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# frozen_string_literal: true
#
# = ostruct.rb: OpenStruct implementation
#
# Author:: Yukihiro Matsumoto
# Documentation:: Gavin Sinclair
#
# OpenStruct allows the creation of data objects with arbitrary attributes.
# See OpenStruct for an example.
#
#
# An OpenStruct is a data structure, similar to a Hash, that allows the
# definition of arbitrary attributes with their accompanying values. This is
# accomplished by using Ruby's metaprogramming to define methods on the class
# itself.
#
# == Examples
#
# require "ostruct"
#
# person = OpenStruct.new
# person.name = "John Smith"
# person.age = 70
#
# person.name # => "John Smith"
# person.age # => 70
# person.address # => nil
#
# An OpenStruct employs a Hash internally to store the attributes and values
# and can even be initialized with one:
#
# australia = OpenStruct.new(:country => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra")
# # => #<OpenStruct country="Australia", capital="Canberra">
#
# Hash keys with spaces or characters that could normally not be used for
# method calls (e.g. <code>()[]*</code>) will not be immediately available
# on the OpenStruct object as a method for retrieval or assignment, but can
# still be reached through the Object#send method.
#
# measurements = OpenStruct.new("length (in inches)" => 24)
# measurements.send("length (in inches)") # => 24
#
# message = OpenStruct.new(:queued? => true)
# message.queued? # => true
# message.send("queued?=", false)
# message.queued? # => false
#
# Removing the presence of an attribute requires the execution of the
# delete_field method as setting the property value to +nil+ will not
# remove the attribute.
#
# first_pet = OpenStruct.new(:name => "Rowdy", :owner => "John Smith")
# second_pet = OpenStruct.new(:name => "Rowdy")
#
# first_pet.owner = nil
# first_pet # => #<OpenStruct name="Rowdy", owner=nil>
# first_pet == second_pet # => false
#
# first_pet.delete_field(:owner)
# first_pet # => #<OpenStruct name="Rowdy">
# first_pet == second_pet # => true
#
#
# == Implementation
#
# An OpenStruct utilizes Ruby's method lookup structure to find and define the
# necessary methods for properties. This is accomplished through the methods
# method_missing and define_singleton_method.
#
# This should be a consideration if there is a concern about the performance of
# the objects that are created, as there is much more overhead in the setting
# of these properties compared to using a Hash or a Struct.
#
class OpenStruct
#
# Creates a new OpenStruct object. By default, the resulting OpenStruct
# object will have no attributes.
#
# The optional +hash+, if given, will generate attributes and values
# (can be a Hash, an OpenStruct or a Struct).
# For example:
#
# require "ostruct"
# hash = { "country" => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra" }
# data = OpenStruct.new(hash)
#
# data # => #<OpenStruct country="Australia", capital="Canberra">
#
def initialize(hash=nil)
@table = {}
if hash
hash.each_pair do |k, v|
k = k.to_sym
@table[k] = v
end
end
end
# Duplicates an OpenStruct object's Hash table.
def initialize_copy(orig) # :nodoc:
super
@table = @table.dup
end
#
# call-seq:
# ostruct.to_h -> hash
# ostruct.to_h {|name, value| block } -> hash
#
# Converts the OpenStruct to a hash with keys representing
# each attribute (as symbols) and their corresponding values.
#
# If a block is given, the results of the block on each pair of
# the receiver will be used as pairs.
#
# require "ostruct"
# data = OpenStruct.new("country" => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra")
# data.to_h # => {:country => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra" }
# data.to_h {|name, value| [name.to_s, value.upcase] }
# # => {"country" => "AUSTRALIA", "capital" => "CANBERRA" }
#
def to_h(&block)
if block_given?
@table.to_h(&block)
else
@table.dup
end
end
#
# :call-seq:
# ostruct.each_pair {|name, value| block } -> ostruct
# ostruct.each_pair -> Enumerator
#
# Yields all attributes (as symbols) along with the corresponding values
# or returns an enumerator if no block is given.
#
# require "ostruct"
# data = OpenStruct.new("country" => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra")
# data.each_pair.to_a # => [[:country, "Australia"], [:capital, "Canberra"]]
#
def each_pair
return to_enum(__method__) { @table.size } unless block_given?
@table.each_pair{|p| yield p}
self
end
#
# Provides marshalling support for use by the Marshal library.
#
def marshal_dump
@table
end
#
# Provides marshalling support for use by the Marshal library.
#
def marshal_load(x)
@table = x
end
#
# Used internally to check if the OpenStruct is able to be
# modified before granting access to the internal Hash table to be modified.
#
def modifiable? # :nodoc:
begin
@modifiable = true
rescue
exception_class = defined?(FrozenError) ? FrozenError : RuntimeError
raise exception_class, "can't modify frozen #{self.class}", caller(3)
end
@table
end
private :modifiable?
#
# Used internally to defined properties on the
# OpenStruct. It does this by using the metaprogramming function
# define_singleton_method for both the getter method and the setter method.
#
def new_ostruct_member!(name) # :nodoc:
name = name.to_sym
unless singleton_class.method_defined?(name)
define_singleton_method(name) { @table[name] }
define_singleton_method("#{name}=") {|x| modifiable?[name] = x}
end
name
end
private :new_ostruct_member!
def freeze
@table.each_key {|key| new_ostruct_member!(key)}
super
end
def respond_to_missing?(mid, include_private = false) # :nodoc:
mname = mid.to_s.chomp("=").to_sym
defined?(@table) && @table.key?(mname) || super
end
def method_missing(mid, *args) # :nodoc:
len = args.length
if mname = mid[/.*(?==\z)/m]
if len != 1
raise ArgumentError, "wrong number of arguments (given #{len}, expected 1)", caller(1)
end
modifiable?[new_ostruct_member!(mname)] = args[0]
elsif len == 0 # and /\A[a-z_]\w*\z/ =~ mid #
if @table.key?(mid)
new_ostruct_member!(mid) unless frozen?
@table[mid]
end
elsif @table.key?(mid)
raise ArgumentError, "wrong number of arguments (given #{len}, expected 0)"
else
begin
super
rescue NoMethodError => err
err.backtrace.shift
raise
end
end
end
#
# :call-seq:
# ostruct[name] -> object
#
# Returns the value of an attribute.
#
# require "ostruct"
# person = OpenStruct.new("name" => "John Smith", "age" => 70)
# person[:age] # => 70, same as person.age
#
def [](name)
@table[name.to_sym]
end
#
# :call-seq:
# ostruct[name] = obj -> obj
#
# Sets the value of an attribute.
#
# require "ostruct"
# person = OpenStruct.new("name" => "John Smith", "age" => 70)
# person[:age] = 42 # equivalent to person.age = 42
# person.age # => 42
#
def []=(name, value)
modifiable?[new_ostruct_member!(name)] = value
end
#
# :call-seq:
# ostruct.dig(name, ...) -> object
#
# Extracts the nested value specified by the sequence of +name+
# objects by calling +dig+ at each step, returning +nil+ if any
# intermediate step is +nil+.
#
# require "ostruct"
# address = OpenStruct.new("city" => "Anytown NC", "zip" => 12345)
# person = OpenStruct.new("name" => "John Smith", "address" => address)
#
# person.dig(:address, "zip") # => 12345
# person.dig(:business_address, "zip") # => nil
#
# data = OpenStruct.new(:array => [1, [2, 3]])
#
# data.dig(:array, 1, 0) # => 2
# data.dig(:array, 0, 0) # TypeError: Integer does not have #dig method
#
def dig(name, *names)
begin
name = name.to_sym
rescue NoMethodError
raise TypeError, "#{name} is not a symbol nor a string"
end
@table.dig(name, *names)
end
#
# Removes the named field from the object. Returns the value that the field
# contained if it was defined.
#
# require "ostruct"
#
# person = OpenStruct.new(name: "John", age: 70, pension: 300)
#
# person.delete_field("age") # => 70
# person # => #<OpenStruct name="John", pension=300>
#
# Setting the value to +nil+ will not remove the attribute:
#
# person.pension = nil
# person # => #<OpenStruct name="John", pension=nil>
#
def delete_field(name)
sym = name.to_sym
begin
singleton_class.remove_method(sym, "#{sym}=")
rescue NameError
end
@table.delete(sym) do
raise NameError.new("no field `#{sym}' in #{self}", sym)
end
end
InspectKey = :__inspect_key__ # :nodoc:
#
# Returns a string containing a detailed summary of the keys and values.
#
def inspect
ids = (Thread.current[InspectKey] ||= [])
if ids.include?(object_id)
detail = ' ...'
else
ids << object_id
begin
detail = @table.map do |key, value|
" #{key}=#{value.inspect}"
end.join(',')
ensure
ids.pop
end
end
['#<', self.class, detail, '>'].join
end
alias :to_s :inspect
attr_reader :table # :nodoc:
protected :table
alias table! table
#
# Compares this object and +other+ for equality. An OpenStruct is equal to
# +other+ when +other+ is an OpenStruct and the two objects' Hash tables are
# equal.
#
# require "ostruct"
# first_pet = OpenStruct.new("name" => "Rowdy")
# second_pet = OpenStruct.new(:name => "Rowdy")
# third_pet = OpenStruct.new("name" => "Rowdy", :age => nil)
#
# first_pet == second_pet # => true
# first_pet == third_pet # => false
#
def ==(other)
return false unless other.kind_of?(OpenStruct)
@table == other.table!
end
#
# Compares this object and +other+ for equality. An OpenStruct is eql? to
# +other+ when +other+ is an OpenStruct and the two objects' Hash tables are
# eql?.
#
def eql?(other)
return false unless other.kind_of?(OpenStruct)
@table.eql?(other.table!)
end
# Computes a hash code for this OpenStruct.
# Two OpenStruct objects with the same content will have the same hash code
# (and will compare using #eql?).
#
# See also Object#hash.
def hash
@table.hash
end
end
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