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/**********************************************************************

array.c -

$Author$
created at: Fri Aug 6 09:46:12 JST 1993

Copyright (C) 1993-2007 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Copyright (C) 2000 Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby/ruby.h"
#include "ruby/util.h"
#include "ruby/st.h"
#include "ruby/encoding.h"
#include "internal.h"
#include "probes.h"
#include "id.h"

#ifndef ARRAY_DEBUG
# define NDEBUG
#endif
#include <assert.h>

VALUE rb_cArray;

static ID id_cmp, id_div, id_power;

#define ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE 16
#define ARY_MAX_SIZE (LONG_MAX / (int)sizeof(VALUE))

# define ARY_SHARED_P(ary) \
(assert(!FL_TEST((ary), ELTS_SHARED) || !FL_TEST((ary), RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG)), \
FL_TEST((ary),ELTS_SHARED)!=0)
# define ARY_EMBED_P(ary) \
(assert(!FL_TEST((ary), ELTS_SHARED) || !FL_TEST((ary), RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG)), \
FL_TEST((ary), RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG)!=0)

#define ARY_HEAP_PTR(a) (assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(a)), RARRAY(a)->as.heap.ptr)
#define ARY_HEAP_LEN(a) (assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(a)), RARRAY(a)->as.heap.len)
#define ARY_EMBED_PTR(a) (assert(ARY_EMBED_P(a)), RARRAY(a)->as.ary)
#define ARY_EMBED_LEN(a) \
(assert(ARY_EMBED_P(a)), \
(long)((RBASIC(a)->flags >> RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_SHIFT) & \
(RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MASK >> RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_SHIFT)))
#define ARY_HEAP_SIZE(a) (assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(a)), assert(ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(a)), RARRAY(a)->as.heap.aux.capa * sizeof(VALUE))

#define ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(a) (!FL_TEST((a), ELTS_SHARED|RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG))
#define FL_SET_EMBED(a) do { \
assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(a)); \
FL_SET((a), RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG); \
} while (0)
#define FL_UNSET_EMBED(ary) FL_UNSET((ary), RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG|RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MASK)
#define FL_SET_SHARED(ary) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
FL_SET((ary), ELTS_SHARED); \
} while (0)
#define FL_UNSET_SHARED(ary) FL_UNSET((ary), ELTS_SHARED)

#define ARY_SET_PTR(ary, p) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary)); \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.ptr = (p); \
} while (0)
#define ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(ary, n) do { \
long tmp_n = (n); \
assert(ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary)); \
RBASIC(ary)->flags &= ~RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MASK; \
RBASIC(ary)->flags |= (tmp_n) << RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_SHIFT; \
} while (0)
#define ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN(ary, n) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.len = (n); \
} while (0)
#define ARY_SET_LEN(ary, n) do { \
if (ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) { \
ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN((ary), (n)); \
} \
else { \
ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN((ary), (n)); \
} \
assert(RARRAY_LEN(ary) == (n)); \
} while (0)
#define ARY_INCREASE_PTR(ary, n) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary)); \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.ptr += (n); \
} while (0)
#define ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, n) do { \
assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary)); \
if (ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) { \
ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN((ary), RARRAY_LEN(ary)+(n)); \
} \
else { \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.len += (n); \
} \
} while (0)

#define ARY_CAPA(ary) (ARY_EMBED_P(ary) ? RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX : \
ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(ary) ? RARRAY_LEN(ary) : RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa)
#define ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, n) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(ary)); \
assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary)); \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa = (n); \
} while (0)

#define ARY_SHARED(ary) (assert(ARY_SHARED_P(ary)), RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.shared)
#define ARY_SET_SHARED(ary, value) do { \
const VALUE _ary_ = (ary); \
const VALUE _value_ = (value); \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(_ary_)); \
assert(ARY_SHARED_P(_ary_)); \
assert(ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(_value_)); \
RB_OBJ_WRITE(_ary_, &RARRAY(_ary_)->as.heap.aux.shared, _value_); \
} while (0)
#define RARRAY_SHARED_ROOT_FLAG FL_USER5
#define ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(ary) (FL_TEST((ary), RARRAY_SHARED_ROOT_FLAG))
#define ARY_SHARED_NUM(ary) \
(assert(ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(ary)), RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa)
#define ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(ary) (ARY_SHARED_NUM(ary) == 1)
#define ARY_SET_SHARED_NUM(ary, value) do { \
assert(ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(ary)); \
RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa = (value); \
} while (0)
#define FL_SET_SHARED_ROOT(ary) do { \
assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); \
FL_SET((ary), RARRAY_SHARED_ROOT_FLAG); \
} while (0)

#define ARY_SET(a, i, v) RARRAY_ASET((assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(a)), (a)), (i), (v))

void
rb_mem_clear(register VALUE *mem, register long size)
{
    while (size--) {
*mem++ = Qnil;
    }
}

static void
ary_mem_clear(VALUE ary, long beg, long size)
{
    RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
rb_mem_clear(ptr + beg, size);
    });
}

static inline void
memfill(register VALUE *mem, register long size, register VALUE val)
{
    while (size--) {
*mem++ = val;
    }
}

static void
ary_memfill(VALUE ary, long beg, long size, VALUE val)
{
    RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
memfill(ptr + beg, size, val);
RB_OBJ_WRITTEN(ary, Qundef, val);
    });
}

static void
ary_memcpy0(VALUE ary, long beg, long argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE buff_owner_ary)
{
#if 1
    assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(buff_owner_ary));

    if (OBJ_PROMOTED(buff_owner_ary)) {
if (argc > (int)(128/sizeof(VALUE)) /* is magic number (cache line size) */) {
rb_gc_writebarrier_remember_promoted(buff_owner_ary);
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMCPY(ptr+beg, argv, VALUE, argc);
});
}
else {
int i;
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
RB_OBJ_WRITE(buff_owner_ary, &ptr[i+beg], argv[i]);
}
});
}
    }
    else {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMCPY(ptr+beg, argv, VALUE, argc);
});
    }
#else
    /* giveup write barrier (traditional way) */
    RARRAY_PTR(buff_owner_ary);
    MEMCPY(RARRAY_PTR(ary)+beg, argv, VALUE, argc);
#endif
}

static void
ary_memcpy(VALUE ary, long beg, long argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
    ary_memcpy0(ary, beg, argc, argv, ary);
}

static void
ary_resize_capa(VALUE ary, long capacity)
{
    assert(RARRAY_LEN(ary) <= capacity);
    assert(!OBJ_FROZEN(ary));
    assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(ary));
    if (capacity > RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
        if (ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
            long len = ARY_EMBED_LEN(ary);
            VALUE *ptr = ALLOC_N(VALUE, (capacity));
            MEMCPY(ptr, ARY_EMBED_PTR(ary), VALUE, len);
            FL_UNSET_EMBED(ary);
            ARY_SET_PTR(ary, ptr);
            ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN(ary, len);
        }
        else {
SIZED_REALLOC_N(RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.ptr, VALUE, capacity, RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa);
        }
        ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, (capacity));
    }
    else {
        if (!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
            long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
const VALUE *ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);

if (len > capacity) len = capacity;
            MEMCPY((VALUE *)RARRAY(ary)->as.ary, ptr, VALUE, len);
            FL_SET_EMBED(ary);
            ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
ruby_xfree((VALUE *)ptr);
        }
    }
}

static inline void
ary_shrink_capa(VALUE ary)
{
    long capacity = ARY_HEAP_LEN(ary);
    long old_capa = RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa;
    assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(ary));
    assert(old_capa >= capacity);
    if (old_capa > capacity)
REALLOC_N(RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.ptr, VALUE, capacity);
}

static void
ary_double_capa(VALUE ary, long min)
{
    long new_capa = ARY_CAPA(ary) / 2;

    if (new_capa < ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE) {
new_capa = ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE;
    }
    if (new_capa >= ARY_MAX_SIZE - min) {
new_capa = (ARY_MAX_SIZE - min) / 2;
    }
    new_capa += min;
    ary_resize_capa(ary, new_capa);
}

static void
rb_ary_decrement_share(VALUE shared)
{
    if (shared) {
long num = ARY_SHARED_NUM(shared) - 1;
if (num == 0) {
rb_ary_free(shared);
rb_gc_force_recycle(shared);
}
else if (num > 0) {
ARY_SET_SHARED_NUM(shared, num);
}
    }
}

static void
rb_ary_unshare(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE shared = RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.shared;
    rb_ary_decrement_share(shared);
    FL_UNSET_SHARED(ary);
}

static inline void
rb_ary_unshare_safe(VALUE ary)
{
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary) && !ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
rb_ary_unshare(ary);
    }
}

static VALUE
rb_ary_increment_share(VALUE shared)
{
    long num = ARY_SHARED_NUM(shared);
    if (num >= 0) {
ARY_SET_SHARED_NUM(shared, num + 1);
    }
    return shared;
}

static void
rb_ary_set_shared(VALUE ary, VALUE shared)
{
    rb_ary_increment_share(shared);
    FL_SET_SHARED(ary);
    ARY_SET_SHARED(ary, shared);
}

static inline void
rb_ary_modify_check(VALUE ary)
{
    rb_check_frozen(ary);
}

void
rb_ary_modify(VALUE ary)
{
    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
long shared_len, len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
VALUE shared = ARY_SHARED(ary);
        if (len <= RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
const VALUE *ptr = ARY_HEAP_PTR(ary);
            FL_UNSET_SHARED(ary);
            FL_SET_EMBED(ary);
MEMCPY((VALUE *)ARY_EMBED_PTR(ary), ptr, VALUE, len);
            rb_ary_decrement_share(shared);
            ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(ary, len);
        }
else if (ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(shared) && len > ((shared_len = RARRAY_LEN(shared))>>1)) {
long shift = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary) - RARRAY_CONST_PTR(shared);
FL_UNSET_SHARED(ary);
ARY_SET_PTR(ary, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(shared));
ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, shared_len);
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMMOVE(ptr, ptr+shift, VALUE, len);
});
FL_SET_EMBED(shared);
rb_ary_decrement_share(shared);
}
        else {
            VALUE *ptr = ALLOC_N(VALUE, len);
            MEMCPY(ptr, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary), VALUE, len);
            rb_ary_unshare(ary);
            ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, len);
            ARY_SET_PTR(ary, ptr);
        }

/* TODO: age2 promotion, OBJ_PROMOTED() checks not infant. */
if (OBJ_PROMOTED(ary) && !OBJ_PROMOTED(shared)) {
rb_gc_writebarrier_remember_promoted(ary);
}
    }
}

static VALUE
ary_ensure_room_for_push(VALUE ary, long add_len)
{
    long new_len = RARRAY_LEN(ary) + add_len;
    long capa;

    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
if (new_len > RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
VALUE shared = ARY_SHARED(ary);
if (ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(shared)) {
if (RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary) - RARRAY_CONST_PTR(shared) + new_len <= RARRAY_LEN(shared)) {
rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
return shared;
}
else {
/* if array is shared, then it is likely it participate in push/shift pattern */
rb_ary_modify(ary);
capa = ARY_CAPA(ary);
if (new_len > capa - (capa >> 6)) {
ary_double_capa(ary, new_len);
}
return ary;
}
}
}
    }
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    capa = ARY_CAPA(ary);
    if (new_len > capa) {
ary_double_capa(ary, new_len);
    }

    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.freeze -> ary
*
* Calls Object#freeze on +ary+ to prevent any further
* modification. A RuntimeError will be raised if a modification
* attempt is made.
*
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_freeze(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_obj_freeze(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.frozen? -> true or false
*
* Return +true+ if this array is frozen (or temporarily frozen
* while being sorted). See also Object#frozen?
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_frozen_p(VALUE ary)
{
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(ary)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

/* This can be used to take a snapshot of an array (with
e.g. rb_ary_replace) and check later whether the array has been
modified from the snapshot. The snapshot is cheap, though if
something does modify the array it will pay the cost of copying
it. If Array#pop or Array#shift has been called, the array will
be still shared with the snapshot, but the array length will
differ. */
VALUE
rb_ary_shared_with_p(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    if (!ARY_EMBED_P(ary1) && ARY_SHARED_P(ary1) &&
!ARY_EMBED_P(ary2) && ARY_SHARED_P(ary2) &&
RARRAY(ary1)->as.heap.aux.shared == RARRAY(ary2)->as.heap.aux.shared &&
RARRAY(ary1)->as.heap.len == RARRAY(ary2)->as.heap.len) {
return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}

static VALUE
ary_alloc(VALUE klass)
{
    NEWOBJ_OF(ary, struct RArray, klass, T_ARRAY | RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG | (RGENGC_WB_PROTECTED_ARRAY ? FL_WB_PROTECTED : 0));
    /* Created array is:
* FL_SET_EMBED((VALUE)ary);
* ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN((VALUE)ary, 0);
*/
    return (VALUE)ary;
}

static VALUE
empty_ary_alloc(VALUE klass)
{
    if (RUBY_DTRACE_ARRAY_CREATE_ENABLED()) {
RUBY_DTRACE_ARRAY_CREATE(0, rb_sourcefile(), rb_sourceline());
    }

    return ary_alloc(klass);
}

static VALUE
ary_new(VALUE klass, long capa)
{
    VALUE ary,*ptr;

    if (capa < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative array size (or size too big)");
    }
    if (capa > ARY_MAX_SIZE) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "array size too big");
    }

    if (RUBY_DTRACE_ARRAY_CREATE_ENABLED()) {
RUBY_DTRACE_ARRAY_CREATE(capa, rb_sourcefile(), rb_sourceline());
    }

    if (capa > RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
ptr = ALLOC_N(VALUE, capa);
ary = ary_alloc(klass);
        FL_UNSET_EMBED(ary);
        ARY_SET_PTR(ary, ptr);
        ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, capa);
        ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN(ary, 0);
    }
    else {
ary = ary_alloc(klass);
    }

    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_new_capa(long capa)
{
    return ary_new(rb_cArray, capa);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_new(void)
{
    return rb_ary_new2(RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_new_from_args(long n, ...)
{
    va_list ar;
    VALUE ary;
    long i;

    ary = rb_ary_new2(n);

    va_start(ar, n);
    for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
ARY_SET(ary, i, va_arg(ar, VALUE));
    }
    va_end(ar);

    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, n);
    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_new_from_values(long n, const VALUE *elts)
{
    VALUE ary;

    ary = rb_ary_new2(n);
    if (n > 0 && elts) {
ary_memcpy(ary, 0, n, elts);
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, n);
    }

    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_tmp_new(long capa)
{
    return ary_new(0, capa);
}

void
rb_ary_free(VALUE ary)
{
    if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(ary)) {
ruby_sized_xfree((void *)ARY_HEAP_PTR(ary), ARY_HEAP_SIZE(ary));
    }
}

RUBY_FUNC_EXPORTED size_t
rb_ary_memsize(VALUE ary)
{
    if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(ary)) {
return RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa * sizeof(VALUE);
    }
    else {
return 0;
    }
}

static inline void
ary_discard(VALUE ary)
{
    rb_ary_free(ary);
    RBASIC(ary)->flags |= RARRAY_EMBED_FLAG;
    RBASIC(ary)->flags &= ~RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MASK;
}

static VALUE
ary_make_shared(VALUE ary)
{
    assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary));
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
return ARY_SHARED(ary);
    }
    else if (ARY_SHARED_ROOT_P(ary)) {
return ary;
    }
    else if (OBJ_FROZEN(ary)) {
ary_shrink_capa(ary);
FL_SET_SHARED_ROOT(ary);
ARY_SET_SHARED_NUM(ary, 1);
return ary;
    }
    else {
long capa = ARY_CAPA(ary), len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
NEWOBJ_OF(shared, struct RArray, 0, T_ARRAY | (RGENGC_WB_PROTECTED_ARRAY ? FL_WB_PROTECTED : 0));
        FL_UNSET_EMBED(shared);

ARY_SET_LEN((VALUE)shared, capa);
ARY_SET_PTR((VALUE)shared, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary));
ary_mem_clear((VALUE)shared, len, capa - len);
FL_SET_SHARED_ROOT(shared);
ARY_SET_SHARED_NUM((VALUE)shared, 1);
FL_SET_SHARED(ary);
ARY_SET_SHARED(ary, (VALUE)shared);
OBJ_FREEZE(shared);
return (VALUE)shared;
    }
}

static VALUE
ary_make_substitution(VALUE ary)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    if (len <= RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
VALUE subst = rb_ary_new2(len);
ary_memcpy(subst, 0, len, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary));
        ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(subst, len);
        return subst;
    }
    else {
        return rb_ary_increment_share(ary_make_shared(ary));
    }
}

VALUE
rb_assoc_new(VALUE car, VALUE cdr)
{
    return rb_ary_new3(2, car, cdr);
}

static VALUE
to_ary(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_convert_type(ary, T_ARRAY, "Array", "to_ary");
}

VALUE
rb_check_array_type(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_check_convert_type(ary, T_ARRAY, "Array", "to_ary");
}

/*
* call-seq:
* Array.try_convert(obj) -> array or nil
*
* Tries to convert +obj+ into an array, using +to_ary+ method. Returns the
* converted array or +nil+ if +obj+ cannot be converted for any reason.
* This method can be used to check if an argument is an array.
*
* Array.try_convert([1]) #=> [1]
* Array.try_convert("1") #=> nil
*
* if tmp = Array.try_convert(arg)
* # the argument is an array
* elsif tmp = String.try_convert(arg)
* # the argument is a string
* end
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_s_try_convert(VALUE dummy, VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_check_array_type(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* Array.new(size=0, obj=nil)
* Array.new(array)
* Array.new(size) {|index| block }
*
* Returns a new array.
*
* In the first form, if no arguments are sent, the new array will be empty.
* When a +size+ and an optional +obj+ are sent, an array is created with
* +size+ copies of +obj+. Take notice that all elements will reference the
* same object +obj+.
*
* The second form creates a copy of the array passed as a parameter (the
* array is generated by calling to_ary on the parameter).
*
* first_array = ["Matz", "Guido"]
*
* second_array = Array.new(first_array) #=> ["Matz", "Guido"]
*
* first_array.equal? second_array #=> false
*
* In the last form, an array of the given size is created. Each element in
* this array is created by passing the element's index to the given block
* and storing the return value.
*
* Array.new(3){ |index| index ** 2 }
* # => [0, 1, 4]
*
* == Common gotchas
*
* When sending the second parameter, the same object will be used as the
* value for all the array elements:
*
* a = Array.new(2, Hash.new)
* # => [{}, {}]
*
* a[0]['cat'] = 'feline'
* a # => [{"cat"=>"feline"}, {"cat"=>"feline"}]
*
* a[1]['cat'] = 'Felix'
* a # => [{"cat"=>"Felix"}, {"cat"=>"Felix"}]
*
* Since all the Array elements store the same hash, changes to one of them
* will affect them all.
*
* If multiple copies are what you want, you should use the block
* version which uses the result of that block each time an element
* of the array needs to be initialized:
*
* a = Array.new(2) { Hash.new }
* a[0]['cat'] = 'feline'
* a # => [{"cat"=>"feline"}, {}]
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    long len;
    VALUE size, val;

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    if (argc == 0) {
if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(ary) && RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary) != 0) {
ruby_sized_xfree((void *)RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary), ARY_HEAP_SIZE(ary));
}
        rb_ary_unshare_safe(ary);
        FL_SET_EMBED(ary);
ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(ary, 0);
if (rb_block_given_p()) {
rb_warning("given block not used");
}
return ary;
    }
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &size, &val);
    if (argc == 1 && !FIXNUM_P(size)) {
val = rb_check_array_type(size);
if (!NIL_P(val)) {
rb_ary_replace(ary, val);
return ary;
}
    }

    len = NUM2LONG(size);
    /* NUM2LONG() may call size.to_int, ary can be frozen, modified, etc */
    if (len < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative array size");
    }
    if (len > ARY_MAX_SIZE) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "array size too big");
    }
    /* recheck after argument conversion */
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    ary_resize_capa(ary, len);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
long i;

if (argc == 2) {
rb_warn("block supersedes default value argument");
}
for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
rb_ary_store(ary, i, rb_yield(LONG2NUM(i)));
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, i + 1);
}
    }
    else {
ary_memfill(ary, 0, len, val);
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* Returns a new array populated with the given objects.
*
* Array.[]( 1, 'a', /^A/ ) # => [1, "a", /^A/]
* Array[ 1, 'a', /^A/ ] # => [1, "a", /^A/]
* [ 1, 'a', /^A/ ] # => [1, "a", /^A/]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_s_create(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE ary = ary_new(klass, argc);
    if (argc > 0 && argv) {
        ary_memcpy(ary, 0, argc, argv);
        ARY_SET_LEN(ary, argc);
    }

    return ary;
}

void
rb_ary_store(VALUE ary, long idx, VALUE val)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    if (idx < 0) {
idx += len;
if (idx < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld too small for array; minimum: %ld",
idx - len, -len);
}
    }
    else if (idx >= ARY_MAX_SIZE) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld too big", idx);
    }

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    if (idx >= ARY_CAPA(ary)) {
ary_double_capa(ary, idx);
    }
    if (idx > len) {
ary_mem_clear(ary, len, idx - len + 1);
    }

    if (idx >= len) {
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, idx + 1);
    }
    ARY_SET(ary, idx, val);
}

static VALUE
ary_make_partial(VALUE ary, VALUE klass, long offset, long len)
{
    assert(offset >= 0);
    assert(len >= 0);
    assert(offset+len <= RARRAY_LEN(ary));

    if (len <= RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
        VALUE result = ary_alloc(klass);
ary_memcpy(result, 0, len, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary) + offset);
        ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(result, len);
        return result;
    }
    else {
        VALUE shared, result = ary_alloc(klass);
        FL_UNSET_EMBED(result);

        shared = ary_make_shared(ary);
        ARY_SET_PTR(result, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary));
        ARY_SET_LEN(result, RARRAY_LEN(ary));
        rb_ary_set_shared(result, shared);

        ARY_INCREASE_PTR(result, offset);
        ARY_SET_LEN(result, len);
        return result;
    }
}

static VALUE
ary_make_shared_copy(VALUE ary)
{
    return ary_make_partial(ary, rb_obj_class(ary), 0, RARRAY_LEN(ary));
}

enum ary_take_pos_flags
{
    ARY_TAKE_FIRST = 0,
    ARY_TAKE_LAST = 1
};

static VALUE
ary_take_first_or_last(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary, enum ary_take_pos_flags last)
{
    VALUE nv;
    long n;
    long len;
    long offset = 0;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1", &nv);
    n = NUM2LONG(nv);
    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (n > len) {
n = len;
    }
    else if (n < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative array size");
    }
    if (last) {
offset = len - n;
    }
    return ary_make_partial(ary, rb_cArray, offset, n);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary << obj -> ary
*
* Append---Pushes the given object on to the end of this array. This
* expression returns the array itself, so several appends
* may be chained together.
*
* [ 1, 2 ] << "c" << "d" << [ 3, 4 ]
* #=> [ 1, 2, "c", "d", [ 3, 4 ] ]
*
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_push(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
{
    long idx = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE target_ary = ary_ensure_room_for_push(ary, 1);
    RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
RB_OBJ_WRITE(target_ary, &ptr[idx], item);
    });
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, idx + 1);
    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_cat(VALUE ary, const VALUE *argv, long len)
{
    long oldlen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE target_ary = ary_ensure_room_for_push(ary, len);
    ary_memcpy0(ary, oldlen, len, argv, target_ary);
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, oldlen + len);
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.push(obj, ... ) -> ary
*
* Append --- Pushes the given object(s) on to the end of this array. This
* expression returns the array itself, so several appends
* may be chained together. See also Array#pop for the opposite
* effect.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.push("d", "e", "f")
* #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f"]
* [1, 2, 3,].push(4).push(5)
* #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_push_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_ary_cat(ary, argv, argc);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_pop(VALUE ary)
{
    long n;
    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    n = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (n == 0) return Qnil;
    if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(ary) &&
n * 3 < ARY_CAPA(ary) &&
ARY_CAPA(ary) > ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE)
    {
ary_resize_capa(ary, n * 2);
    }
    --n;
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, n);
    return RARRAY_AREF(ary, n);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.pop -> obj or nil
* ary.pop(n) -> new_ary
*
* Removes the last element from +self+ and returns it, or
* +nil+ if the array is empty.
*
* If a number +n+ is given, returns an array of the last +n+ elements
* (or less) just like <code>array.slice!(-n, n)</code> does. See also
* Array#push for the opposite effect.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.pop #=> "d"
* a.pop(2) #=> ["b", "c"]
* a #=> ["a"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_pop_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE result;

    if (argc == 0) {
return rb_ary_pop(ary);
    }

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    result = ary_take_first_or_last(argc, argv, ary, ARY_TAKE_LAST);
    ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, -RARRAY_LEN(result));
    return result;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_shift(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE top;
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (len == 0) return Qnil;
    top = RARRAY_AREF(ary, 0);
    if (!ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
if (len < ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMMOVE(ptr, ptr+1, VALUE, len-1);
}); /* WB: no new reference */
            ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, -1);
return top;
}
        assert(!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)); /* ARY_EMBED_LEN_MAX < ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE */

ARY_SET(ary, 0, Qnil);
ary_make_shared(ary);
    }
    else if (ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(ARY_SHARED(ary))) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, ptr[0] = Qnil);
    }
    ARY_INCREASE_PTR(ary, 1); /* shift ptr */
    ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, -1);

    return top;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.shift -> obj or nil
* ary.shift(n) -> new_ary
*
* Removes the first element of +self+ and returns it (shifting all
* other elements down by one). Returns +nil+ if the array
* is empty.
*
* If a number +n+ is given, returns an array of the first +n+ elements
* (or less) just like <code>array.slice!(0, n)</code> does. With +ary+
* containing only the remainder elements, not including what was shifted to
* +new_ary+. See also Array#unshift for the opposite effect.
*
* args = [ "-m", "-q", "filename" ]
* args.shift #=> "-m"
* args #=> ["-q", "filename"]
*
* args = [ "-m", "-q", "filename" ]
* args.shift(2) #=> ["-m", "-q"]
* args #=> ["filename"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_shift_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE result;
    long n;

    if (argc == 0) {
return rb_ary_shift(ary);
    }

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    result = ary_take_first_or_last(argc, argv, ary, ARY_TAKE_FIRST);
    n = RARRAY_LEN(result);
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
if (ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(ARY_SHARED(ary))) {
ary_mem_clear(ary, 0, n);
}
        ARY_INCREASE_PTR(ary, n);
    }
    else {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMMOVE(ptr, ptr + n, VALUE, RARRAY_LEN(ary)-n);
}); /* WB: no new reference */
    }
    ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, -n);

    return result;
}

static VALUE
ary_ensure_room_for_unshift(VALUE ary, int argc)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    long new_len = len + argc;
    long capa;
    const VALUE *head, *sharedp;

    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
VALUE shared = ARY_SHARED(ary);
capa = RARRAY_LEN(shared);
if (ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(shared) && capa > new_len) {
head = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
sharedp = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(shared);
goto makeroom_if_need;
}
    }

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    capa = ARY_CAPA(ary);
    if (capa - (capa >> 6) <= new_len) {
ary_double_capa(ary, new_len);
    }

    /* use shared array for big "queues" */
    if (new_len > ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE * 4) {
/* make a room for unshifted items */
capa = ARY_CAPA(ary);
ary_make_shared(ary);

head = sharedp = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
goto makeroom;
      makeroom_if_need:
if (head - sharedp < argc) {
long room;
makeroom:
room = capa - new_len;
room -= room >> 4;
MEMMOVE((VALUE *)sharedp + argc + room, head, VALUE, len);
head = sharedp + argc + room;
}
ARY_SET_PTR(ary, head - argc);
assert(ARY_SHARED_OCCUPIED(ARY_SHARED(ary)));
return ARY_SHARED(ary);
    }
    else {
/* sliding items */
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMMOVE(ptr + argc, ptr, VALUE, len);
});

return ary;
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.unshift(obj, ...) -> ary
*
* Prepends objects to the front of +self+, moving other elements upwards.
* See also Array#shift for the opposite effect.
*
* a = [ "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.unshift("a") #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
* a.unshift(1, 2) #=> [ 1, 2, "a", "b", "c", "d"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_unshift_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE target_ary;

    if (argc == 0) {
rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
return ary;
    }

    target_ary = ary_ensure_room_for_unshift(ary, argc);
    ary_memcpy0(ary, 0, argc, argv, target_ary);
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len + argc);
    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_unshift(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
{
    return rb_ary_unshift_m(1,&item,ary);
}

/* faster version - use this if you don't need to treat negative offset */
static inline VALUE
rb_ary_elt(VALUE ary, long offset)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (len == 0) return Qnil;
    if (offset < 0 || len <= offset) {
return Qnil;
    }
    return RARRAY_AREF(ary, offset);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_entry(VALUE ary, long offset)
{
    if (offset < 0) {
offset += RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    }
    return rb_ary_elt(ary, offset);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_subseq(VALUE ary, long beg, long len)
{
    VALUE klass;
    long alen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    if (beg > alen) return Qnil;
    if (beg < 0 || len < 0) return Qnil;

    if (alen < len || alen < beg + len) {
len = alen - beg;
    }
    klass = rb_obj_class(ary);
    if (len == 0) return ary_new(klass, 0);

    return ary_make_partial(ary, klass, beg, len);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary[index] -> obj or nil
* ary[start, length] -> new_ary or nil
* ary[range] -> new_ary or nil
* ary.slice(index) -> obj or nil
* ary.slice(start, length) -> new_ary or nil
* ary.slice(range) -> new_ary or nil
*
* Element Reference --- Returns the element at +index+, or returns a
* subarray starting at the +start+ index and continuing for +length+
* elements, or returns a subarray specified by +range+ of indices.
*
* Negative indices count backward from the end of the array (-1 is the last
* element). For +start+ and +range+ cases the starting index is just before
* an element. Additionally, an empty array is returned when the starting
* index for an element range is at the end of the array.
*
* Returns +nil+ if the index (or starting index) are out of range.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" ]
* a[2] + a[0] + a[1] #=> "cab"
* a[6] #=> nil
* a[1, 2] #=> [ "b", "c" ]
* a[1..3] #=> [ "b", "c", "d" ]
* a[4..7] #=> [ "e" ]
* a[6..10] #=> nil
* a[-3, 3] #=> [ "c", "d", "e" ]
* # special cases
* a[5] #=> nil
* a[6, 1] #=> nil
* a[5, 1] #=> []
* a[5..10] #=> []
*
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_aref(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE arg;
    long beg, len;

    if (argc == 2) {
beg = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
if (beg < 0) {
beg += RARRAY_LEN(ary);
}
return rb_ary_subseq(ary, beg, len);
    }
    if (argc != 1) {
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", NULL, NULL);
    }
    arg = argv[0];
    /* special case - speeding up */
    if (FIXNUM_P(arg)) {
return rb_ary_entry(ary, FIX2LONG(arg));
    }
    /* check if idx is Range */
    switch (rb_range_beg_len(arg, &beg, &len, RARRAY_LEN(ary), 0)) {
      case Qfalse:
break;
      case Qnil:
return Qnil;
      default:
return rb_ary_subseq(ary, beg, len);
    }
    return rb_ary_entry(ary, NUM2LONG(arg));
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.at(index) -> obj or nil
*
* Returns the element at +index+. A negative index counts from the end of
* +self+. Returns +nil+ if the index is out of range. See also
* Array#[].
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" ]
* a.at(0) #=> "a"
* a.at(-1) #=> "e"
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_at(VALUE ary, VALUE pos)
{
    return rb_ary_entry(ary, NUM2LONG(pos));
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.first -> obj or nil
* ary.first(n) -> new_ary
*
* Returns the first element, or the first +n+ elements, of the array.
* If the array is empty, the first form returns +nil+, and the
* second form returns an empty array. See also Array#last for
* the opposite effect.
*
* a = [ "q", "r", "s", "t" ]
* a.first #=> "q"
* a.first(2) #=> ["q", "r"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_first(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    if (argc == 0) {
if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == 0) return Qnil;
return RARRAY_AREF(ary, 0);
    }
    else {
return ary_take_first_or_last(argc, argv, ary, ARY_TAKE_FIRST);
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.last -> obj or nil
* ary.last(n) -> new_ary
*
* Returns the last element(s) of +self+. If the array is empty,
* the first form returns +nil+.
*
* See also Array#first for the opposite effect.
*
* a = [ "w", "x", "y", "z" ]
* a.last #=> "z"
* a.last(2) #=> ["y", "z"]
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_last(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    if (argc == 0) {
long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
if (len == 0) return Qnil;
return RARRAY_AREF(ary, len-1);
    }
    else {
return ary_take_first_or_last(argc, argv, ary, ARY_TAKE_LAST);
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.fetch(index) -> obj
* ary.fetch(index, default) -> obj
* ary.fetch(index) { |index| block } -> obj
*
* Tries to return the element at position +index+, but throws an IndexError
* exception if the referenced +index+ lies outside of the array bounds. This
* error can be prevented by supplying a second argument, which will act as a
* +default+ value.
*
* Alternatively, if a block is given it will only be executed when an
* invalid +index+ is referenced. Negative values of +index+ count from the
* end of the array.
*
* a = [ 11, 22, 33, 44 ]
* a.fetch(1) #=> 22
* a.fetch(-1) #=> 44
* a.fetch(4, 'cat') #=> "cat"
* a.fetch(100) { |i| puts "#{i} is out of bounds" }
* #=> "100 is out of bounds"
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_fetch(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE pos, ifnone;
    long block_given;
    long idx;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &pos, &ifnone);
    block_given = rb_block_given_p();
    if (block_given && argc == 2) {
rb_warn("block supersedes default value argument");
    }
    idx = NUM2LONG(pos);

    if (idx < 0) {
idx += RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    }
    if (idx < 0 || RARRAY_LEN(ary) <= idx) {
if (block_given) return rb_yield(pos);
if (argc == 1) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld outside of array bounds: %ld...%ld",
idx - (idx < 0 ? RARRAY_LEN(ary) : 0), -RARRAY_LEN(ary), RARRAY_LEN(ary));
}
return ifnone;
    }
    return RARRAY_AREF(ary, idx);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.find_index(obj) -> int or nil
* ary.find_index { |item| block } -> int or nil
* ary.find_index -> Enumerator
* ary.index(obj) -> int or nil
* ary.index { |item| block } -> int or nil
* ary.index -> Enumerator
*
* Returns the _index_ of the first object in +ary+ such that the object is
* <code>==</code> to +obj+.
*
* If a block is given instead of an argument, returns the _index_ of the
* first object for which the block returns +true+. Returns +nil+ if no
* match is found.
*
* See also Array#rindex.
*
* An Enumerator is returned if neither a block nor argument is given.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.index("b") #=> 1
* a.index("z") #=> nil
* a.index { |x| x == "b" } #=> 1
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_index(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    const VALUE *ptr;
    VALUE val;
    long i, len;

    if (argc == 0) {
RETURN_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0);
for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
if (RTEST(rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i)))) {
return LONG2NUM(i);
}
}
return Qnil;
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    val = argv[0];
    if (rb_block_given_p())
rb_warn("given block not used");
    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
    for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
VALUE e = ptr[i];
switch (rb_equal_opt(e, val)) {
case Qundef:
if (!rb_equal(e, val)) break;
case Qtrue:
return LONG2NUM(i);
case Qfalse:
continue;
}
len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
    }
    return Qnil;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.rindex(obj) -> int or nil
* ary.rindex { |item| block } -> int or nil
* ary.rindex -> Enumerator
*
* Returns the _index_ of the last object in +self+ <code>==</code> to +obj+.
*
* If a block is given instead of an argument, returns the _index_ of the
* first object for which the block returns +true+, starting from the last
* object.
*
* Returns +nil+ if no match is found.
*
* See also Array#index.
*
* If neither block nor argument is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "b", "b", "c" ]
* a.rindex("b") #=> 3
* a.rindex("z") #=> nil
* a.rindex { |x| x == "b" } #=> 3
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_rindex(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    const VALUE *ptr;
    VALUE val;
    long i = RARRAY_LEN(ary), len;

    if (argc == 0) {
RETURN_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0);
while (i--) {
if (RTEST(rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i))))
return LONG2NUM(i);
if (i > (len = RARRAY_LEN(ary))) {
i = len;
}
}
return Qnil;
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    val = argv[0];
    if (rb_block_given_p())
rb_warn("given block not used");
    ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
    while (i--) {
VALUE e = ptr[i];
switch (rb_equal_opt(e, val)) {
case Qundef:
if (!rb_equal(e, val)) break;
case Qtrue:
return LONG2NUM(i);
case Qfalse:
continue;
}
if (i > (len = RARRAY_LEN(ary))) {
i = len;
}
ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
    }
    return Qnil;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_to_ary(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE tmp = rb_check_array_type(obj);

    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) return tmp;
    return rb_ary_new3(1, obj);
}

static void
rb_ary_splice(VALUE ary, long beg, long len, VALUE rpl)
{
    long rlen;
    long olen;

    if (len < 0) rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "negative length (%ld)", len);
    olen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (beg < 0) {
beg += olen;
if (beg < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld too small for array; minimum: %ld",
beg - olen, -olen);
}
    }
    if (olen < len || olen < beg + len) {
len = olen - beg;
    }

    if (rpl == Qundef) {
rlen = 0;
    }
    else {
rpl = rb_ary_to_ary(rpl);
rlen = RARRAY_LEN(rpl);
olen = RARRAY_LEN(ary); /* ary may be resized in rpl.to_ary too */
    }
    if (beg >= olen) {
VALUE target_ary;
if (beg > ARY_MAX_SIZE - rlen) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld too big", beg);
}
target_ary = ary_ensure_room_for_push(ary, rlen-len); /* len is 0 or negative */
len = beg + rlen;
ary_mem_clear(ary, olen, beg - olen);
if (rlen > 0) {
ary_memcpy0(ary, beg, rlen, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(rpl), target_ary);
}
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    else {
long alen;

rb_ary_modify(ary);
alen = olen + rlen - len;
if (alen >= ARY_CAPA(ary)) {
ary_double_capa(ary, alen);
}

if (len != rlen) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr,
MEMMOVE(ptr + beg + rlen, ptr + beg + len,
VALUE, olen - (beg + len)));
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, alen);
}
if (rlen > 0) {
MEMMOVE(RARRAY_PTR(ary) + beg, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(rpl), VALUE, rlen);
}
    }
}

void
rb_ary_set_len(VALUE ary, long len)
{
    long capa;

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "can't set length of shared ");
    }
    if (len > (capa = (long)ARY_CAPA(ary))) {
rb_bug("probable buffer overflow: %ld for %ld", len, capa);
    }
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
}

/*!
* expands or shrinks \a ary to \a len elements.
* expanded region will be filled with Qnil.
* \param ary an array
* \param len new size
* \return \a ary
* \post the size of \a ary is \a len.
*/
VALUE
rb_ary_resize(VALUE ary, long len)
{
    long olen;

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    olen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (len == olen) return ary;
    if (len > ARY_MAX_SIZE) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld too big", len);
    }
    if (len > olen) {
if (len >= ARY_CAPA(ary)) {
ary_double_capa(ary, len);
}
ary_mem_clear(ary, olen, len - olen);
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    else if (ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
        ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    else if (len <= RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
VALUE tmp[RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX];
MEMCPY(tmp, ARY_HEAP_PTR(ary), VALUE, len);
ary_discard(ary);
MEMCPY((VALUE *)ARY_EMBED_PTR(ary), tmp, VALUE, len); /* WB: no new reference */
        ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    else {
if (olen > len + ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE) {
SIZED_REALLOC_N(RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.ptr, VALUE, len, RARRAY(ary)->as.heap.aux.capa);
ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, len);
}
ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN(ary, len);
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary[index] = obj -> obj
* ary[start, length] = obj or other_ary or nil -> obj or other_ary or nil
* ary[range] = obj or other_ary or nil -> obj or other_ary or nil
*
* Element Assignment --- Sets the element at +index+, or replaces a subarray
* from the +start+ index for +length+ elements, or replaces a subarray
* specified by the +range+ of indices.
*
* If indices are greater than the current capacity of the array, the array
* grows automatically. Elements are inserted into the array at +start+ if
* +length+ is zero.
*
* Negative indices will count backward from the end of the array. For
* +start+ and +range+ cases the starting index is just before an element.
*
* An IndexError is raised if a negative index points past the beginning of
* the array.
*
* See also Array#push, and Array#unshift.
*
* a = Array.new
* a[4] = "4"; #=> [nil, nil, nil, nil, "4"]
* a[0, 3] = [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] #=> ["a", "b", "c", nil, "4"]
* a[1..2] = [ 1, 2 ] #=> ["a", 1, 2, nil, "4"]
* a[0, 2] = "?" #=> ["?", 2, nil, "4"]
* a[0..2] = "A" #=> ["A", "4"]
* a[-1] = "Z" #=> ["A", "Z"]
* a[1..-1] = nil #=> ["A", nil]
* a[1..-1] = [] #=> ["A"]
* a[0, 0] = [ 1, 2 ] #=> [1, 2, "A"]
* a[3, 0] = "B" #=> [1, 2, "A", "B"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_aset(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    long offset, beg, len;

    if (argc == 3) {
rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
beg = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
rb_ary_splice(ary, beg, len, argv[2]);
return argv[2];
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 2, 2);
    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (FIXNUM_P(argv[0])) {
offset = FIX2LONG(argv[0]);
goto fixnum;
    }
    if (rb_range_beg_len(argv[0], &beg, &len, RARRAY_LEN(ary), 1)) {
/* check if idx is Range */
rb_ary_splice(ary, beg, len, argv[1]);
return argv[1];
    }

    offset = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
fixnum:
    rb_ary_store(ary, offset, argv[1]);
    return argv[1];
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.insert(index, obj...) -> ary
*
* Inserts the given values before the element with the given +index+.
*
* Negative indices count backwards from the end of the array, where +-1+ is
* the last element.
*
* a = %w{ a b c d }
* a.insert(2, 99) #=> ["a", "b", 99, "c", "d"]
* a.insert(-2, 1, 2, 3) #=> ["a", "b", 99, "c", 1, 2, 3, "d"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_insert(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    long pos;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (argc == 1) return ary;
    pos = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
    if (pos == -1) {
pos = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    }
    if (pos < 0) {
pos++;
    }
    rb_ary_splice(ary, pos, 0, rb_ary_new4(argc - 1, argv + 1));
    return ary;
}

static VALUE
rb_ary_length(VALUE ary);

static VALUE
ary_enum_length(VALUE ary, VALUE args, VALUE eobj)
{
    return rb_ary_length(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.each { |item| block } -> ary
* ary.each -> Enumerator
*
* Calls the given block once for each element in +self+, passing that element
* as a parameter.
*
* An Enumerator is returned if no block is given.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.each {|x| print x, " -- " }
*
* produces:
*
* a -- b -- c --
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_each(VALUE array)
{
    long i;
    volatile VALUE ary = array;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.each_index { |index| block } -> ary
* ary.each_index -> Enumerator
*
* Same as Array#each, but passes the +index+ of the element instead of the
* element itself.
*
* An Enumerator is returned if no block is given.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.each_index {|x| print x, " -- " }
*
* produces:
*
* 0 -- 1 -- 2 --
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_each_index(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
rb_yield(LONG2NUM(i));
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.reverse_each { |item| block } -> ary
* ary.reverse_each -> Enumerator
*
* Same as Array#each, but traverses +self+ in reverse order.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.reverse_each {|x| print x, " " }
*
* produces:
*
* c b a
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_reverse_each(VALUE ary)
{
    long len;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    while (len--) {
long nlen;
rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, len));
nlen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
if (nlen < len) {
len = nlen;
}
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.length -> int
*
* Returns the number of elements in +self+. May be zero.
*
* [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ].length #=> 5
* [].length #=> 0
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_length(VALUE ary)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    return LONG2NUM(len);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.empty? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if +self+ contains no elements.
*
* [].empty? #=> true
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_empty_p(VALUE ary)
{
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == 0)
return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_dup(VALUE ary)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE dup = rb_ary_new2(len);
    ary_memcpy(dup, 0, len, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary));
    ARY_SET_LEN(dup, len);
    return dup;
}

VALUE
rb_ary_resurrect(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RARRAY_LEN(ary), RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary));
}

extern VALUE rb_output_fs;

static void ary_join_1(VALUE obj, VALUE ary, VALUE sep, long i, VALUE result, int *first);

static VALUE
recursive_join(VALUE obj, VALUE argp, int recur)
{
    VALUE *arg = (VALUE *)argp;
    VALUE ary = arg[0];
    VALUE sep = arg[1];
    VALUE result = arg[2];
    int *first = (int *)arg[3];

    if (recur) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "recursive array join");
    }
    else {
ary_join_1(obj, ary, sep, 0, result, first);
    }
    return Qnil;
}

static void
ary_join_0(VALUE ary, VALUE sep, long max, VALUE result)
{
    long i;
    VALUE val;

    if (max > 0) rb_enc_copy(result, RARRAY_AREF(ary, 0));
    for (i=0; i<max; i++) {
val = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
if (i > 0 && !NIL_P(sep))
rb_str_buf_append(result, sep);
rb_str_buf_append(result, val);
if (OBJ_TAINTED(val)) OBJ_TAINT(result);
    }
}

static void
ary_join_1(VALUE obj, VALUE ary, VALUE sep, long i, VALUE result, int *first)
{
    VALUE val, tmp;

    for (; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
if (i > 0 && !NIL_P(sep))
rb_str_buf_append(result, sep);

val = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
if (RB_TYPE_P(val, T_STRING)) {
str_join:
rb_str_buf_append(result, val);
*first = FALSE;
}
else if (RB_TYPE_P(val, T_ARRAY)) {
obj = val;
ary_join:
if (val == ary) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "recursive array join");
}
else {
VALUE args[4];

args[0] = val;
args[1] = sep;
args[2] = result;
args[3] = (VALUE)first;
rb_exec_recursive(recursive_join, obj, (VALUE)args);
}
}
else {
tmp = rb_check_string_type(val);
if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
val = tmp;
goto str_join;
}
tmp = rb_check_convert_type(val, T_ARRAY, "Array", "to_ary");
if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
obj = val;
val = tmp;
goto ary_join;
}
val = rb_obj_as_string(val);
if (*first) {
rb_enc_copy(result, val);
*first = FALSE;
}
goto str_join;
}
    }
}

VALUE
rb_ary_join(VALUE ary, VALUE sep)
{
    long len = 1, i;
    int taint = FALSE;
    VALUE val, tmp, result;

    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == 0) return rb_usascii_str_new(0, 0);
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(ary)) taint = TRUE;

    if (!NIL_P(sep)) {
StringValue(sep);
len += RSTRING_LEN(sep) * (RARRAY_LEN(ary) - 1);
    }
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
val = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
tmp = rb_check_string_type(val);

if (NIL_P(tmp) || tmp != val) {
int first;
result = rb_str_buf_new(len + (RARRAY_LEN(ary)-i)*10);
rb_enc_associate(result, rb_usascii_encoding());
if (taint) OBJ_TAINT(result);
ary_join_0(ary, sep, i, result);
first = i == 0;
ary_join_1(ary, ary, sep, i, result, &first);
return result;
}

len += RSTRING_LEN(tmp);
    }

    result = rb_str_buf_new(len);
    if (taint) OBJ_TAINT(result);
    ary_join_0(ary, sep, RARRAY_LEN(ary), result);

    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.join(separator=$,) -> str
*
* Returns a string created by converting each element of the array to
* a string, separated by the given +separator+.
* If the +separator+ is +nil+, it uses current $,.
* If both the +separator+ and $, are nil, it uses empty string.
*
* [ "a", "b", "c" ].join #=> "abc"
* [ "a", "b", "c" ].join("-") #=> "a-b-c"
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_join_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE sep;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &sep);
    if (NIL_P(sep)) sep = rb_output_fs;

    return rb_ary_join(ary, sep);
}

static VALUE
inspect_ary(VALUE ary, VALUE dummy, int recur)
{
    int tainted = OBJ_TAINTED(ary);
    long i;
    VALUE s, str;

    if (recur) return rb_usascii_str_new_cstr("[...]");
    str = rb_str_buf_new2("[");
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
s = rb_inspect(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
if (OBJ_TAINTED(s)) tainted = TRUE;
if (i > 0) rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ", ");
else rb_enc_copy(str, s);
rb_str_buf_append(str, s);
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "]");
    if (tainted) OBJ_TAINT(str);
    return str;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.inspect -> string
* ary.to_s -> string
*
* Creates a string representation of +self+.
*
* [ "a", "b", "c" ].to_s #=> "[\"a\", \"b\", \"c\"]"
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_inspect(VALUE ary)
{
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == 0) return rb_usascii_str_new2("[]");
    return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_ary, ary, 0);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_to_s(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_ary_inspect(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.to_a -> ary
*
* Returns +self+.
*
* If called on a subclass of Array, converts the receiver to an Array object.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_to_a(VALUE ary)
{
    if (rb_obj_class(ary) != rb_cArray) {
VALUE dup = rb_ary_new2(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
rb_ary_replace(dup, ary);
return dup;
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.to_h -> hash
*
* Returns the result of interpreting <i>ary</i> as an array of
* <tt>[key, value]</tt> pairs.
*
* [[:foo, :bar], [1, 2]].to_h
* # => {:foo => :bar, 1 => 2}
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_to_h(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;
    VALUE hash = rb_hash_new();
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
VALUE key_value_pair = rb_check_array_type(rb_ary_elt(ary, i));
if (NIL_P(key_value_pair)) {
rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "wrong element type %s at %ld (expected array)",
rb_builtin_class_name(rb_ary_elt(ary, i)), i);
}
if (RARRAY_LEN(key_value_pair) != 2) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong array length at %ld (expected 2, was %ld)",
i, RARRAY_LEN(key_value_pair));
}
rb_hash_aset(hash, RARRAY_AREF(key_value_pair, 0), RARRAY_AREF(key_value_pair, 1));
    }
    return hash;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.to_ary -> ary
*
* Returns +self+.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_to_ary_m(VALUE ary)
{
    return ary;
}

static void
ary_reverse(VALUE *p1, VALUE *p2)
{
    while (p1 < p2) {
VALUE tmp = *p1;
*p1++ = *p2;
*p2-- = tmp;
    }
}

VALUE
rb_ary_reverse(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE *p2;
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    if (len > 1) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, p1, {
p2 = p1 + len - 1; /* points last item */
ary_reverse(p1, p2);
}); /* WB: no new reference */
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.reverse! -> ary
*
* Reverses +self+ in place.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.reverse! #=> ["c", "b", "a"]
* a #=> ["c", "b", "a"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_reverse_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_ary_reverse(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.reverse -> new_ary
*
* Returns a new array containing +self+'s elements in reverse order.
*
* [ "a", "b", "c" ].reverse #=> ["c", "b", "a"]
* [ 1 ].reverse #=> [1]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_reverse_m(VALUE ary)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE dup = rb_ary_new2(len);

    if (len > 0) {
const VALUE *p1 = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
VALUE *p2 = (VALUE *)RARRAY_CONST_PTR(dup) + len - 1;
do *p2-- = *p1++; while (--len > 0);
    }
    ARY_SET_LEN(dup, RARRAY_LEN(ary));
    return dup;
}

static inline long
rotate_count(long cnt, long len)
{
    return (cnt < 0) ? (len - (~cnt % len) - 1) : (cnt % len);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_rotate(VALUE ary, long cnt)
{
    rb_ary_modify(ary);

    if (cnt != 0) {
VALUE *ptr = RARRAY_PTR(ary);
long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

if (len > 0 && (cnt = rotate_count(cnt, len)) > 0) {
--len;
if (cnt < len) ary_reverse(ptr + cnt, ptr + len);
if (--cnt > 0) ary_reverse(ptr, ptr + cnt);
if (len > 0) ary_reverse(ptr, ptr + len);
return ary;
}
    }

    return Qnil;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.rotate!(count=1) -> ary
*
* Rotates +self+ in place so that the element at +count+ comes first, and
* returns +self+.
*
* If +count+ is negative then it rotates in the opposite direction, starting
* from the end of the array where +-1+ is the last element.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.rotate! #=> ["b", "c", "d", "a"]
* a #=> ["b", "c", "d", "a"]
* a.rotate!(2) #=> ["d", "a", "b", "c"]
* a.rotate!(-3) #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_rotate_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    long n = 1;

    switch (argc) {
      case 1: n = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
      case 0: break;
      default: rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", NULL);
    }
    rb_ary_rotate(ary, n);
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.rotate(count=1) -> new_ary
*
* Returns a new array by rotating +self+ so that the element at +count+ is
* the first element of the new array.
*
* If +count+ is negative then it rotates in the opposite direction, starting
* from the end of +self+ where +-1+ is the last element.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.rotate #=> ["b", "c", "d", "a"]
* a #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
* a.rotate(2) #=> ["c", "d", "a", "b"]
* a.rotate(-3) #=> ["b", "c", "d", "a"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_rotate_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE rotated;
    const VALUE *ptr;
    long len, cnt = 1;

    switch (argc) {
      case 1: cnt = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
      case 0: break;
      default: rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", NULL);
    }

    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    rotated = rb_ary_new2(len);
    if (len > 0) {
cnt = rotate_count(cnt, len);
ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
len -= cnt;
ary_memcpy(rotated, 0, len, ptr + cnt);
ary_memcpy(rotated, len, cnt, ptr);
    }
    ARY_SET_LEN(rotated, RARRAY_LEN(ary));
    return rotated;
}

struct ary_sort_data {
    VALUE ary;
    int opt_methods;
    int opt_inited;
};

enum {
    sort_opt_Fixnum,
    sort_opt_String,
    sort_optimizable_count
};

#define STRING_P(s) (RB_TYPE_P((s), T_STRING) && CLASS_OF(s) == rb_cString)

#define SORT_OPTIMIZABLE_BIT(type) (1U << TOKEN_PASTE(sort_opt_,type))
#define SORT_OPTIMIZABLE(data, type) \
(((data)->opt_inited & SORT_OPTIMIZABLE_BIT(type)) ? \
((data)->opt_methods & SORT_OPTIMIZABLE_BIT(type)) : \
(((data)->opt_inited |= SORT_OPTIMIZABLE_BIT(type)), \
rb_method_basic_definition_p(TOKEN_PASTE(rb_c,type), id_cmp) && \
((data)->opt_methods |= SORT_OPTIMIZABLE_BIT(type))))

static VALUE
sort_reentered(VALUE ary)
{
    if (RBASIC(ary)->klass) {
rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "sort reentered");
    }
    return Qnil;
}

static int
sort_1(const void *ap, const void *bp, void *dummy)
{
    struct ary_sort_data *data = dummy;
    VALUE retval = sort_reentered(data->ary);
    VALUE a = *(const VALUE *)ap, b = *(const VALUE *)bp;
    int n;

    retval = rb_yield_values(2, a, b);
    n = rb_cmpint(retval, a, b);
    sort_reentered(data->ary);
    return n;
}

static int
sort_2(const void *ap, const void *bp, void *dummy)
{
    struct ary_sort_data *data = dummy;
    VALUE retval = sort_reentered(data->ary);
    VALUE a = *(const VALUE *)ap, b = *(const VALUE *)bp;
    int n;

    if (FIXNUM_P(a) && FIXNUM_P(b) && SORT_OPTIMIZABLE(data, Fixnum)) {
if ((long)a > (long)b) return 1;
if ((long)a < (long)b) return -1;
return 0;
    }
    if (STRING_P(a) && STRING_P(b) && SORT_OPTIMIZABLE(data, String)) {
return rb_str_cmp(a, b);
    }

    retval = rb_funcallv(a, id_cmp, 1, &b);
    n = rb_cmpint(retval, a, b);
    sort_reentered(data->ary);

    return n;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.sort! -> ary
* ary.sort! { |a, b| block } -> ary
*
* Sorts +self+ in place.
*
* Comparisons for the sort will be done using the <code><=></code> operator
* or using an optional code block.
*
* The block must implement a comparison between +a+ and +b+, and return
* +-1+, when +a+ follows +b+, +0+ when +a+ and +b+ are equivalent, or ++1+
* if +b+ follows +a+.
*
* See also Enumerable#sort_by.
*
* a = [ "d", "a", "e", "c", "b" ]
* a.sort! #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]
* a.sort! { |x,y| y <=> x } #=> ["e", "d", "c", "b", "a"]
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_sort_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(ary));
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) > 1) {
VALUE tmp = ary_make_substitution(ary); /* only ary refers tmp */
struct ary_sort_data data;
long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);

RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(tmp);
data.ary = tmp;
data.opt_methods = 0;
data.opt_inited = 0;
RARRAY_PTR_USE(tmp, ptr, {
ruby_qsort(ptr, len, sizeof(VALUE),
rb_block_given_p()?sort_1:sort_2, &data);
}); /* WB: no new reference */
rb_ary_modify(ary);
        if (ARY_EMBED_P(tmp)) {
            if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) { /* ary might be destructively operated in the given block */
                rb_ary_unshare(ary);
            }
            FL_SET_EMBED(ary);
ary_memcpy(ary, 0, ARY_EMBED_LEN(tmp), ARY_EMBED_PTR(tmp));
            ARY_SET_LEN(ary, ARY_EMBED_LEN(tmp));
        }
        else {
            if (!ARY_EMBED_P(ary) && ARY_HEAP_PTR(ary) == ARY_HEAP_PTR(tmp)) {
                FL_UNSET_SHARED(ary);
                ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, RARRAY_LEN(tmp));
            }
            else {
                assert(!ARY_SHARED_P(tmp));
                if (ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
                    FL_UNSET_EMBED(ary);
                }
                else if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
                    /* ary might be destructively operated in the given block */
                    rb_ary_unshare(ary);
                }
                else {
ruby_sized_xfree((void *)ARY_HEAP_PTR(ary), ARY_HEAP_SIZE(ary));
                }
                ARY_SET_PTR(ary, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(tmp));
                ARY_SET_HEAP_LEN(ary, len);
                ARY_SET_CAPA(ary, RARRAY_LEN(tmp));
            }
            /* tmp was lost ownership for the ptr */
            FL_UNSET(tmp, FL_FREEZE);
            FL_SET_EMBED(tmp);
            ARY_SET_EMBED_LEN(tmp, 0);
            FL_SET(tmp, FL_FREEZE);
}
        /* tmp will be GC'ed. */
        RBASIC_SET_CLASS_RAW(tmp, rb_cArray); /* rb_cArray must be marked */
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.sort -> new_ary
* ary.sort { |a, b| block } -> new_ary
*
* Returns a new array created by sorting +self+.
*
* Comparisons for the sort will be done using the <code><=></code> operator
* or using an optional code block.
*
* The block must implement a comparison between +a+ and +b+, and return
* +-1+, when +a+ follows +b+, +0+ when +a+ and +b+ are equivalent, or ++1+
* if +b+ follows +a+.
*
*
* See also Enumerable#sort_by.
*
* a = [ "d", "a", "e", "c", "b" ]
* a.sort #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]
* a.sort { |x,y| y <=> x } #=> ["e", "d", "c", "b", "a"]
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_sort(VALUE ary)
{
    ary = rb_ary_dup(ary);
    rb_ary_sort_bang(ary);
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.bsearch {|x| block } -> elem
*
* By using binary search, finds a value from this array which meets
* the given condition in O(log n) where n is the size of the array.
*
* You can use this method in two use cases: a find-minimum mode and
* a find-any mode. In either case, the elements of the array must be
* monotone (or sorted) with respect to the block.
*
* In find-minimum mode (this is a good choice for typical use case),
* the block must return true or false, and there must be an index i
* (0 <= i <= ary.size) so that:
*
* - the block returns false for any element whose index is less than
* i, and
* - the block returns true for any element whose index is greater
* than or equal to i.
*
* This method returns the i-th element. If i is equal to ary.size,
* it returns nil.
*
* ary = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
* ary.bsearch {|x| x >= 4 } #=> 4
* ary.bsearch {|x| x >= 6 } #=> 7
* ary.bsearch {|x| x >= -1 } #=> 0
* ary.bsearch {|x| x >= 100 } #=> nil
*
* In find-any mode (this behaves like libc's bsearch(3)), the block
* must return a number, and there must be two indices i and j
* (0 <= i <= j <= ary.size) so that:
*
* - the block returns a positive number for ary[k] if 0 <= k < i,
* - the block returns zero for ary[k] if i <= k < j, and
* - the block returns a negative number for ary[k] if
* j <= k < ary.size.
*
* Under this condition, this method returns any element whose index
* is within i...j. If i is equal to j (i.e., there is no element
* that satisfies the block), this method returns nil.
*
* ary = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
* # try to find v such that 4 <= v < 8
* ary.bsearch {|x| 1 - x / 4 } #=> 4 or 7
* # try to find v such that 8 <= v < 10
* ary.bsearch {|x| 4 - x / 2 } #=> nil
*
* You must not mix the two modes at a time; the block must always
* return either true/false, or always return a number. It is
* undefined which value is actually picked up at each iteration.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_bsearch(VALUE ary)
{
    long low = 0, high = RARRAY_LEN(ary), mid;
    int smaller = 0, satisfied = 0;
    VALUE v, val;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0);
    while (low < high) {
mid = low + ((high - low) / 2);
val = rb_ary_entry(ary, mid);
v = rb_yield(val);
if (FIXNUM_P(v)) {
if (FIX2INT(v) == 0) return val;
smaller = FIX2INT(v) < 0;
}
else if (v == Qtrue) {
satisfied = 1;
smaller = 1;
}
else if (v == Qfalse || v == Qnil) {
smaller = 0;
}
else if (rb_obj_is_kind_of(v, rb_cNumeric)) {
const VALUE zero = INT2FIX(0);
switch (rb_cmpint(rb_funcallv(v, id_cmp, 1, &zero), v, INT2FIX(0))) {
case 0: return val;
case 1: smaller = 1; break;
case -1: smaller = 0;
}
}
else {
rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "wrong argument type %s"
" (must be numeric, true, false or nil)",
rb_obj_classname(v));
}
if (smaller) {
high = mid;
}
else {
low = mid + 1;
}
    }
    if (low == RARRAY_LEN(ary)) return Qnil;
    if (!satisfied) return Qnil;
    return rb_ary_entry(ary, low);
}


static VALUE
sort_by_i(RB_BLOCK_CALL_FUNC_ARGLIST(i, dummy))
{
    return rb_yield(i);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.sort_by! { |obj| block } -> ary
* ary.sort_by! -> Enumerator
*
* Sorts +self+ in place using a set of keys generated by mapping the
* values in +self+ through the given block.
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_sort_by_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE sorted;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    sorted = rb_block_call(ary, rb_intern("sort_by"), 0, 0, sort_by_i, 0);
    rb_ary_replace(ary, sorted);
    return ary;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* ary.collect { |item| block } -> new_ary
* ary.map { |item| block } -> new_ary
* ary.collect -> Enumerator
* ary.map -> Enumerator
*
* Invokes the given block once for each element of +self+.
*
* Creates a new array containing the values returned by the block.
*
* See also Enumerable#collect.
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.collect { |x| x + "!" } #=> ["a!", "b!", "c!", "d!"]
* a.map.with_index{ |x, i| x * i } #=> ["", "b", "cc", "ddd"]
* a #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_collect(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;
    VALUE collect;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    collect = rb_ary_new2(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
rb_ary_push(collect, rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i)));
    }
    return collect;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* ary.collect! {|item| block } -> ary
* ary.map! {|item| block } -> ary
* ary.collect! -> Enumerator
* ary.map! -> Enumerator
*
* Invokes the given block once for each element of +self+, replacing the
* element with the value returned by the block.
*
* See also Enumerable#collect.
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.map! {|x| x + "!" }
* a #=> [ "a!", "b!", "c!", "d!" ]
* a.collect!.with_index {|x, i| x[0...i] }
* a #=> ["", "b", "c!", "d!"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_collect_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
rb_ary_store(ary, i, rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i)));
    }
    return ary;
}

VALUE
rb_get_values_at(VALUE obj, long olen, int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE (*func) (VALUE, long))
{
    VALUE result = rb_ary_new2(argc);
    long beg, len, i, j;

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
if (FIXNUM_P(argv[i])) {
rb_ary_push(result, (*func)(obj, FIX2LONG(argv[i])));
continue;
}
/* check if idx is Range */
if (rb_range_beg_len(argv[i], &beg, &len, olen, 1)) {
long end = olen < beg+len ? olen : beg+len;
for (j = beg; j < end; j++) {
rb_ary_push(result, (*func)(obj, j));
}
if (beg + len > j)
rb_ary_resize(result, RARRAY_LEN(result) + (beg + len) - j);
continue;
}
rb_ary_push(result, (*func)(obj, NUM2LONG(argv[i])));
    }
    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.values_at(selector, ...) -> new_ary
*
* Returns an array containing the elements in +self+ corresponding to the
* given +selector+(s).
*
* The selectors may be either integer indices or ranges.
*
* See also Array#select.
*
* a = %w{ a b c d e f }
* a.values_at(1, 3, 5) # => ["b", "d", "f"]
* a.values_at(1, 3, 5, 7) # => ["b", "d", "f", nil]
* a.values_at(-1, -2, -2, -7) # => ["f", "e", "e", nil]
* a.values_at(4..6, 3...6) # => ["e", "f", nil, "d", "e", "f"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_values_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    return rb_get_values_at(ary, RARRAY_LEN(ary), argc, argv, rb_ary_entry);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* ary.select { |item| block } -> new_ary
* ary.select -> Enumerator
*
* Returns a new array containing all elements of +ary+
* for which the given +block+ returns a true value.
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* [1,2,3,4,5].select { |num| num.even? } #=> [2, 4]
*
* a = %w{ a b c d e f }
* a.select { |v| v =~ /[aeiou]/ } #=> ["a", "e"]
*
* See also Enumerable#select.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_select(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE result;
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    result = rb_ary_new2(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
if (RTEST(rb_yield(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i)))) {
rb_ary_push(result, rb_ary_elt(ary, i));
}
    }
    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.select! {|item| block } -> ary or nil
* ary.select! -> Enumerator
*
* Invokes the given block passing in successive elements from +self+,
* deleting elements for which the block returns a +false+ value.
*
* If changes were made, it will return +self+, otherwise it returns +nil+.
*
* See also Array#keep_if
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_select_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    long i1, i2;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    for (i1 = i2 = 0; i1 < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i1++) {
VALUE v = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i1);
if (!RTEST(rb_yield(v))) continue;
if (i1 != i2) {
rb_ary_store(ary, i2, v);
}
i2++;
    }

    if (i1 == i2) return Qnil;
    if (i2 < i1)
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, i2);
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.keep_if { |item| block } -> ary
* ary.keep_if -> Enumerator
*
* Deletes every element of +self+ for which the given block evaluates to
* +false+.
*
* See also Array#select!
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* a = %w{ a b c d e f }
* a.keep_if { |v| v =~ /[aeiou]/ } #=> ["a", "e"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_keep_if(VALUE ary)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    rb_ary_select_bang(ary);
    return ary;
}

static void
ary_resize_smaller(VALUE ary, long len)
{
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) > len) {
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, len);
if (len * 2 < ARY_CAPA(ary) &&
ARY_CAPA(ary) > ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE) {
ary_resize_capa(ary, len * 2);
}
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.delete(obj) -> item or nil
* ary.delete(obj) { block } -> item or result of block
*
* Deletes all items from +self+ that are equal to +obj+.
*
* Returns the last deleted item, or +nil+ if no matching item is found.
*
* If the optional code block is given, the result of the block is returned if
* the item is not found. (To remove +nil+ elements and get an informative
* return value, use Array#compact!)
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "b", "b", "c" ]
* a.delete("b") #=> "b"
* a #=> ["a", "c"]
* a.delete("z") #=> nil
* a.delete("z") { "not found" } #=> "not found"
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_delete(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
{
    VALUE v = item;
    long i1, i2;

    for (i1 = i2 = 0; i1 < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i1++) {
VALUE e = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i1);

if (rb_equal(e, item)) {
v = e;
continue;
}
if (i1 != i2) {
rb_ary_store(ary, i2, e);
}
i2++;
    }
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == i2) {
if (rb_block_given_p()) {
return rb_yield(item);
}
return Qnil;
    }

    ary_resize_smaller(ary, i2);

    return v;
}

void
rb_ary_delete_same(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
{
    long i1, i2;

    for (i1 = i2 = 0; i1 < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i1++) {
VALUE e = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i1);

if (e == item) {
continue;
}
if (i1 != i2) {
rb_ary_store(ary, i2, e);
}
i2++;
    }
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) == i2) {
return;
    }

    ary_resize_smaller(ary, i2);
}

VALUE
rb_ary_delete_at(VALUE ary, long pos)
{
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE del;

    if (pos >= len) return Qnil;
    if (pos < 0) {
pos += len;
if (pos < 0) return Qnil;
    }

    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    del = RARRAY_AREF(ary, pos);
    RARRAY_PTR_USE(ary, ptr, {
MEMMOVE(ptr+pos, ptr+pos+1, VALUE, len-pos-1);
    });
    ARY_INCREASE_LEN(ary, -1);

    return del;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.delete_at(index) -> obj or nil
*
* Deletes the element at the specified +index+, returning that element, or
* +nil+ if the +index+ is out of range.
*
* See also Array#slice!
*
* a = ["ant", "bat", "cat", "dog"]
* a.delete_at(2) #=> "cat"
* a #=> ["ant", "bat", "dog"]
* a.delete_at(99) #=> nil
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_delete_at_m(VALUE ary, VALUE pos)
{
    return rb_ary_delete_at(ary, NUM2LONG(pos));
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.slice!(index) -> obj or nil
* ary.slice!(start, length) -> new_ary or nil
* ary.slice!(range) -> new_ary or nil
*
* Deletes the element(s) given by an +index+ (optionally up to +length+
* elements) or by a +range+.
*
* Returns the deleted object (or objects), or +nil+ if the +index+ is out of
* range.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.slice!(1) #=> "b"
* a #=> ["a", "c"]
* a.slice!(-1) #=> "c"
* a #=> ["a"]
* a.slice!(100) #=> nil
* a #=> ["a"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_slice_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE arg1, arg2;
    long pos, len, orig_len;

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (argc == 2) {
pos = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
      delete_pos_len:
if (len < 0) return Qnil;
orig_len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
if (pos < 0) {
pos += orig_len;
if (pos < 0) return Qnil;
}
else if (orig_len < pos) return Qnil;
if (orig_len < pos + len) {
len = orig_len - pos;
}
if (len == 0) return rb_ary_new2(0);
arg2 = rb_ary_new4(len, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary)+pos);
RBASIC_SET_CLASS(arg2, rb_obj_class(ary));
rb_ary_splice(ary, pos, len, Qundef);
return arg2;
    }

    if (argc != 1) {
/* error report */
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", NULL, NULL);
    }
    arg1 = argv[0];

    if (!FIXNUM_P(arg1)) {
switch (rb_range_beg_len(arg1, &pos, &len, RARRAY_LEN(ary), 0)) {
case Qtrue:
/* valid range */
goto delete_pos_len;
case Qnil:
/* invalid range */
return Qnil;
default:
/* not a range */
break;
}
    }

    return rb_ary_delete_at(ary, NUM2LONG(arg1));
}

static VALUE
ary_reject(VALUE orig, VALUE result)
{
    long i;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(orig); i++) {
VALUE v = RARRAY_AREF(orig, i);
if (!RTEST(rb_yield(v))) {
rb_ary_push(result, v);
}
    }
    return result;
}

static VALUE
ary_reject_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;
    VALUE result = Qnil;

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); ) {
VALUE v = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
if (RTEST(rb_yield(v))) {
rb_ary_delete_at(ary, i);
result = ary;
}
else {
i++;
}
    }
    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.reject! { |item| block } -> ary or nil
* ary.reject! -> Enumerator
*
* Equivalent to Array#delete_if, deleting elements from +self+ for which the
* block evaluates to +true+, but returns +nil+ if no changes were made.
*
* The array is changed instantly every time the block is called, not after
* the iteration is over.
*
* See also Enumerable#reject and Array#delete_if.
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_reject_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    return ary_reject_bang(ary);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.reject {|item| block } -> new_ary
* ary.reject -> Enumerator
*
* Returns a new array containing the items in +self+ for which the given
* block is not +true+.
*
* See also Array#delete_if
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_reject(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE rejected_ary;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    rejected_ary = rb_ary_new();
    ary_reject(ary, rejected_ary);
    return rejected_ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.delete_if { |item| block } -> ary
* ary.delete_if -> Enumerator
*
* Deletes every element of +self+ for which block evaluates to +true+.
*
* The array is changed instantly every time the block is called, not after
* the iteration is over.
*
* See also Array#reject!
*
* If no block is given, an Enumerator is returned instead.
*
* scores = [ 97, 42, 75 ]
* scores.delete_if {|score| score < 80 } #=> [97]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_delete_if(VALUE ary)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0, ary_enum_length);
    ary_reject_bang(ary);
    return ary;
}

static VALUE
take_i(RB_BLOCK_CALL_FUNC_ARGLIST(val, cbarg))
{
    VALUE *args = (VALUE *)cbarg;
    if (args[1]-- == 0) rb_iter_break();
    if (argc > 1) val = rb_ary_new4(argc, argv);
    rb_ary_push(args[0], val);
    return Qnil;
}

static VALUE
take_items(VALUE obj, long n)
{
    VALUE result = rb_check_array_type(obj);
    VALUE args[2];

    if (!NIL_P(result)) return rb_ary_subseq(result, 0, n);
    result = rb_ary_new2(n);
    args[0] = result; args[1] = (VALUE)n;
    if (rb_check_block_call(obj, idEach, 0, 0, take_i, (VALUE)args) == Qundef)
rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "wrong argument type %"PRIsVALUE" (must respond to :each)",
rb_obj_class(obj));
    return result;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* ary.zip(arg, ...) -> new_ary
* ary.zip(arg, ...) { |arr| block } -> nil
*
* Converts any arguments to arrays, then merges elements of +self+ with
* corresponding elements from each argument.
*
* This generates a sequence of <code>ary.size</code> _n_-element arrays,
* where _n_ is one more than the count of arguments.
*
* If the size of any argument is less than the size of the initial array,
* +nil+ values are supplied.
*
* If a block is given, it is invoked for each output +array+, otherwise an
* array of arrays is returned.
*
* a = [ 4, 5, 6 ]
* b = [ 7, 8, 9 ]
* [1, 2, 3].zip(a, b) #=> [[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8], [3, 6, 9]]
* [1, 2].zip(a, b) #=> [[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8]]
* a.zip([1, 2], [8]) #=> [[4, 1, 8], [5, 2, nil], [6, nil, nil]]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_zip(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    int i, j;
    long len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    VALUE result = Qnil;

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
argv[i] = take_items(argv[i], len);
    }

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
int arity = rb_block_arity();

if (arity > 1) {
VALUE work, *tmp;

tmp = ALLOCV_N(VALUE, work, argc+1);

for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
tmp[0] = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
for (j=0; j<argc; j++) {
tmp[j+1] = rb_ary_elt(argv[j], i);
}
rb_yield_values2(argc+1, tmp);
}

if (work) ALLOCV_END(work);
}
else {
for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
VALUE tmp = rb_ary_new2(argc+1);

rb_ary_push(tmp, RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
for (j=0; j<argc; j++) {
rb_ary_push(tmp, rb_ary_elt(argv[j], i));
}
rb_yield(tmp);
}
}
    }
    else {
result = rb_ary_new_capa(len);

for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
VALUE tmp = rb_ary_new_capa(argc+1);

rb_ary_push(tmp, RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
for (j=0; j<argc; j++) {
rb_ary_push(tmp, rb_ary_elt(argv[j], i));
}
rb_ary_push(result, tmp);
}
    }

    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.transpose -> new_ary
*
* Assumes that +self+ is an array of arrays and transposes the rows and
* columns.
*
* a = [[1,2], [3,4], [5,6]]
* a.transpose #=> [[1, 3, 5], [2, 4, 6]]
*
* If the length of the subarrays don't match, an IndexError is raised.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_transpose(VALUE ary)
{
    long elen = -1, alen, i, j;
    VALUE tmp, result = 0;

    alen = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (alen == 0) return rb_ary_dup(ary);
    for (i=0; i<alen; i++) {
tmp = to_ary(rb_ary_elt(ary, i));
if (elen < 0) { /* first element */
elen = RARRAY_LEN(tmp);
result = rb_ary_new2(elen);
for (j=0; j<elen; j++) {
rb_ary_store(result, j, rb_ary_new2(alen));
}
}
else if (elen != RARRAY_LEN(tmp)) {
rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "element size differs (%ld should be %ld)",
RARRAY_LEN(tmp), elen);
}
for (j=0; j<elen; j++) {
rb_ary_store(rb_ary_elt(result, j), i, rb_ary_elt(tmp, j));
}
    }
    return result;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.replace(other_ary) -> ary
* ary.initialize_copy(other_ary) -> ary
*
* Replaces the contents of +self+ with the contents of +other_ary+,
* truncating or expanding if necessary.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" ]
* a.replace([ "x", "y", "z" ]) #=> ["x", "y", "z"]
* a #=> ["x", "y", "z"]
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_replace(VALUE copy, VALUE orig)
{
    rb_ary_modify_check(copy);
    orig = to_ary(orig);
    if (copy == orig) return copy;

    if (RARRAY_LEN(orig) <= RARRAY_EMBED_LEN_MAX) {
        VALUE shared = 0;

        if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(copy)) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(copy, ptr, ruby_sized_xfree(ptr, ARY_HEAP_SIZE(copy)));
}
        else if (ARY_SHARED_P(copy)) {
            shared = ARY_SHARED(copy);
            FL_UNSET_SHARED(copy);
        }
        FL_SET_EMBED(copy);
ary_memcpy(copy, 0, RARRAY_LEN(orig), RARRAY_CONST_PTR(orig));
        if (shared) {
            rb_ary_decrement_share(shared);
        }
        ARY_SET_LEN(copy, RARRAY_LEN(orig));
    }
    else {
        VALUE shared = ary_make_shared(orig);
        if (ARY_OWNS_HEAP_P(copy)) {
RARRAY_PTR_USE(copy, ptr, ruby_sized_xfree(ptr, ARY_HEAP_SIZE(copy)));
        }
        else {
            rb_ary_unshare_safe(copy);
        }
        FL_UNSET_EMBED(copy);
        ARY_SET_PTR(copy, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(orig));
        ARY_SET_LEN(copy, RARRAY_LEN(orig));
        rb_ary_set_shared(copy, shared);
    }
    return copy;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.clear -> ary
*
* Removes all elements from +self+.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" ]
* a.clear #=> [ ]
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_clear(VALUE ary)
{
    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary, 0);
    if (ARY_SHARED_P(ary)) {
if (!ARY_EMBED_P(ary)) {
rb_ary_unshare(ary);
FL_SET_EMBED(ary);
}
    }
    else if (ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE * 2 < ARY_CAPA(ary)) {
ary_resize_capa(ary, ARY_DEFAULT_SIZE * 2);
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.fill(obj) -> ary
* ary.fill(obj, start [, length]) -> ary
* ary.fill(obj, range ) -> ary
* ary.fill { |index| block } -> ary
* ary.fill(start [, length] ) { |index| block } -> ary
* ary.fill(range) { |index| block } -> ary
*
* The first three forms set the selected elements of +self+ (which
* may be the entire array) to +obj+.
*
* A +start+ of +nil+ is equivalent to zero.
*
* A +length+ of +nil+ is equivalent to the length of the array.
*
* The last three forms fill the array with the value of the given block,
* which is passed the absolute index of each element to be filled.
*
* Negative values of +start+ count from the end of the array, where +-1+ is
* the last element.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a.fill("x") #=> ["x", "x", "x", "x"]
* a.fill("z", 2, 2) #=> ["x", "x", "z", "z"]
* a.fill("y", 0..1) #=> ["y", "y", "z", "z"]
* a.fill { |i| i*i } #=> [0, 1, 4, 9]
* a.fill(-2) { |i| i*i*i } #=> [0, 1, 8, 27]
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_fill(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE item, arg1, arg2;
    long beg = 0, end = 0, len = 0;
    int block_p = FALSE;

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
block_p = TRUE;
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &arg1, &arg2);
argc += 1; /* hackish */
    }
    else {
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "12", &item, &arg1, &arg2);
    }
    switch (argc) {
      case 1:
beg = 0;
len = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
break;
      case 2:
if (rb_range_beg_len(arg1, &beg, &len, RARRAY_LEN(ary), 1)) {
break;
}
/* fall through */
      case 3:
beg = NIL_P(arg1) ? 0 : NUM2LONG(arg1);
if (beg < 0) {
beg = RARRAY_LEN(ary) + beg;
if (beg < 0) beg = 0;
}
len = NIL_P(arg2) ? RARRAY_LEN(ary) - beg : NUM2LONG(arg2);
break;
    }
    rb_ary_modify(ary);
    if (len < 0) {
        return ary;
    }
    if (beg >= ARY_MAX_SIZE || len > ARY_MAX_SIZE - beg) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "argument too big");
    }
    end = beg + len;
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) < end) {
if (end >= ARY_CAPA(ary)) {
ary_resize_capa(ary, end);
}
ary_mem_clear(ary, RARRAY_LEN(ary), end - RARRAY_LEN(ary));
ARY_SET_LEN(ary, end);
    }

    if (block_p) {
VALUE v;
long i;

for (i=beg; i<end; i++) {
v = rb_yield(LONG2NUM(i));
if (i>=RARRAY_LEN(ary)) break;
ARY_SET(ary, i, v);
}
    }
    else {
ary_memfill(ary, beg, len, item);
    }
    return ary;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary + other_ary -> new_ary
*
* Concatenation --- Returns a new array built by concatenating the
* two arrays together to produce a third array.
*
* [ 1, 2, 3 ] + [ 4, 5 ] #=> [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* c = a + [ "d", "e", "f" ]
* c #=> [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f" ]
* a #=> [ "a", "b", "c" ]
*
* See also Array#concat.
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_plus(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    VALUE z;
    long len, xlen, ylen;

    y = to_ary(y);
    xlen = RARRAY_LEN(x);
    ylen = RARRAY_LEN(y);
    len = xlen + ylen;
    z = rb_ary_new2(len);

    ary_memcpy(z, 0, xlen, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(x));
    ary_memcpy(z, xlen, ylen, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(y));
    ARY_SET_LEN(z, len);
    return z;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.concat(other_ary) -> ary
*
* Appends the elements of +other_ary+ to +self+.
*
* [ "a", "b" ].concat( ["c", "d"] ) #=> [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
* a = [ 1, 2, 3 ]
* a.concat( [ 4, 5 ] )
* a #=> [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]
*
* See also Array#+.
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_concat(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    rb_ary_modify_check(x);
    y = to_ary(y);
    if (RARRAY_LEN(y) > 0) {
rb_ary_splice(x, RARRAY_LEN(x), 0, y);
    }
    return x;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* ary * int -> new_ary
* ary * str -> new_string
*
* Repetition --- With a String argument, equivalent to
* <code>ary.join(str)</code>.
*
* Otherwise, returns a new array built by concatenating the +int+ copies of
* +self+.
*
*
* [ 1, 2, 3 ] * 3 #=> [ 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 ]
* [ 1, 2, 3 ] * "," #=> "1,2,3"
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_times(VALUE ary, VALUE times)
{
    VALUE ary2, tmp;
    const VALUE *ptr;
    long t, len;

    tmp = rb_check_string_type(times);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
return rb_ary_join(ary, tmp);
    }

    len = NUM2LONG(times);
    if (len == 0) {
ary2 = ary_new(rb_obj_class(ary), 0);
goto out;
    }
    if (len < 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative argument");
    }
    if (ARY_MAX_SIZE/len < RARRAY_LEN(ary)) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "argument too big");
    }
    len *= RARRAY_LEN(ary);

    ary2 = ary_new(rb_obj_class(ary), len);
    ARY_SET_LEN(ary2, len);

    ptr = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary);
    t = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (0 < t) {
ary_memcpy(ary2, 0, t, ptr);
while (t <= len/2) {
ary_memcpy(ary2, t, t, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2));
            t *= 2;
        }
        if (t < len) {
ary_memcpy(ary2, t, len-t, RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2));
        }
    }
  out:
    OBJ_INFECT(ary2, ary);

    return ary2;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.assoc(obj) -> new_ary or nil
*
* Searches through an array whose elements are also arrays comparing +obj+
* with the first element of each contained array using <code>obj.==</code>.
*
* Returns the first contained array that matches (that is, the first
* associated array), or +nil+ if no match is found.
*
* See also Array#rassoc
*
* s1 = [ "colors", "red", "blue", "green" ]
* s2 = [ "letters", "a", "b", "c" ]
* s3 = "foo"
* a = [ s1, s2, s3 ]
* a.assoc("letters") #=> [ "letters", "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.assoc("foo") #=> nil
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_assoc(VALUE ary, VALUE key)
{
    long i;
    VALUE v;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); ++i) {
v = rb_check_array_type(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
if (!NIL_P(v) && RARRAY_LEN(v) > 0 &&
rb_equal(RARRAY_AREF(v, 0), key))
return v;
    }
    return Qnil;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.rassoc(obj) -> new_ary or nil
*
* Searches through the array whose elements are also arrays.
*
* Compares +obj+ with the second element of each contained array using
* <code>obj.==</code>.
*
* Returns the first contained array that matches +obj+.
*
* See also Array#assoc.
*
* a = [ [ 1, "one"], [2, "two"], [3, "three"], ["ii", "two"] ]
* a.rassoc("two") #=> [2, "two"]
* a.rassoc("four") #=> nil
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_rassoc(VALUE ary, VALUE value)
{
    long i;
    VALUE v;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); ++i) {
v = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
if (RB_TYPE_P(v, T_ARRAY) &&
RARRAY_LEN(v) > 1 &&
rb_equal(RARRAY_AREF(v, 1), value))
return v;
    }
    return Qnil;
}

static VALUE
recursive_equal(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2, int recur)
{
    long i, len1;
    const VALUE *p1, *p2;

    if (recur) return Qtrue; /* Subtle! */

    p1 = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary1);
    p2 = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2);
    len1 = RARRAY_LEN(ary1);

    for (i = 0; i < len1; i++) {
if (*p1 != *p2) {
if (rb_equal(*p1, *p2)) {
len1 = RARRAY_LEN(ary1);
if (len1 != RARRAY_LEN(ary2))
return Qfalse;
if (len1 < i)
return Qtrue;
p1 = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary1) + i;
p2 = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2) + i;
}
else {
return Qfalse;
}
}
p1++;
p2++;
    }
    return Qtrue;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary == other_ary -> bool
*
* Equality --- Two arrays are equal if they contain the same number of
* elements and if each element is equal to (according to Object#==) the
* corresponding element in +other_ary+.
*
* [ "a", "c" ] == [ "a", "c", 7 ] #=> false
* [ "a", "c", 7 ] == [ "a", "c", 7 ] #=> true
* [ "a", "c", 7 ] == [ "a", "d", "f" ] #=> false
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_equal(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    if (ary1 == ary2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(ary2, T_ARRAY)) {
if (!rb_respond_to(ary2, rb_intern("to_ary"))) {
return Qfalse;
}
return rb_equal(ary2, ary1);
    }
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary1) != RARRAY_LEN(ary2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary1) == RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2)) return Qtrue;
    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_equal, ary1, ary2, ary2);
}

static VALUE
recursive_eql(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2, int recur)
{
    long i;

    if (recur) return Qtrue; /* Subtle! */
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary1); i++) {
if (!rb_eql(rb_ary_elt(ary1, i), rb_ary_elt(ary2, i)))
return Qfalse;
    }
    return Qtrue;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.eql?(other) -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if +self+ and +other+ are the same object,
* or are both arrays with the same content (according to Object#eql?).
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_eql(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    if (ary1 == ary2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(ary2, T_ARRAY)) return Qfalse;
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary1) != RARRAY_LEN(ary2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary1) == RARRAY_CONST_PTR(ary2)) return Qtrue;
    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_eql, ary1, ary2, ary2);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.hash -> fixnum
*
* Compute a hash-code for this array.
*
* Two arrays with the same content will have the same hash code (and will
* compare using #eql?).
*
* See also Object#hash.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_hash(VALUE ary)
{
    long i;
    st_index_t h;
    VALUE n;

    h = rb_hash_start(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
    h = rb_hash_uint(h, (st_index_t)rb_ary_hash);
    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
n = rb_hash(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i));
h = rb_hash_uint(h, NUM2LONG(n));
    }
    h = rb_hash_end(h);
    return LONG2FIX(h);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.include?(object) -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if the given +object+ is present in +self+ (that is, if any
* element <code>==</code> +object+), otherwise returns +false+.
*
* a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* a.include?("b") #=> true
* a.include?("z") #=> false
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_includes(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
{
    long i;

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
if (rb_equal(RARRAY_AREF(ary, i), item)) {
return Qtrue;
}
    }
    return Qfalse;
}


static VALUE
recursive_cmp(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2, int recur)
{
    long i, len;

    if (recur) return Qundef; /* Subtle! */
    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary1);
    if (len > RARRAY_LEN(ary2)) {
len = RARRAY_LEN(ary2);
    }
    for (i=0; i<len; i++) {
VALUE e1 = rb_ary_elt(ary1, i), e2 = rb_ary_elt(ary2, i);
VALUE v = rb_funcallv(e1, id_cmp, 1, &e2);
if (v != INT2FIX(0)) {
return v;
}
    }
    return Qundef;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary <=> other_ary -> -1, 0, +1 or nil
*
* Comparison --- Returns an integer (+-1+, +0+, or <code>+1</code>) if this
* array is less than, equal to, or greater than +other_ary+.
*
* Each object in each array is compared (using the <=> operator).
*
* Arrays are compared in an "element-wise" manner; the first element of +ary+
* is compared with the first one of +other_ary+ using the <=> operator, then
* each of the second elements, etc...
* As soon as the result of any such comparison is non zero (i.e. the two
* corresponding elements are not equal), that result is returned for the
* whole array comparison.
*
* If all the elements are equal, then the result is based on a comparison of
* the array lengths. Thus, two arrays are "equal" according to Array#<=> if,
* and only if, they have the same length and the value of each element is
* equal to the value of the corresponding element in the other array.
*
* +nil+ is returned if the +other_ary+ is not an array or if the comparison
* of two elements returned +nil+.
*
* [ "a", "a", "c" ] <=> [ "a", "b", "c" ] #=> -1
* [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ] <=> [ 1, 2 ] #=> +1
* [ 1, 2 ] <=> [ 1, :two ] #=> nil
*
*/

VALUE
rb_ary_cmp(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    long len;
    VALUE v;

    ary2 = rb_check_array_type(ary2);
    if (NIL_P(ary2)) return Qnil;
    if (ary1 == ary2) return INT2FIX(0);
    v = rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_cmp, ary1, ary2, ary2);
    if (v != Qundef) return v;
    len = RARRAY_LEN(ary1) - RARRAY_LEN(ary2);
    if (len == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
    if (len > 0) return INT2FIX(1);
    return INT2FIX(-1);
}

static VALUE
ary_add_hash(VALUE hash, VALUE ary)
{
    long i;

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
VALUE elt = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
if (rb_hash_lookup2(hash, elt, Qundef) == Qundef) {
rb_hash_aset(hash, elt, elt);
}
    }
    return hash;
}

static inline VALUE
ary_tmp_hash_new(void)
{
    VALUE hash = rb_hash_new();

    RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(hash);
    return hash;
}

static VALUE
ary_make_hash(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE hash = ary_tmp_hash_new();
    return ary_add_hash(hash, ary);
}

static VALUE
ary_add_hash_by(VALUE hash, VALUE ary)
{
    long i;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); ++i) {
VALUE v = rb_ary_elt(ary, i), k = rb_yield(v);
if (rb_hash_lookup2(hash, k, Qundef) == Qundef) {
rb_hash_aset(hash, k, v);
}
    }
    return hash;
}

static VALUE
ary_make_hash_by(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE hash = ary_tmp_hash_new();
    return ary_add_hash_by(hash, ary);
}

static inline void
ary_recycle_hash(VALUE hash)
{
    if (RHASH(hash)->ntbl) {
st_table *tbl = RHASH(hash)->ntbl;
RHASH(hash)->ntbl = 0;
st_free_table(tbl);
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary - other_ary -> new_ary
*
* Array Difference
*
* Returns a new array that is a copy of the original array, removing any
* items that also appear in +other_ary+. The order is preserved from the
* original array.
*
* It compares elements using their #hash and #eql? methods for efficiency.
*
* [ 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5 ] - [ 1, 2, 4 ] #=> [ 3, 3, 5 ]
*
* If you need set-like behavior, see the library class Set.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_diff(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    VALUE ary3;
    volatile VALUE hash;
    long i;

    hash = ary_make_hash(to_ary(ary2));
    ary3 = rb_ary_new();

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary1); i++) {
if (st_lookup(rb_hash_tbl_raw(hash), RARRAY_AREF(ary1, i), 0)) continue;
rb_ary_push(ary3, rb_ary_elt(ary1, i));
    }
    ary_recycle_hash(hash);
    return ary3;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary & other_ary -> new_ary
*
* Set Intersection --- Returns a new array containing elements common to the
* two arrays, excluding any duplicates. The order is preserved from the
* original array.
*
* It compares elements using their #hash and #eql? methods for efficiency.
*
* [ 1, 1, 3, 5 ] & [ 1, 2, 3 ] #=> [ 1, 3 ]
* [ 'a', 'b', 'b', 'z' ] & [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] #=> [ 'a', 'b' ]
*
* See also Array#uniq.
*/


static VALUE
rb_ary_and(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    VALUE hash, ary3, v;
    st_table *table;
    st_data_t vv;
    long i;

    ary2 = to_ary(ary2);
    ary3 = rb_ary_new();
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary2) == 0) return ary3;
    hash = ary_make_hash(ary2);
    table = rb_hash_tbl_raw(hash);

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary1); i++) {
v = RARRAY_AREF(ary1, i);
vv = (st_data_t)v;
if (st_delete(table, &vv, 0)) {
rb_ary_push(ary3, v);
}
    }
    ary_recycle_hash(hash);

    return ary3;
}

static int
ary_hash_orset(st_data_t *key, st_data_t *value, st_data_t arg, int existing)
{
    if (existing) return ST_STOP;
    *key = *value = (VALUE)arg;
    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary | other_ary -> new_ary
*
* Set Union --- Returns a new array by joining +ary+ with +other_ary+,
* excluding any duplicates and preserving the order from the original array.
*
* It compares elements using their #hash and #eql? methods for efficiency.
*
* [ "a", "b", "c" ] | [ "c", "d", "a" ] #=> [ "a", "b", "c", "d" ]
*
* See also Array#uniq.
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_or(VALUE ary1, VALUE ary2)
{
    VALUE hash, ary3;
    long i;

    ary2 = to_ary(ary2);
    hash = ary_make_hash(ary1);

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary2); i++) {
VALUE elt = RARRAY_AREF(ary2, i);
if (!st_update(RHASH_TBL_RAW(hash), (st_data_t)elt, ary_hash_orset, (st_data_t)elt)) {
RB_OBJ_WRITTEN(hash, Qundef, elt);
}
    }
    ary3 = rb_hash_values(hash);
    ary_recycle_hash(hash);
    return ary3;
}

static int
push_value(st_data_t key, st_data_t val, st_data_t ary)
{
    rb_ary_push((VALUE)ary, (VALUE)val);
    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* ary.uniq! -> ary or nil
* ary.uniq! { |item| ... } -> ary or nil
*
* Removes duplicate elements from +self+.
*
* If a block is given, it will use the return value of the block for
* comparison.
*
* It compares values using their #hash and #eql? methods for efficiency.
*
* Returns +nil+ if no changes are made (that is, no duplicates are found).
*
* a = [ "a", "a", "b", "b", "c" ]
* a.uniq! # => ["a", "b", "c"]
*
* b = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
* b.uniq! # => nil
*
* c = [["student","sam"], ["student","george"], ["teacher","matz"]]
* c.uniq! { |s| s.first } # => [["student", "sam"], ["teacher", "matz"]]
*
*/

static VALUE
rb_ary_uniq_bang(VALUE ary)
{
    VALUE hash;
    long hash_size;

    rb_ary_modify_check(ary);
    if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) <= 1)
        return Qnil;
    if (rb_block_given_p())
hash = ary_make_hash_by(ary);
    else
hash = ary_make_hash(ary);

    hash_size = RHASH_SIZE(hash);
    if (RARRAY_LEN(