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#--
# = uri/common.rb
#
# Author:: Akira Yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org>
# Revision:: $Id$
# License::
# You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same term as Ruby.
#
# See URI for general documentation
#

module URI
  #
  # Includes URI::REGEXP::PATTERN
  #
  module REGEXP
    #
    # Patterns used to parse URI's
    #
    module PATTERN
      # :stopdoc:

      # RFC 2396 (URI Generic Syntax)
      # RFC 2732 (IPv6 Literal Addresses in URL's)
      # RFC 2373 (IPv6 Addressing Architecture)

      # alpha = lowalpha | upalpha
      ALPHA = "a-zA-Z"
      # alphanum = alpha | digit
      ALNUM = "#{ALPHA}\\d"

      # hex = digit | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" |
      # "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f"
      HEX = "a-fA-F\\d"
      # escaped = "%" hex hex
      ESCAPED = "%[#{HEX}]{2}"
      # mark = "-" | "_" | "." | "!" | "~" | "*" | "'" |
      # "(" | ")"
      # unreserved = alphanum | mark
      UNRESERVED = "\\-_.!~*'()#{ALNUM}"
      # reserved = ";" | "/" | "?" | ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" |
      # "$" | ","
      # reserved = ";" | "/" | "?" | ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" |
      # "$" | "," | "[" | "]" (RFC 2732)
      RESERVED = ";/?:@&=+$,\\[\\]"

      # domainlabel = alphanum | alphanum *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
      DOMLABEL = "(?:[#{ALNUM}](?:[-#{ALNUM}]*[#{ALNUM}])?)"
      # toplabel = alpha | alpha *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
      TOPLABEL = "(?:[#{ALPHA}](?:[-#{ALNUM}]*[#{ALNUM}])?)"
      # hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
      HOSTNAME = "(?:#{DOMLABEL}\\.)*#{TOPLABEL}\\.?"

      # :startdoc:
    end # PATTERN

    # :startdoc:
  end # REGEXP

  # class that Parses String's into URI's
  #
  # It contains a Hash set of patterns and Regexp's that match and validate.
  #
  class Parser
    include REGEXP

    #
    # == Synopsis
    #
    # URI::Parser.new([opts])
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # The constructor accepts a hash as options for parser.
    # Keys of options are pattern names of URI components
    # and values of options are pattern strings.
    # The constructor generetes set of regexps for parsing URIs.
    #
    # You can use the following keys:
    #
    # * <tt>:ESCAPED</tt> (URI::PATTERN::ESCAPED in default)
    # * <tt>:UNRESERVED</tt> (URI::PATTERN::UNRESERVED in default)
    # * <tt>:DOMLABEL</tt> (URI::PATTERN::DOMLABEL in default)
    # * <tt>:TOPLABEL</tt> (URI::PATTERN::TOPLABEL in default)
    # * <tt>:HOSTNAME</tt> (URI::PATTERN::HOSTNAME in default)
    #
    # == Examples
    #
    # p = URI::Parser.new(:ESCPAED => "(?:%[a-fA-F0-9]{2}|%u[a-fA-F0-9]{4})"
    # u = p.parse("http://example.jp/%uABCD") #=> #<URI::HTTP:0xb78cf4f8 URL:http://example.jp/%uABCD>
    # URI.parse(u.to_s) #=> raises URI::InvalidURIError
    #
    # s = "http://examle.com/ABCD"
    # u1 = p.parse(s) #=> #<URI::HTTP:0xb78c3220 URL:http://example.com/ABCD>
    # u2 = URI.parse(s) #=> #<URI::HTTP:0xb78b6d54 URL:http://example.com/ABCD>
    # u1 == u2 #=> true
    # u1.eql?(u2) #=> false
    #
    def initialize(opts = {})
      @pattern = initialize_pattern(opts)
      @pattern.each_value {|v| v.freeze}
      @pattern.freeze

      @regexp = initialize_regexp(@pattern)
      @regexp.each_value {|v| v.freeze}
      @regexp.freeze
    end

    # The Hash of patterns.
    #
    # see also URI::Parser.initialize_pattern
    attr_reader :pattern

    # The Hash of Regexp
    #
    # see also URI::Parser.initialize_regexp
    attr_reader :regexp

    # Returns a split URI against regexp[:ABS_URI]
    def split(uri)
      case uri
      when ''
# null uri

      when @regexp[:ABS_URI]
scheme, opaque, userinfo, host, port,
registry, path, query, fragment = $~[1..-1]

# URI-reference = [ absoluteURI | relativeURI ] [ "#" fragment ]

# absoluteURI = scheme ":" ( hier_part | opaque_part )
# hier_part = ( net_path | abs_path ) [ "?" query ]
# opaque_part = uric_no_slash *uric

# abs_path = "/" path_segments
# net_path = "//" authority [ abs_path ]

# authority = server | reg_name
# server = [ [ userinfo "@" ] hostport ]

if !scheme
raise InvalidURIError,
"bad URI(absolute but no scheme): #{uri}"
end
if !opaque && (!path && (!host && !registry))
raise InvalidURIError,
"bad URI(absolute but no path): #{uri}"
end

      when @regexp[:REL_URI]
scheme = nil
opaque = nil

userinfo, host, port, registry,
rel_segment, abs_path, query, fragment = $~[1..-1]
if rel_segment && abs_path
path = rel_segment + abs_path
elsif rel_segment
path = rel_segment
elsif abs_path
path = abs_path
end

# URI-reference = [ absoluteURI | relativeURI ] [ "#" fragment ]

# relativeURI = ( net_path | abs_path | rel_path ) [ "?" query ]

# net_path = "//" authority [ abs_path ]
# abs_path = "/" path_segments
# rel_path = rel_segment [ abs_path ]

# authority = server | reg_name
# server = [ [ userinfo "@" ] hostport ]

      else
raise InvalidURIError, "bad URI(is not URI?): #{uri}"
      end

      path = '' if !path && !opaque # (see RFC2396 Section 5.2)
      ret = [
scheme,
userinfo, host, port, # X
registry, # X
path, # Y
opaque, # Y
query,
fragment
      ]
      return ret
    end

    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +uri+::
    # String
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # parses +uri+ and constructs either matching URI scheme object
    # (FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, LDAP, LDAPS, or MailTo) or URI::Generic
    #
    # == Usage
    #
    # p = URI::Parser.new
    # p.parse("ldap://ldap.example.com/dc=example?user=john")
    # #=> #<URI::LDAP:0x00000000b9e7e8 URL:ldap://ldap.example.com/dc=example?user=john>
    #
    def parse(uri)
      scheme, userinfo, host, port,
        registry, path, opaque, query, fragment = self.split(uri)

      if scheme && URI.scheme_list.include?(scheme.upcase)
URI.scheme_list[scheme.upcase].new(scheme, userinfo, host, port,
                                           registry, path, opaque, query,
                                           fragment, self)
      else
Generic.new(scheme, userinfo, host, port,
registry, path, opaque, query,
fragment, self)
      end
    end


    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +uris+::
    # an Array of Strings
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # Attempts to parse and merge a set of URIs
    #
    def join(*uris)
      uris[0] = URI(uris[0], self)
      uris.inject :merge
    end

    #
    # :call-seq:
    # extract( str )
    # extract( str, schemes )
    # extract( str, schemes ) {|item| block }
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +str+::
    # String to search
    # +schemes+::
    # Patterns to apply to +str+
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # Attempts to parse and merge a set of URIs
    # If no +block+ given , then returns the result,
    # else it calls +block+ for each element in result.
    #
    # see also URI::Parser.make_regexp
    #
    def extract(str, schemes = nil, &block)
      if block_given?
        str.scan(make_regexp(schemes)) { yield $& }
nil
      else
result = []
str.scan(make_regexp(schemes)) { result.push $& }
result
      end
    end

    # returns Regexp that is default self.regexp[:ABS_URI_REF],
    # unless +schemes+ is provided. Then it is a Regexp.union with self.pattern[:X_ABS_URI]
    def make_regexp(schemes = nil)
      unless schemes
        @regexp[:ABS_URI_REF]
      else
/(?=#{Regexp.union(*schemes)}:)#{@pattern[:X_ABS_URI]}/x
      end
    end

    #
    # :call-seq:
    # escape( str )
    # escape( str, unsafe )
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +str+::
    # String to make safe
    # +unsafe+::
    # Regexp to apply. Defaults to self.regexp[:UNSAFE]
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # constructs a safe String from +str+, removing unsafe characters,
    # replacing them with codes.
    #
    def escape(str, unsafe = @regexp[:UNSAFE])
      unless unsafe.kind_of?(Regexp)
        # perhaps unsafe is String object
        unsafe = Regexp.new("[#{Regexp.quote(unsafe)}]", false)
      end
      str.gsub(unsafe) do
        us = $&
        tmp = ''
        us.each_byte do |uc|
          tmp << sprintf('%%%02X', uc)
        end
        tmp
      end.force_encoding(Encoding::US_ASCII)
    end

    #
    # :call-seq:
    # unescape( str )
    # unescape( str, unsafe )
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +str+::
    # String to remove escapes from
    # +unsafe+::
    # Regexp to apply. Defaults to self.regexp[:ESCAPED]
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # Removes escapes from +str+
    #
    def unescape(str, escaped = @regexp[:ESCAPED])
      str.gsub(escaped) { [$&[1, 2].hex].pack('C') }.force_encoding(str.encoding)
    end

    @@to_s = Kernel.instance_method(:to_s)
    def inspect
      @@to_s.bind(self).call
    end

    private

    # Constructs the default Hash of patterns
    def initialize_pattern(opts = {})
      ret = {}
      ret[:ESCAPED] = escaped = (opts.delete(:ESCAPED) || PATTERN::ESCAPED)
      ret[:UNRESERVED] = unreserved = opts.delete(:UNRESERVED) || PATTERN::UNRESERVED
      ret[:RESERVED] = reserved = opts.delete(:RESERVED) || PATTERN::RESERVED
      ret[:DOMLABEL] = opts.delete(:DOMLABEL) || PATTERN::DOMLABEL
      ret[:TOPLABEL] = opts.delete(:TOPLABEL) || PATTERN::TOPLABEL
      ret[:HOSTNAME] = hostname = opts.delete(:HOSTNAME)

      # RFC 2396 (URI Generic Syntax)
      # RFC 2732 (IPv6 Literal Addresses in URL's)
      # RFC 2373 (IPv6 Addressing Architecture)

      # uric = reserved | unreserved | escaped
      ret[:URIC] = uric = "(?:[#{unreserved}#{reserved}]|#{escaped})"
      # uric_no_slash = unreserved | escaped | ";" | "?" | ":" | "@" |
      # "&" | "=" | "+" | "$" | ","
      ret[:URIC_NO_SLASH] = uric_no_slash = "(?:[#{unreserved};?:@&=+$,]|#{escaped})"
      # query = *uric
      ret[:QUERY] = query = "#{uric}*"
      # fragment = *uric
      ret[:FRAGMENT] = fragment = "#{uric}*"

      # hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
      # reg-name = *( unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims ) # RFC3986
      unless hostname
ret[:HOSTNAME] = hostname = "(?:[a-zA-Z0-9\\-.]|%\\h\\h)+"
      end

      # RFC 2373, APPENDIX B:
      # IPv6address = hexpart [ ":" IPv4address ]
      # IPv4address = 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT
      # hexpart = hexseq | hexseq "::" [ hexseq ] | "::" [ hexseq ]
      # hexseq = hex4 *( ":" hex4)
      # hex4 = 1*4HEXDIG
      #
      # XXX: This definition has a flaw. "::" + IPv4address must be
      # allowed too. Here is a replacement.
      #
      # IPv4address = 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT
      ret[:IPV4ADDR] = ipv4addr = "\\d{1,3}\\.\\d{1,3}\\.\\d{1,3}\\.\\d{1,3}"
      # hex4 = 1*4HEXDIG
      hex4 = "[#{PATTERN::HEX}]{1,4}"
      # lastpart = hex4 | IPv4address
      lastpart = "(?:#{hex4}|#{ipv4addr})"
      # hexseq1 = *( hex4 ":" ) hex4
      hexseq1 = "(?:#{hex4}:)*#{hex4}"
      # hexseq2 = *( hex4 ":" ) lastpart
      hexseq2 = "(?:#{hex4}:)*#{lastpart}"
      # IPv6address = hexseq2 | [ hexseq1 ] "::" [ hexseq2 ]
      ret[:IPV6ADDR] = ipv6addr = "(?:#{hexseq2}|(?:#{hexseq1})?::(?:#{hexseq2})?)"

      # IPv6prefix = ( hexseq1 | [ hexseq1 ] "::" [ hexseq1 ] ) "/" 1*2DIGIT
      # unused

      # ipv6reference = "[" IPv6address "]" (RFC 2732)
      ret[:IPV6REF] = ipv6ref = "\\[#{ipv6addr}\\]"

      # host = hostname | IPv4address
      # host = hostname | IPv4address | IPv6reference (RFC 2732)
      ret[:HOST] = host = "(?:#{hostname}|#{ipv4addr}|#{ipv6ref})"
      # port = *digit
      port = '\d*'
      # hostport = host [ ":" port ]
      ret[:HOSTPORT] = hostport = "#{host}(?::#{port})?"

      # userinfo = *( unreserved | escaped |
      # ";" | ":" | "&" | "=" | "+" | "$" | "," )
      ret[:USERINFO] = userinfo = "(?:[#{unreserved};:&=+$,]|#{escaped})*"

      # pchar = unreserved | escaped |
      # ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" | "$" | ","
      pchar = "(?:[#{unreserved}:@&=+$,]|#{escaped})"
      # param = *pchar
      param = "#{pchar}*"
      # segment = *pchar *( ";" param )
      segment = "#{pchar}*(?:;#{param})*"
      # path_segments = segment *( "/" segment )
      ret[:PATH_SEGMENTS] = path_segments = "#{segment}(?:/#{segment})*"

      # server = [ [ userinfo "@" ] hostport ]
      server = "(?:#{userinfo}@)?#{hostport}"
      # reg_name = 1*( unreserved | escaped | "$" | "," |
      # ";" | ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" )
      ret[:REG_NAME] = reg_name = "(?:[#{unreserved}$,;:@&=+]|#{escaped})+"
      # authority = server | reg_name
      authority = "(?:#{server}|#{reg_name})"

      # rel_segment = 1*( unreserved | escaped |
      # ";" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" | "$" | "," )
      ret[:REL_SEGMENT] = rel_segment = "(?:[#{unreserved};@&=+$,]|#{escaped})+"

      # scheme = alpha *( alpha | digit | "+" | "-" | "." )
      ret[:SCHEME] = scheme = "[#{PATTERN::ALPHA}][\\-+.#{PATTERN::ALPHA}\\d]*"

      # abs_path = "/" path_segments
      ret[:ABS_PATH] = abs_path = "/#{path_segments}"
      # rel_path = rel_segment [ abs_path ]
      ret[:REL_PATH] = rel_path = "#{rel_segment}(?:#{abs_path})?"
      # net_path = "//" authority [ abs_path ]
      ret[:NET_PATH] = net_path = "//#{authority}(?:#{abs_path})?"

      # hier_part = ( net_path | abs_path ) [ "?" query ]
      ret[:HIER_PART] = hier_part = "(?:#{net_path}|#{abs_path})(?:\\?(?:#{query}))?"
      # opaque_part = uric_no_slash *uric
      ret[:OPAQUE_PART] = opaque_part = "#{uric_no_slash}#{uric}*"

      # absoluteURI = scheme ":" ( hier_part | opaque_part )
      ret[:ABS_URI] = abs_uri = "#{scheme}:(?:#{hier_part}|#{opaque_part})"
      # relativeURI = ( net_path | abs_path | rel_path ) [ "?" query ]
      ret[:REL_URI] = rel_uri = "(?:#{net_path}|#{abs_path}|#{rel_path})(?:\\?#{query})?"

      # URI-reference = [ absoluteURI | relativeURI ] [ "#" fragment ]
      ret[:URI_REF] = "(?:#{abs_uri}|#{rel_uri})?(?:##{fragment})?"

      ret[:X_ABS_URI] = "
(#{scheme}): (?# 1: scheme)
(?:
(#{opaque_part}) (?# 2: opaque)
|
(?:(?:
//(?:
(?:(?:(#{userinfo})@)? (?# 3: userinfo)
(?:(#{host})(?::(\\d*))?))? (?# 4: host, 5: port)
|
(#{reg_name}) (?# 6: registry)
)
|
(?!//)) (?# XXX: '//' is the mark for hostport)
(#{abs_path})? (?# 7: path)
)(?:\\?(#{query}))? (?# 8: query)
)
(?:\\#(#{fragment}))? (?# 9: fragment)
"

      ret[:X_REL_URI] = "
(?:
(?:
//
(?:
(?:(#{userinfo})@)? (?# 1: userinfo)
(#{host})?(?::(\\d*))? (?# 2: host, 3: port)
|
(#{reg_name}) (?# 4: registry)
)
)
|
(#{rel_segment}) (?# 5: rel_segment)
)?
(#{abs_path})? (?# 6: abs_path)
(?:\\?(#{query}))? (?# 7: query)
(?:\\#(#{fragment}))? (?# 8: fragment)
"

      ret
    end

    # Constructs the default Hash of Regexp's
    def initialize_regexp(pattern)
      ret = {}

      # for URI::split
      ret[:ABS_URI] = Regexp.new('\A\s*' + pattern[:X_ABS_URI] + '\s*\z', Regexp::EXTENDED)
      ret[:REL_URI] = Regexp.new('\A\s*' + pattern[:X_REL_URI] + '\s*\z', Regexp::EXTENDED)

      # for URI::extract
      ret[:URI_REF] = Regexp.new(pattern[:URI_REF])
      ret[:ABS_URI_REF] = Regexp.new(pattern[:X_ABS_URI], Regexp::EXTENDED)
      ret[:REL_URI_REF] = Regexp.new(pattern[:X_REL_URI], Regexp::EXTENDED)

      # for URI::escape/unescape
      ret[:ESCAPED] = Regexp.new(pattern[:ESCAPED])
      ret[:UNSAFE] = Regexp.new("[^#{pattern[:UNRESERVED]}#{pattern[:RESERVED]}]")

      # for Generic#initialize
      ret[:SCHEME] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:SCHEME]}$")
      ret[:USERINFO] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:USERINFO]}$")
      ret[:HOST] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:HOST]}$")
      ret[:PORT] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:PORT]}$")
      ret[:OPAQUE] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:OPAQUE_PART]}$")
      ret[:REGISTRY] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:REG_NAME]}$")
      ret[:ABS_PATH] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:ABS_PATH]}$")
      ret[:REL_PATH] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:REL_PATH]}$")
      ret[:QUERY] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:QUERY]}$")
      ret[:FRAGMENT] = Regexp.new("^#{pattern[:FRAGMENT]}$")

      ret
    end
  end # class Parser

  # URI::Parser.new
  DEFAULT_PARSER = Parser.new
  DEFAULT_PARSER.pattern.each_pair do |sym, str|
    unless REGEXP::PATTERN.const_defined?(sym)
      REGEXP::PATTERN.const_set(sym, str)
    end
  end
  DEFAULT_PARSER.regexp.each_pair do |sym, str|
    const_set(sym, str)
  end

  module Util # :nodoc:
    def make_components_hash(klass, array_hash)
      tmp = {}
      if array_hash.kind_of?(Array) &&
          array_hash.size == klass.component.size - 1
        klass.component[1..-1].each_index do |i|
          begin
            tmp[klass.component[i + 1]] = array_hash[i].clone
          rescue TypeError
            tmp[klass.component[i + 1]] = array_hash[i]
          end
        end

      elsif array_hash.kind_of?(Hash)
        array_hash.each do |key, value|
          begin
            tmp[key] = value.clone
          rescue TypeError
            tmp[key] = value
          end
        end
      else
        raise ArgumentError,
          "expected Array of or Hash of components of #{klass.to_s} (#{klass.component[1..-1].join(', ')})"
      end
      tmp[:scheme] = klass.to_s.sub(/\A.*::/, '').downcase

      return tmp
    end
    module_function :make_components_hash
  end

  # module for escaping unsafe characters with codes.
  module Escape
    #
    # == Synopsis
    #
    # URI.escape(str [, unsafe])
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +str+::
    # String to replaces in.
    # +unsafe+::
    # Regexp that matches all symbols that must be replaced with codes.
    # By default uses <tt>REGEXP::UNSAFE</tt>.
    # When this argument is a String, it represents a character set.
    #
    # == Description
    #
    # Escapes the string, replacing all unsafe characters with codes.
    #
    # == Usage
    #
    # require 'uri'
    #
    # enc_uri = URI.escape("http://example.com/?a=\11\15")
    # p enc_uri
    # # => "http://example.com/?a=%09%0D"
    #
    # p URI.unescape(enc_uri)
    # # => "http://example.com/?a=\t\r"
    #
    # p URI.escape("@?@!", "!?")
    # # => "@%3F@%21"
    #
    def escape(*arg)
      warn "#{caller(1)[0]}: warning: URI.escape is obsolete" if $VERBOSE
      DEFAULT_PARSER.escape(*arg)
    end
    alias encode escape
    #
    # == Synopsis
    #
    # URI.unescape(str)
    #
    # == Args
    #
    # +str+::
    # Unescapes the string.
    #
    # == Usage
    #
    # require 'uri'
    #
    # enc_uri = URI.escape("http://example.com/?a=\11\15")
    # p enc_uri
    # # => "http://example.com/?a=%09%0D"
    #
    # p URI.unescape(enc_uri)
    # # => "http://example.com/?a=\t\r"
    #
    def unescape(*arg)
      warn "#{caller(1)[0]}: warning: URI.unescape is obsolete" if $VERBOSE
      DEFAULT_PARSER.unescape(*arg)
    end
    alias decode unescape
  end # module Escape

  extend Escape
  include REGEXP

  @@schemes = {}
  # Returns a Hash of the defined schemes
  def self.scheme_list
    @@schemes
  end

  #
  # Base class for all URI exceptions.
  #
  class Error < StandardError; end
  #
  # Not a URI.
  #
  class InvalidURIError < Error; end
  #
  # Not a URI component.
  #
  class InvalidComponentError < Error; end
  #
  # URI is valid, bad usage is not.
  #
  class BadURIError < Error; end

  #
  # == Synopsis
  #
  # URI::split(uri)
  #
  # == Args
  #
  # +uri+::
  # String with URI.
  #
  # == Description
  #
  # Splits the string on following parts and returns array with result:
  #
  # * Scheme
  # * Userinfo
  # * Host
  # * Port
  # * Registry
  # * Path
  # * Opaque
  # * Query
  # * Fragment
  #
  # == Usage
  #
  # require 'uri'
  #
  # p URI.split("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
  # # => ["http", nil, "www.ruby-lang.org", nil, nil, "/", nil, nil, nil]
  #
  def self.split(uri)
    DEFAULT_PARSER.split(uri)
  end

  #
  # == Synopsis
  #
  # URI::parse(uri_str)
  #
  # == Args
  #
  # +uri_str+::
  # String with URI.
  #
  # == Description
  #
  # Creates one of the URI's subclasses instance from the string.
  #
  # == Raises
  #
  # URI::InvalidURIError
  # Raised if URI given is not a correct one.
  #
  # == Usage
  #
  # require 'uri'
  #
  # uri = URI.parse("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
  # p uri
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x202281be URL:http://www.ruby-lang.org/>
  # p uri.scheme
  # # => "http"
  # p uri.host
  # # => "www.ruby-lang.org"
  #
  def self.parse(uri)
    DEFAULT_PARSER.parse(uri)
  end

  #
  # == Synopsis
  #
  # URI::join(str[, str, ...])
  #
  # == Args
  #
  # +str+::
  # String(s) to work with
  #
  # == Description
  #
  # Joins URIs.
  #
  # == Usage
  #
  # require 'uri'
  #
  # p URI.join("http://example.com/","main.rbx")
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x2022ac02 URL:http://localhost/main.rbx>
  #
  # p URI.join('http://example.com', 'foo')
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x01ab80a0 URL:http://example.com/foo>
  #
  # p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', '/bar')
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x01aaf0b0 URL:http://example.com/bar>
  #
  # p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', 'bar')
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x801a92af0 URL:http://example.com/bar>
  #
  # p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo/', 'bar')
  # # => #<URI::HTTP:0x80135a3a0 URL:http://example.com/foo/bar>
  #
  #
  def self.join(*str)
    DEFAULT_PARSER.join(*str)
  end

  #
  # == Synopsis
  #
  # URI::extract(str[, schemes][,&blk])
  #
  # == Args
  #
  # +str+::
  # String to extract URIs from.
  # +schemes+::
  # Limit URI matching to a specific schemes.
  #
  # == Description
  #
  # Extracts URIs from a string. If block given, iterates through all matched URIs.
  # Returns nil if block given or array with matches.
  #
  # == Usage
  #
  # require "uri"
  #
  # URI.extract("text here http://foo.example.org/bla and here mailto:test@example.com and here also.")
  # # => ["http://foo.example.com/bla", "mailto:test@example.com"]
  #
  def self.extract(str, schemes = nil, &block)
    DEFAULT_PARSER.extract(str, schemes, &block)
  end

  #
  # == Synopsis
  #
  # URI::regexp([match_schemes])
  #
  # == Args
  #
  # +match_schemes+::
  # Array of schemes. If given, resulting regexp matches to URIs
  # whose scheme is one of the match_schemes.
  #
  # == Description
  # Returns a Regexp object which matches to URI-like strings.
  # The Regexp object returned by this method includes arbitrary
  # number of capture group (parentheses). Never rely on it's number.
  #
  # == Usage
  #
  # require 'uri'
  #
  # # extract first URI from html_string
  # html_string.slice(URI.regexp)
  #
  # # remove ftp URIs
  # html_string.sub(URI.regexp(['ftp'])
  #
  # # You should not rely on the number of parentheses
  # html_string.scan(URI.regexp) do |*matches|
  # p $&
  # end
  #
  def self.regexp(schemes = nil)
    DEFAULT_PARSER.make_regexp(schemes)
  end

  TBLENCWWWCOMP_ = {} # :nodoc:
  TBLDECWWWCOMP_ = {} # :nodoc:
  HTML5ASCIIINCOMPAT = [Encoding::UTF_7, Encoding::UTF_16BE, Encoding::UTF_16LE,
    Encoding::UTF_32BE, Encoding::UTF_32LE] # :nodoc:

  # Encode given +str+ to URL-encoded form data.
  #
  # This method doesn't convert *, -, ., 0-9, A-Z, _, a-z, but does convert SP
  # (ASCII space) to + and converts others to %XX.
  #
  # This is an implementation of
  # http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/forms.html#url-encoded-form-data
  #
  # See URI.decode_www_form_component, URI.encode_www_form
  def self.encode_www_form_component(str)
    if TBLENCWWWCOMP_.empty?
      tbl = {}
      256.times do |i|
        tbl[i.chr] = '%%%02X' % i
      end
      tbl[' '] = '+'
      begin
        TBLENCWWWCOMP_.replace(tbl)
        TBLENCWWWCOMP_.freeze
      rescue
      end
    end
    str = str.to_s
    if HTML5ASCIIINCOMPAT.include?(str.encoding)
      str = str.encode(Encoding::UTF_8)
    else
      str = str.dup
    end
    str.force_encoding(Encoding::ASCII_8BIT)
    str.gsub!(/[^*\-.0-9A-Z_a-z]/, TBLENCWWWCOMP_)
    str.force_encoding(Encoding::US_ASCII)
  end

  # Decode given +str+ of URL-encoded form data.
  #
  # This decods + to SP.
  #
  # See URI.encode_www_form_component, URI.decode_www_form
  def self.decode_www_form_component(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8)
    if TBLDECWWWCOMP_.empty?
      tbl = {}
      256.times do |i|
        h, l = i>>4, i&15
        tbl['%%%X%X' % [h, l]] = i.chr
        tbl['%%%x%X' % [h, l]] = i.chr
        tbl['%%%X%x' % [h, l]] = i.chr
        tbl['%%%x%x' % [h, l]] = i.chr
      end
      tbl['+'] = ' '
      begin
        TBLDECWWWCOMP_.replace(tbl)
        TBLDECWWWCOMP_.freeze
      rescue
      end
    end
    raise ArgumentError, "invalid %-encoding (#{str})" unless /\A(?:%\h\h|[^%]+)*\z/ =~ str
    str.gsub(/\+|%\h\h/, TBLDECWWWCOMP_).force_encoding(enc)
  end

  # Generate URL-encoded form data from given +enum+.
  #
  # This generates application/x-www-form-urlencoded data defined in HTML5
  # from given an Enumerable object.
  #
  # This internally uses URI.encode_www_form_component(str).
  #
  # This method doesn't convert the encoding of given items, so convert them
  # before call this method if you want to send data as other than original
  # encoding or mixed encoding data. (Strings which are encoded in an HTML5
  # ASCII incompatible encoding are converted to UTF-8.)
  #
  # This method doesn't handle files. When you send a file, use
  # multipart/form-data.
  #
  # This is an implementation of
  # http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/forms.html#url-encoded-form-data
  #
  # URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["lang", "en"]])
  # #=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
  # URI.encode_www_form("q" => "ruby", "lang" => "en")
  # #=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
  # URI.encode_www_form("q" => ["ruby", "perl"], "lang" => "en")
  # #=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"
  # URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["q", "perl"], ["lang", "en"]])
  # #=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"
  #
  # See URI.encode_www_form_component, URI.decode_www_form
  def self.encode_www_form(enum)
    enum.map do |k,v|
      if v.nil?
        encode_www_form_component(k)
      elsif v.respond_to?(:to_ary)
        v.to_ary.map do |w|
          str = encode_www_form_component(k)
          unless w.nil?
            str << '='
            str << encode_www_form_component(w)
          end
        end.join('&')
      else
        str = encode_www_form_component(k)
        str << '='
        str << encode_www_form_component(v)
      end
    end.join('&')
  end

  WFKV_ = '(?:%\h\h|[^%#=;&])' # :nodoc:

  # Decode URL-encoded form data from given +str+.
  #
  # This decodes application/x-www-form-urlencoded data
  # and returns array of key-value array.
  # This internally uses URI.decode_www_form_component.
  #
  # _charset_ hack is not supported now because the mapping from given charset
  # to Ruby's encoding is not clear yet.
  # see also http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/syntax.html#character-encodings-0
  #
  # This refers http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/forms.html#url-encoded-form-data
  #
  # ary = URI.decode_www_form("a=1&a=2&b=3")
  # p ary #=> [['a', '1'], ['a', '2'], ['b', '3']]
  # p ary.assoc('a').last #=> '1'
  # p ary.assoc('b').last #=> '3'
  # p ary.rassoc('a').last #=> '2'
  # p Hash[ary] # => {"a"=>"2", "b"=>"3"}
  #
  # See URI.decode_www_form_component, URI.encode_www_form
  def self.decode_www_form(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8)
    return [] if str.empty?
    unless /\A#{WFKV_}*=#{WFKV_}*(?:[;&]#{WFKV_}*=#{WFKV_}*)*\z/o =~ str
      raise ArgumentError, "invalid data of application/x-www-form-urlencoded (#{str})"
    end
    ary = []
    $&.scan(/([^=;&]+)=([^;&]*)/) do
      ary << [decode_www_form_component($1, enc), decode_www_form_component($2, enc)]
    end
    ary
  end
end # module URI

module Kernel

  #
  # Returns +uri+ converted to a URI object.
  #
  def URI(uri, parser = URI::DEFAULT_PARSER)
    if uri.is_a?(URI::Generic)
      uri
    elsif uri = String.try_convert(uri)
      parser.parse(uri)
    else
      raise ArgumentError,
        "bad argument (expected URI object or URI string)"
    end
  end
  module_function :URI
end
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