific => context_specific)
DefaultHost = "127.0.0.1"
DefaultPort = 389
DefaultAuth = { :method => :anonymous }
DefaultTreebase = "dc=com"
DefaultForceNoPage = false
StartTlsOid = '1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.20037'
PasswdModifyOid = '1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.11.1'
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4511#section-4.1.9
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4511#appendix-A
ResultCodeSuccess = 0
ResultCodeOperationsError = 1
ResultCodeProtocolError = 2
ResultCodeTimeLimitExceeded = 3
ResultCodeSizeLimitExceeded = 4
ResultCodeCompareFalse = 5
ResultCodeCompareTrue = 6
ResultCodeAuthMethodNotSupported = 7
ResultCodeStrongerAuthRequired = 8
ResultCodeReferral = 10
ResultCodeAdminLimitExceeded = 11
ResultCodeUnavailableCriticalExtension = 12
ResultCodeConfidentialityRequired = 13
ResultCodeSaslBindInProgress = 14
ResultCodeNoSuchAttribute = 16
ResultCodeUndefinedAttributeType = 17
ResultCodeInappropriateMatching = 18
ResultCodeConstraintViolation = 19
ResultCodeAttributeOrValueExists = 20
ResultCodeInvalidAttributeSyntax = 21
ResultCodeNoSuchObject = 32
ResultCodeAliasProblem = 33
ResultCodeInvalidDNSyntax = 34
ResultCodeAliasDereferencingProblem = 36
ResultCodeInappropriateAuthentication = 48
ResultCodeInvalidCredentials = 49
ResultCodeInsufficientAccessRights = 50
ResultCodeBusy = 51
ResultCodeUnavailable = 52
ResultCodeUnwillingToPerform = 53
ResultCodeNamingViolation = 64
ResultCodeObjectClassViolation = 65
ResultCodeNotAllowedOnNonLeaf = 66
ResultCodeNotAllowedOnRDN = 67
ResultCodeEntryAlreadyExists = 68
ResultCodeObjectClassModsProhibited = 69
ResultCodeAffectsMultipleDSAs = 71
ResultCodeOther = 80
# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4511#appendix-A.1
ResultCodesNonError = [
ResultCodeSuccess,
ResultCodeCompareFalse,
ResultCodeCompareTrue,
ResultCodeReferral,
ResultCodeSaslBindInProgress,
]
# nonstandard list of "successful" result codes for searches
ResultCodesSearchSuccess = [
ResultCodeSuccess,
ResultCodeTimeLimitExceeded,
ResultCodeSizeLimitExceeded,
]
# map of result code to human message
ResultStrings = {
ResultCodeSuccess => "Success",
ResultCodeOperationsError => "Operations Error",
ResultCodeProtocolError => "Protocol Error",
ResultCodeTimeLimitExceeded => "Time Limit Exceeded",
ResultCodeSizeLimitExceeded => "Size Limit Exceeded",
ResultCodeCompareFalse => "False Comparison",
ResultCodeCompareTrue => "True Comparison",
ResultCodeAuthMethodNotSupported => "Auth Method Not Supported",
ResultCodeStrongerAuthRequired => "Stronger Auth Needed",
ResultCodeReferral => "Referral",
ResultCodeAdminLimitExceeded => "Admin Limit Exceeded",
ResultCodeUnavailableCriticalExtension => "Unavailable crtical extension",
ResultCodeConfidentialityRequired => "Confidentiality Required",
ResultCodeSaslBindInProgress => "saslBindInProgress",
ResultCodeNoSuchAttribute => "No Such Attribute",
ResultCodeUndefinedAttributeType => "Undefined Attribute Type",
ResultCodeInappropriateMatching => "Inappropriate Matching",
ResultCodeConstraintViolation => "Constraint Violation",
ResultCodeAttributeOrValueExists => "Attribute or Value Exists",
ResultCodeInvalidAttributeSyntax => "Invalide Attribute Syntax",
ResultCodeNoSuchObject => "No Such Object",
ResultCodeAliasProblem => "Alias Problem",
ResultCodeInvalidDNSyntax => "Invalid DN Syntax",
ResultCodeAliasDereferencingProblem => "Alias Dereferencing Problem",
ResultCodeInappropriateAuthentication => "Inappropriate Authentication",
ResultCodeInvalidCredentials => "Invalid Credentials",
ResultCodeInsufficientAccessRights => "Insufficient Access Rights",
ResultCodeBusy => "Busy",
ResultCodeUnavailable => "Unavailable",
ResultCodeUnwillingToPerform => "Unwilling to perform",
ResultCodeNamingViolation => "Naming Violation",
ResultCodeObjectClassViolation => "Object Class Violation",
ResultCodeNotAllowedOnNonLeaf => "Not Allowed On Non-Leaf",
ResultCodeNotAllowedOnRDN => "Not Allowed On RDN",
ResultCodeEntryAlreadyExists => "Entry Already Exists",
ResultCodeObjectClassModsProhibited => "ObjectClass Modifications Prohibited",
ResultCodeAffectsMultipleDSAs => "Affects Multiple DSAs",
ResultCodeOther => "Other",
}
module LDAPControls
PAGED_RESULTS = "1.2.840.113556.1.4.319" # Microsoft evil from RFC 2696
SORT_REQUEST = "1.2.840.113556.1.4.473"
SORT_RESPONSE = "1.2.840.113556.1.4.474"
DELETE_TREE = "1.2.840.113556.1.4.805"
end
def self.result2string(code) #:nodoc:
ResultStrings[code] || "unknown result (#{code})"
end
attr_accessor :host
attr_accessor :port
attr_accessor :hosts
attr_accessor :base
# Instantiate an object of type Net::LDAP to perform directory operations.
# This constructor takes a Hash containing arguments, all of which are
# either optional or may be specified later with other methods as
# described below. The following arguments are supported:
# * :host => the LDAP server's IP-address (default 127.0.0.1)
# * :port => the LDAP server's TCP port (default 389)
# * :hosts => an enumerable of pairs of hosts and corresponding ports with
# which to attempt opening connections (default [[host, port]])
# * :auth => a Hash containing authorization parameters. Currently
# supported values include: {:method => :anonymous} and {:method =>
# :simple, :username => your_user_name, :password => your_password }
# The password parameter may be a Proc that returns a String.
# * :base => a default treebase parameter for searches performed against
# the LDAP server. If you don't give this value, then each call to
# #search must specify a treebase parameter. If you do give this value,
# then it will be used in subsequent calls to #search that do not
# specify a treebase. If you give a treebase value in any particular
# call to #search, that value will override any treebase value you give
# here.
# * :force_no_page => Set to true to prevent paged results even if your
# server says it supports them. This is a fix for MS Active Directory
# * :instrumentation_service => An object responsible for instrumenting
# operations, compatible with ActiveSupport::Notifications' public API.
# * :encryption => specifies the encryption to be used in communicating
# with the LDAP server. The value must be a Hash containing additional
# parameters, which consists of two keys:
# method: - :simple_tls or :start_tls
# tls_options: - Hash of options for that method
# The :simple_tls encryption method encrypts <i>all</i> communications
# with the LDAP server. It completely establishes SSL/TLS encryption with
# the LDAP server before any LDAP-protocol data is exchanged. There is no
# plaintext negotiation and no special encryption-request controls are
# sent to the server. <i>The :simple_tls option is the simplest, easiest
# way to encrypt communications between Net::LDAP and LDAP servers.</i>
# If you get communications or protocol errors when using this option,
# check with your LDAP server administrator. Pay particular attention
# to the TCP port you are connecting to. It's impossible for an LDAP
# server to support plaintext LDAP communications and <i>simple TLS</i>
# connections on the same port. The standard TCP port for unencrypted
# LDAP connections is 389, but the standard port for simple-TLS
# encrypted connections is 636. Be sure you are using the correct port.
# The :start_tls like the :simple_tls encryption method also encrypts all
# communcations with the LDAP server. With the exception that it operates
# over the standard TCP port.
#
# To validate the LDAP server's certificate (a security must if you're
# talking over the public internet), you need to set :tls_options
# something like this...
#
# Net::LDAP.new(
# # ... set host, bind dn, etc ...
# encryption: {
# method: :simple_tls,
# tls_options: OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext::DEFAULT_PARAMS,
# }
# )
#
# The above will use the operating system-provided store of CA
# certificates to validate your LDAP server's cert.
# If cert validation fails, it'll happen during the #bind
# whenever you first try to open a connection to the server.
# Those methods will throw Net::LDAP::ConnectionError with
# a message about certificate verify failing. If your
# LDAP server's certificate is signed by DigiCert, Comodo, etc.,
# you're probably good. If you've got a self-signed cert but it's
# been added to the host's OS-maintained CA store (e.g. on Debian
# add foobar.crt to /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/ and run
# `update-ca-certificates`), then the cert should pass validation.
# To ignore the OS's CA store, put your CA in a PEM-encoded file and...
#
# encryption: {
# method: :simple_tls,
# tls_options: { ca_file: '/path/to/my-little-ca.pem',
# ssl_version: 'TLSv1_1' },
# }
#
# As you might guess, the above example also fails the connection
# if the client can't negotiate TLS v1.1.
# tls_options is ultimately passed to OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#set_params
# For more details, see
# http://ruby-doc.org/stdlib-2.0.0/libdoc/openssl/rdoc/OpenSSL/SSL/SSLContext.html
#
# Instantiating a Net::LDAP object does <i>not</i> result in network
# traffic to the LDAP server. It simply stores the connection and binding
# parameters in the object. That's why Net::LDAP.new doesn't throw
# cert validation errors itself; #bind does instead.
def initialize(args = {})
@host = args[:host] || DefaultHost
@port = args[:port] || DefaultPort
@hosts = args[:hosts]
@verbose = false # Make this configurable with a switch on the class.
@auth = args[:auth] || DefaultAuth
@base = args[:base] || DefaultTreebase
@force_no_page = args[:force_no_page] || DefaultForceNoPage
@encryption = normalize_encryption(args[:encryption]) # may be nil
@connect_timeout = args[:connect_timeout]
if pr = @auth[:password] and pr.respond_to?(:call)
@auth[:password] = pr.call
end
@instrumentation_service = args[:instrumentation_service]
# This variable is only set when we are created with LDAP::open. All of
# our internal methods will connect using it, or else they will create
# their own.
@open_connection = nil
end
# Convenience method to specify authentication credentials to the LDAP
# server. Currently supports simple authentication requiring a username
# and password.
#
# Observe that on most LDAP servers, the username is a complete DN.
# However, with A/D, it's often possible to give only a user-name rather
# than a complete DN. In the latter case, beware that many A/D servers are
# configured to permit anonymous (uncredentialled) binding, and will
# silently accept your binding as anonymous if you give an unrecognized
# username. This is not usually what you want. (See
# #get_operation_result.)
#
# <b>Important:</b> The password argument may be a Proc that returns a
# string. This makes it possible for you to write client programs that
# solicit passwords from users or from other data sources without showing
# them in your code or on command lines.
#
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = server_ip_address
# ldap.authenticate "cn=Your Username, cn=Users, dc=example, dc=com", "your_psw"
#
# Alternatively (with a password block):
#
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = server_ip_address
# psw = proc { your_psw_function }
# ldap.authenticate "cn=Your Username, cn=Users, dc=example, dc=com", psw
#
def authenticate(username, password)
password = password.call if password.respond_to?(:call)
@auth = {
:method => :simple,
:username => username,
:password => password,
}
end
alias_method :auth, :authenticate
# Convenience method to specify encryption characteristics for connections
# to LDAP servers. Called implicitly by #new and #open, but may also be
# called by user code if desired. The single argument is generally a Hash
# (but see below for convenience alternatives). This implementation is
# currently a stub, supporting only a few encryption alternatives. As
# additional capabilities are added, more configuration values will be
# added here.
#
# This method is deprecated.
#
def encryption(args)
warn "Deprecation warning: please give :encryption option as a Hash to Net::LDAP.new"
return if args.nil?
@encryption = normalize_encryption(args)
end
# #open takes the same parameters as #new. #open makes a network
# connection to the LDAP server and then passes a newly-created Net::LDAP
# object to the caller-supplied block. Within the block, you can call any
# of the instance methods of Net::LDAP to perform operations against the
# LDAP directory. #open will perform all the operations in the
# user-supplied block on the same network connection, which will be closed
# automatically when the block finishes.
#
# # (PSEUDOCODE)
# auth = { :method => :simple, :username => username, :password => password }
# Net::LDAP.open(:host => ipaddress, :port => 389, :auth => auth) do |ldap|
# ldap.search(...)
# ldap.add(...)
# ldap.modify(...)
# end
def self.open(args)
ldap1 = new(args)
ldap1.open { |ldap| yield ldap }
end
# Returns a meaningful result any time after a protocol operation (#bind,
# #search, #add, #modify, #rename, #delete) has completed. It returns an
# #OpenStruct containing an LDAP result code (0 means success), and a
# human-readable string.
#
# unless ldap.bind
# puts "Result: #{ldap.get_operation_result.code}"
# puts "Message: #{ldap.get_operation_result.message}"
# end
#
# Certain operations return additional information, accessible through
# members of the object returned from #get_operation_result. Check
# #get_operation_result.error_message and
# #get_operation_result.matched_dn.
#
#--
# Modified the implementation, 20Mar07. We might get a hash of LDAP
# response codes instead of a simple numeric code.
#++
def get_operation_result
result = @result
os = OpenStruct.new
if result.is_a?(Net::LDAP::PDU)
os.extended_response = result.extended_response
result = result.result
end
if result.is_a?(Hash)
# We might get a hash of LDAP response codes instead of a simple
# numeric code.
os.code = (result[:resultCode] || "").to_i
os.error_message = result[:errorMessage]
os.matched_dn = result[:matchedDN]
elsif result
os.code = result
else
os.code = Net::LDAP::ResultCodeSuccess
end
os.message = Net::LDAP.result2string(os.code)
os
end
# Opens a network connection to the server and then passes <tt>self</tt>
# to the caller-supplied block. The connection is closed when the block
# completes. Used for executing multiple LDAP operations without requiring
# a separate network connection (and authentication) for each one.
# <i>Note:</i> You do not need to log-in or "bind" to the server. This
# will be done for you automatically. For an even simpler approach, see
# the class method Net::LDAP#open.
#
# # (PSEUDOCODE)
# auth = { :method => :simple, :username => username, :password => password }
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new(:host => ipaddress, :port => 389, :auth => auth)
# ldap.open do |ldap|
# ldap.search(...)
# ldap.add(...)
# ldap.modify(...)
# end
def open
# First we make a connection and then a binding, but we don't do
# anything with the bind results. We then pass self to the caller's
# block, where he will execute his LDAP operations. Of course they will
# all generate auth failures if the bind was unsuccessful.
raise Net::LDAP::AlreadyOpenedError, "Open already in progress" if @open_connection
instrument "open.net_ldap" do |payload|
begin
@open_connection = new_connection
payload[:connection] = @open_connection
payload[:bind] = @open_connection.bind(@auth)
yield self
ensure
@open_connection.close if @open_connection
@open_connection = nil
end
end
end
# Searches the LDAP directory for directory entries. Takes a hash argument
# with parameters. Supported parameters include:
# * :base (a string specifying the tree-base for the search);
# * :filter (an object of type Net::LDAP::Filter, defaults to
# objectclass=*);
# * :attributes (a string or array of strings specifying the LDAP
# attributes to return from the server);
# * :return_result (a boolean specifying whether to return a result set).
# * :attributes_only (a boolean flag, defaults false)
# * :scope (one of: Net::LDAP::SearchScope_BaseObject,
# Net::LDAP::SearchScope_SingleLevel,
# Net::LDAP::SearchScope_WholeSubtree. Default is WholeSubtree.)
# * :size (an integer indicating the maximum number of search entries to
# return. Default is zero, which signifies no limit.)
# * :time (an integer restricting the maximum time in seconds allowed for a search. Default is zero, no time limit RFC 4511 4.5.1.5)
# * :deref (one of: Net::LDAP::DerefAliases_Never, Net::LDAP::DerefAliases_Search,
# Net::LDAP::DerefAliases_Find, Net::LDAP::DerefAliases_Always. Default is Never.)
#
# #search queries the LDAP server and passes <i>each entry</i> to the
# caller-supplied block, as an object of type Net::LDAP::Entry. If the
# search returns 1000 entries, the block will be called 1000 times. If the
# search returns no entries, the block will not be called.
#
# #search returns either a result-set or a boolean, depending on the value
# of the <tt>:return_result</tt> argument. The default behavior is to
# return a result set, which is an Array of objects of class
# Net::LDAP::Entry. If you request a result set and #search fails with an
# error, it will return nil. Call #get_operation_result to get the error
# information returned by
# the LDAP server.
#
# When <tt>:return_result => false, </tt> #search will return only a
# Boolean, to indicate whether the operation succeeded. This can improve
# performance with very large result sets, because the library can discard
# each entry from memory after your block processes it.
#
# treebase = "dc=example, dc=com"
# filter = Net::LDAP::Filter.eq("mail", "a*.com")
# attrs = ["mail", "cn", "sn", "objectclass"]
# ldap.search(:base => treebase, :filter => filter, :attributes => attrs,
# :return_result => false) do |entry|
# puts "DN: #{entry.dn}"
# entry.each do |attr, values|
# puts ".......#{attr}:"
# values.each do |value|
# puts " #{value}"
# end
# end
# end
def search(args = {})
unless args[:ignore_server_caps]
args[:paged_searches_supported] = paged_searches_supported?
end
args[:base] ||= @base
return_result_set = args[:return_result] != false
result_set = return_result_set ? [] : nil
instrument "search.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.search(args) do |entry|
result_set << entry if result_set
yield entry if block_given?
end
end
if return_result_set
unless @result.nil?
if ResultCodesSearchSuccess.include?(@result.result_code)
result_set
end
end
else
@result.success?
end
end
end
# #bind connects to an LDAP server and requests authentication based on
# the <tt>:auth</tt> parameter passed to #open or #new. It takes no
# parameters.
#
# User code does not need to call #bind directly. It will be called
# implicitly by the library whenever you invoke an LDAP operation, such as
# #search or #add.
#
# It is useful, however, to call #bind in your own code when the only
# operation you intend to perform against the directory is to validate a
# login credential. #bind returns true or false to indicate whether the
# binding was successful. Reasons for failure include malformed or
# unrecognized usernames and incorrect passwords. Use
# #get_operation_result to find out what happened in case of failure.
#
# Here's a typical example using #bind to authenticate a credential which
# was (perhaps) solicited from the user of a web site:
#
# require 'net/ldap'
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = your_server_ip_address
# ldap.port = 389
# ldap.auth your_user_name, your_user_password
# if ldap.bind
# # authentication succeeded
# else
# # authentication failed
# p ldap.get_operation_result
# end
#
# Here's a more succinct example which does exactly the same thing, but
# collects all the required parameters into arguments:
#
# require 'net/ldap'
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new(:host => your_server_ip_address, :port => 389)
# if ldap.bind(:method => :simple, :username => your_user_name,
# :password => your_user_password)
# # authentication succeeded
# else
# # authentication failed
# p ldap.get_operation_result
# end
#
# You don't need to pass a user-password as a String object to bind. You
# can also pass a Ruby Proc object which returns a string. This will cause
# bind to execute the Proc (which might then solicit input from a user
# with console display suppressed). The String value returned from the
# Proc is used as the password.
#
# You don't have to create a new instance of Net::LDAP every time you
# perform a binding in this way. If you prefer, you can cache the
# Net::LDAP object and re-use it to perform subsequent bindings,
# <i>provided</i> you call #auth to specify a new credential before
# calling #bind. Otherwise, you'll just re-authenticate the previous user!
# (You don't need to re-set the values of #host and #port.) As noted in
# the documentation for #auth, the password parameter can be a Ruby Proc
# instead of a String.
def bind(auth = @auth)
instrument "bind.net_ldap" do |payload|
if @open_connection
payload[:connection] = @open_connection
payload[:bind] = @result = @open_connection.bind(auth)
else
begin
conn = new_connection
payload[:connection] = conn
payload[:bind] = @result = conn.bind(auth)
ensure
conn.close if conn
end
end
@result.success?
end
end
# #bind_as is for testing authentication credentials.
#
# As described under #bind, most LDAP servers require that you supply a
# complete DN as a binding-credential, along with an authenticator such as
# a password. But for many applications (such as authenticating users to a
# Rails application), you often don't have a full DN to identify the user.
# You usually get a simple identifier like a username or an email address,
# along with a password. #bind_as allows you to authenticate these
# user-identifiers.
#
# #bind_as is a combination of a search and an LDAP binding. First, it
# connects and binds to the directory as normal. Then it searches the
# directory for an entry corresponding to the email address, username, or
# other string that you supply. If the entry exists, then #bind_as will
# <b>re-bind</b> as that user with the password (or other authenticator)
# that you supply.
#
# #bind_as takes the same parameters as #search, <i>with the addition of
# an authenticator.</i> Currently, this authenticator must be
# <tt>:password</tt>. Its value may be either a String, or a +proc+ that
# returns a String. #bind_as returns +false+ on failure. On success, it
# returns a result set, just as #search does. This result set is an Array
# of objects of type Net::LDAP::Entry. It contains the directory
# attributes corresponding to the user. (Just test whether the return
# value is logically true, if you don't need this additional information.)
#
# Here's how you would use #bind_as to authenticate an email address and
# password:
#
# require 'net/ldap'
#
# user, psw = "joe_user@yourcompany.com", "joes_psw"
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = "192.168.0.100"
# ldap.port = 389
# ldap.auth "cn=manager, dc=yourcompany, dc=com", "topsecret"
#
# result = ldap.bind_as(:base => "dc=yourcompany, dc=com",
# :filter => "(mail=#{user})",
# :password => psw)
# if result
# puts "Authenticated #{result.first.dn}"
# else
# puts "Authentication FAILED."
# end
def bind_as(args = {})
result = false
open do |me|
rs = search args
if rs and rs.first and dn = rs.first.dn
password = args[:password]
password = password.call if password.respond_to?(:call)
result = rs if bind(:method => :simple, :username => dn,
:password => password)
end
end
result
end
# Adds a new entry to the remote LDAP server.
# Supported arguments:
# :dn :: Full DN of the new entry
# :attributes :: Attributes of the new entry.
#
# The attributes argument is supplied as a Hash keyed by Strings or
# Symbols giving the attribute name, and mapping to Strings or Arrays of
# Strings giving the actual attribute values. Observe that most LDAP
# directories enforce schema constraints on the attributes contained in
# entries. #add will fail with a server-generated error if your attributes
# violate the server-specific constraints.
#
# Here's an example:
#
# dn = "cn=George Smith, ou=people, dc=example, dc=com"
# attr = {
# :cn => "George Smith",
# :objectclass => ["top", "inetorgperson"],
# :sn => "Smith",
# :mail => "gsmith@example.com"
# }
# Net::LDAP.open(:host => host) do |ldap|
# ldap.add(:dn => dn, :attributes => attr)
# end
def add(args)
instrument "add.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.add(args)
end
@result.success?
end
end
# Modifies the attribute values of a particular entry on the LDAP
# directory. Takes a hash with arguments. Supported arguments are:
# :dn :: (the full DN of the entry whose attributes are to be modified)
# :operations :: (the modifications to be performed, detailed next)
#
# This method returns True or False to indicate whether the operation
# succeeded or failed, with extended information available by calling
# #get_operation_result.
#
# Also see #add_attribute, #replace_attribute, or #delete_attribute, which
# provide simpler interfaces to this functionality.
#
# The LDAP protocol provides a full and well thought-out set of operations
# for changing the values of attributes, but they are necessarily somewhat
# complex and not always intuitive. If these instructions are confusing or
# incomplete, please send us email or create an issue on GitHub.
#
# The :operations parameter to #modify takes an array of
# operation-descriptors. Each individual operation is specified in one
# element of the array, and most LDAP servers will attempt to perform the
# operations in order.
#
# Each of the operations appearing in the Array must itself be an Array
# with exactly three elements:
# an operator :: must be :add, :replace, or :delete
# an attribute name :: the attribute name (string or symbol) to modify
# a value :: either a string or an array of strings.
#
# The :add operator will, unsurprisingly, add the specified values to the
# specified attribute. If the attribute does not already exist, :add will
# create it. Most LDAP servers will generate an error if you try to add a
# value that already exists.
#
# :replace will erase the current value(s) for the specified attribute, if
# there are any, and replace them with the specified value(s).
#
# :delete will remove the specified value(s) from the specified attribute.
# If you pass nil, an empty string, or an empty array as the value
# parameter to a :delete operation, the _entire_ _attribute_ will be
# deleted, along with all of its values.
#
# For example:
#
# dn = "mail=modifyme@example.com, ou=people, dc=example, dc=com"
# ops = [
# [:add, :mail, "aliasaddress@example.com"],
# [:replace, :mail, ["newaddress@example.com", "newalias@example.com"]],
# [:delete, :sn, nil]
# ]
# ldap.modify :dn => dn, :operations => ops
#
# <i>(This example is contrived since you probably wouldn't add a mail
# value right before replacing the whole attribute, but it shows that
# order of execution matters. Also, many LDAP servers won't let you delete
# SN because that would be a schema violation.)</i>
#
# It's essential to keep in mind that if you specify more than one
# operation in a call to #modify, most LDAP servers will attempt to
# perform all of the operations in the order you gave them. This matters
# because you may specify operations on the same attribute which must be
# performed in a certain order.
#
# Most LDAP servers will _stop_ processing your modifications if one of
# them causes an error on the server (such as a schema-constraint
# violation). If this happens, you will probably get a result code from
# the server that reflects only the operation that failed, and you may or
# may not get extended information that will tell you which one failed.
# #modify has no notion of an atomic transaction. If you specify a chain
# of modifications in one call to #modify, and one of them fails, the
# preceding ones will usually not be "rolled back", resulting in a
# partial update. This is a limitation of the LDAP protocol, not of
# Net::LDAP.
#
# The lack of transactional atomicity in LDAP means that you're usually
# better off using the convenience methods #add_attribute,
# #replace_attribute, and #delete_attribute, which are wrappers over
# #modify. However, certain LDAP servers may provide concurrency
# semantics, in which the several operations contained in a single #modify
# call are not interleaved with other modification-requests received
# simultaneously by the server. It bears repeating that this concurrency
# does _not_ imply transactional atomicity, which LDAP does not provide.
def modify(args)
instrument "modify.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.modify(args)
end
@result.success?
end
end
# Password Modify
#
# Change existing password:
#
# dn = 'uid=modify-password-user1,ou=People,dc=rubyldap,dc=com'
# auth = {
# method: :simple,
# username: dn,
# password: 'passworD1'
# }
# ldap.password_modify(dn: dn,
# auth: auth,
# old_password: 'passworD1',
# new_password: 'passworD2')
#
# Or get the LDAP server to generate a password for you:
#
# dn = 'uid=modify-password-user1,ou=People,dc=rubyldap,dc=com'
# auth = {
# method: :simple,
# username: dn,
# password: 'passworD1'
# }
# ldap.password_modify(dn: dn,
# auth: auth,
# old_password: 'passworD1')
#
# ldap.get_operation_result.extended_response[0][0] #=> 'VtcgGf/G'
#
def password_modify(args)
instrument "modify_password.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.password_modify(args)
end
@result.success?
end
end
# Add a value to an attribute. Takes the full DN of the entry to modify,
# the name (Symbol or String) of the attribute, and the value (String or
# Array). If the attribute does not exist (and there are no schema
# violations), #add_attribute will create it with the caller-specified
# values. If the attribute already exists (and there are no schema
# violations), the caller-specified values will be _added_ to the values
# already present.
#
# Returns True or False to indicate whether the operation succeeded or
# failed, with extended information available by calling
# #get_operation_result. See also #replace_attribute and
# #delete_attribute.
#
# dn = "cn=modifyme, dc=example, dc=com"
# ldap.add_attribute dn, :mail, "newmailaddress@example.com"
def add_attribute(dn, attribute, value)
modify(:dn => dn, :operations => [[:add, attribute, value]])
end
# Replace the value of an attribute. #replace_attribute can be thought of
# as equivalent to calling #delete_attribute followed by #add_attribute.
# It takes the full DN of the entry to modify, the name (Symbol or String)
# of the attribute, and the value (String or Array). If the attribute does
# not exist, it will be created with the caller-specified value(s). If the
# attribute does exist, its values will be _discarded_ and replaced with
# the caller-specified values.
#
# Returns True or False to indicate whether the operation succeeded or
# failed, with extended information available by calling
# #get_operation_result. See also #add_attribute and #delete_attribute.
#
# dn = "cn=modifyme, dc=example, dc=com"
# ldap.replace_attribute dn, :mail, "newmailaddress@example.com"
def replace_attribute(dn, attribute, value)
modify(:dn => dn, :operations => [[:replace, attribute, value]])
end
# Delete an attribute and all its values. Takes the full DN of the entry
# to modify, and the name (Symbol or String) of the attribute to delete.
#
# Returns True or False to indicate whether the operation succeeded or
# failed, with extended information available by calling
# #get_operation_result. See also #add_attribute and #replace_attribute.
#
# dn = "cn=modifyme, dc=example, dc=com"
# ldap.delete_attribute dn, :mail
def delete_attribute(dn, attribute)
modify(:dn => dn, :operations => [[:delete, attribute, nil]])
end
# Rename an entry on the remote DIS by changing the last RDN of its DN.
#
# _Documentation_ _stub_
def rename(args)
instrument "rename.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.rename(args)
end
@result.success?
end
end
alias_method :modify_rdn, :rename
# Delete an entry from the LDAP directory. Takes a hash of arguments. The
# only supported argument is :dn, which must give the complete DN of the
# entry to be deleted.
#
# Returns True or False to indicate whether the delete succeeded. Extended
# status information is available by calling #get_operation_result.
#
# dn = "mail=deleteme@example.com, ou=people, dc=example, dc=com"
# ldap.delete :dn => dn
def delete(args)
instrument "delete.net_ldap", args do |payload|
@result = use_connection(args) do |conn|
conn.delete(args)
end
@result.success?
end
end
# Delete an entry from the LDAP directory along with all subordinate entries.
# the regular delete method will fail to delete an entry if it has subordinate
# entries. This method sends an extra control code to tell the LDAP server
# to do a tree delete. ('1.2.840.113556.1.4.805')
#
# Returns True or False to indicate whether the delete succeeded. Extended
# status information is available by calling #get_operation_result.
#
# dn = "mail=deleteme@example.com, ou=people, dc=example, dc=com"
# ldap.delete_tree :dn => dn
def delete_tree(args)
delete(args.merge(:control_codes => [[Net::LDAP::LDAPControls::DELETE_TREE, true]]))
end
# This method is experimental and subject to change. Return the rootDSE
# record from the LDAP server as a Net::LDAP::Entry, or an empty Entry if
# the server doesn't return the record.
#--
# cf. RFC4512 graf 5.1.
# Note that the rootDSE record we return on success has an empty DN, which
# is correct. On failure, the empty Entry will have a nil DN. There's no
# real reason for that, so it can be changed if desired. The funky
# number-disagreements in the set of attribute names is correct per the
# RFC. We may be called by #search itself, which may need to determine
# things like paged search capabilities. So to avoid an infinite regress,
# set :ignore_server_caps, which prevents us getting called recursively.
#++
def search_root_dse
rs = search(:ignore_server_caps => true, :base => "",
:scope => SearchScope_BaseObject,
:attributes => [
:altServer,
:namingContexts,
:supportedCapabilities,
:supportedControl,
:supportedExtension,
:supportedFeatures,
:supportedLdapVersion,
:supportedSASLMechanisms,
])
(rs and rs.first) or Net::LDAP::Entry.new
end
# Return the root Subschema record from the LDAP server as a
# Net::LDAP::Entry, or an empty Entry if the server doesn't return the
# record. On success, the Net::LDAP::Entry returned from this call will
# have the attributes :dn, :objectclasses, and :attributetypes. If there
# is an error, call #get_operation_result for more information.
#
# ldap = Net::LDAP.new
# ldap.host = "your.ldap.host"
# ldap.auth "your-user-dn", "your-psw"
# subschema_entry = ldap.search_subschema_entry
#
# subschema_entry.attributetypes.each do |attrtype|
# # your code
# end
#
# subschema_entry.objectclasses.each do |attrtype|
# # your code
# end
#--
# cf. RFC4512 section 4, particulary graff 4.4.
# The :dn attribute in the returned Entry is the subschema name as
# returned from the server. Set :ignore_server_caps, see the notes in
# search_root_dse.
#++
def search_subschema_entry
rs = search(:ignore_server_caps => true, :base => "",
:scope => SearchScope_BaseObject,
:attributes => [:subschemaSubentry])
return Net::LDAP::Entry.new unless (rs and rs.first)
subschema_name = rs.first.subschemasubentry
return Net::LDAP::Entry.new unless (subschema_name and subschema_name.first)
rs = search(:ignore_server_caps => true, :base => subschema_name.first,
:scope => SearchScope_BaseObject,
:filter => "objectclass=subschema",
:attributes => [:objectclasses, :attributetypes])
(rs and rs.first) or Net::LDAP::Entry.new
end
#--
# Convenience method to query server capabilities.
# Only do this once per Net::LDAP object.
# Note, we call a search, and we might be called from inside a search!
# MUST refactor the root_dse call out.
#++
def paged_searches_supported?
# active directory returns that it supports paged results. However
# it returns binary data in the rfc2696_cookie which throws an
# encoding exception breaking searching.
return false if @force_no_page
@server_caps ||= search_root_dse
@server_caps[:supportedcontrol].include?(Net::LDAP::LDAPControls::PAGED_RESULTS)
end
# Mask auth password
def inspect
inspected = super
inspected.gsub! @auth[:password], "*******" if @auth[:password]
inspected
end
# Internal: Set @open_connection for testing
def connection=(connection)
@open_connection = connection
end
private
# Yields an open connection if there is one, otherwise establishes a new
# connection, binds, and yields it. If binding fails, it will return the
# result from that, and :use_connection: will not yield at all. If not
# the return value is whatever is returned from the block.
def use_connection(args)
if @open_connection
yield @open_connection
else
begin
conn = new_connection
result = conn.bind(args[:auth] || @auth)
return result unless result.result_code == Net::LDAP::ResultCodeSuccess
yield conn
ensure
conn.close if conn
end
end
end
# Establish a new connection to the LDAP server
def new_connection
connection = Net::LDAP::Connection.new \
:host => @host,
:port => @port,
:hosts => @hosts,
:encryption => @encryption,
:instrumentation_service => @instrumentation_service,
:connect_timeout => @connect_timeout
# Force connect to see if there's a connection error
connection.socket
connection
rescue Errno::ECONNREFUSED, Errno::ETIMEDOUT, Net::LDAP::ConnectionRefusedError => e
@result = {
:resultCode => 52,
:errorMessage => ResultStrings[ResultCodeUnavailable],
}
raise e
end
# Normalize encryption parameter the constructor accepts, expands a few
# convenience symbols into recognizable hashes
def normalize_encryption(args)
return if args.nil?
return args if args.is_a? Hash
case method = args.to_sym
when :simple_tls, :start_tls
{ :method => method, :tls_options => {} }
end
end
end # class LDAP