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The Ruby Programming Language
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tags trunk@r43806 as v2_1_0_preview2

git-svn-id: svn+ssh:// b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
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bin * NEWS (with all sufficient information):
bootstraptest * bootstraptest/runner.rb: check nil before calling `signal?'
defs * compile.c (iseq_compile_each): emit opt_str_freeze if the #freeze
doc * doc/regexp.rdoc: [DOC] Fix typo in Special global variables section.
enc encdb.c, encoding.c: make BOM-encodings dummy
ext * ext/bigdecimal/bigdecimal.c (BigDecimal_power):
include * include/ruby/intern.h, internal.h: Expose rb_gc_count().
lib * lib/rubygems: Update to RubyGems master dcce4ff. Important changes
man * man/ri.1: Incorrect use of .Dd macro [Bug #8620] by Tristan Hill
misc Record dependency on Emacs 24.3 and update commentary.
missing fix typos. Patch by k_takata.
nacl fix typos. Patch by k_takata.
spec * spec/default.mspec: expand relative path for ruby_exe which uses
symbian Added HAVE_LABS and HAVE_LLABS to config.h
test * lib/rubygems: Update to RubyGems master dcce4ff. Important changes
win32 ext/rbconfig/sizeof: move to an extension library
.document * .document: Removed extra space
.editorconfig .editorconfig: new
.gdbinit * .gdbinit (rp): fix flag name.
.gitignore * added for ruby-style.
BSDL * BSDL: update copyright notice for 2013.
COPYING * COPYING: change Ruby's License from a dual license with GPLv2
ChangeLog * lib/rubygems: Update to RubyGems master dcce4ff. Important changes
GPL * GPL: update text of GPLv2. [ruby-core:44488] [Bug #6328]
KNOWNBUGS.rb * test/ruby/test_method.rb (test_unlinked_method_entry_in_method_obje…
LEGAL * util.c, include/ruby/util.h (ruby_add_suffix): remove the function. ruby.c: gem_prelude to load rubygems
README * README: Fix typo by Benjamin Winkler [Fixes GH-281]
README.EXT * README.EXT, README.EXT.ja: remove description of RARRAY_PTR()
README.EXT.ja * remove trailing spaces.
addr2line.c * addr2line.c: Include ELF header after system headers (especially
addr2line.h * addr2line.c: use USE_ELF instead of __ELF__ because Solaris
array.c * array.c: [DOC] Add note about negative indices in Array overview
bignum.c bignum.c: suppress warning
class.c * class.c: unify names of vm state version counters to 'serial'.
compar.c compar.c: fail if recursion
complex.c * complex.c: removed meaningless lines.
constant.h * class.c, include/ruby/ruby.h: add write barriers for T_CLASS,
cont.c * thread_pthread.c (rb_thread_create_timer_thread): Show error
dir.c * dir.c, pack.c, ruby.c, struct.c, vm_eval.c: use RARRAY_CONST_PTR().
dln.c adjust style.
dln.h dln.c: extra arguments
dln_find.c dln.c: extra arguments
dmydln.c * encoding.c (rb_enc_codepoint_len): Use UNREACHABLE to avoid "control
dmyext.c no K&R style
enum.c * array.c: Add Array#to_h [Feature #7292]
enumerator.c * enumerator.c (append_method): use RARRAY_CONST_PTR().
error.c error.c: Exception#cause
eval.c * cont.c : Introdule ensure rollback mechanism. Please see below.
eval_intern.h * eval_intern.h (SAVE_ROOT_JMPBUF): workaround for the failure of
eval_jump.c eval_jump.c: reuse same tag
gc.h * gc.h (rb_objspace_reachable_objects_from_root): added.
gem_prelude.rb * ruby.c (process_options): revert r30549.
goruby.c * goruby.c (init_golf): append suffix.
hash.c hash.c: static internal functions
ia64.s * removed trailing spaces.
inits.c ext/rbconfig/sizeof: move to an extension library
insns.def * compile.c (iseq_compile_each): emit opt_str_freeze if the #freeze
internal.h * include/ruby/intern.h, internal.h: Expose rb_gc_count().
io.c * io.c: [DOC] ARGF.gets may return nil [Bug #9029] patch by znz
iseq.c iseq.c: fix values for true
iseq.h * include/ruby/ruby.h (struct rb_data_type_struct), gc.c: add
lex.c.blt * defs/keywords (reserved_word): made inline function static.
load.c load.c: defer initalization of static-linked-ext
loadpath.c * loadpath.c (RUBY_REVISION): Defined to suppress revision.h
localeinit.c localeinit.c: split
main.c * include/ruby/debug.h: introdudced.
marshal.c * add RUBY_TYPED_FREE_IMMEDIATELY to data types which only use
math.c math.c: fix for Bignum argument
method.h * vm_core.h (enum): avoid syntax error.
miniinit.c ext/rbconfig/sizeof: move to an extension library
node.c * include/ruby/util.h: removed extra semicolon in definition of
node.h * node.h: catch up comments for last commit.
object.c * object.c: [DOC] Clarify Object#dup vs #clone [Bug #9128]
pack.c * dir.c, pack.c, ruby.c, struct.c, vm_eval.c: use RARRAY_CONST_PTR().
prelude.rb * prelude.rb: Moved Mutex#synchronize to
probes.d gen_dummy_probes.rb
process.c * add RUBY_TYPED_FREE_IMMEDIATELY to data types which only use
random.c * random.c (rand_init): Make it possible to specify arbitrary array
range.c range.c: modify check
rational.c revertd.
re.c * re.c: [DOC] arguments of Regexp::union receive #to_regexp [Bug #8205]
regcomp.c * regcomp.c (): Merge Onigmo 5.13.5 23b523076d6f1161.
regenc.c Revert r41786 "broken utf-8"
regenc.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
regerror.c * regcomp.c: Merge Onigmo 3d855b30d574536d3ae600260208c6624ae4791c.
regexec.c * Merge Onigmo 5.13.4 f22cf2e566712cace60d17f84d63119d7c5764ee.
regint.h * Merge Onigmo 5.13.4 f22cf2e566712cace60d17f84d63119d7c5764ee.
regparse.c * Merge Onigmo 5.13.4 f22cf2e566712cace60d17f84d63119d7c5764ee.
regparse.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
regsyntax.c * Merge Onigmo-5.13.1. [ruby-dev:45057] [Feature #5820]
ruby.c * include/ruby/intern.h (rb_gc_set_params): Deprecate
ruby_atomic.h * ruby_atomic.h (ATOMIC_SIZE_CAS): fix compile error on Solaris since…
safe.c safe.c: ruby_safe_level_4_warning
signal.c * eval_intern.h (SAVE_ROOT_JMPBUF): workaround for the failure of
siphash.c * regint.h: fix typo: _M_AMD86 -> _M_AMD64.
siphash.h * siphash.h: check configure macros before include newer headers.
sparc.c * sparc.c: Use __asm__ instead of asm for gcc.
sprintf.c sprintf.c: QUOTE flag
st.c hash.c, st.c: fix for ST_CHECK
strftime.c * strftime.c (rb_strftime_with_timespec): Test yday range.
string.c * gc.c (rb_gc_resurrect): added.
struct.c * dir.c, pack.c, ruby.c, struct.c, vm_eval.c: use RARRAY_CONST_PTR().
thread_native.h * thread_native.h: add rb_nativethread_self() which returns
thread_pthread.c thread_pthread.c: use get_main_stack properly
thread_pthread.h * thread_(pthread|win32).h: rename rb_thread_cond_t to
thread_win32.c * eval_intern.h (SAVE_ROOT_JMPBUF): workaround for the failure of
thread_win32.h * thread_(pthread|win32).h: rename rb_thread_cond_t to
time.c * time.c (v2w): Normalize a rational value to an integer if possible.
timev.h timev.h: move time_t stuffs
transcode.c * transcode.c (str_transcode0): don't scrub invalid chars if
transcode_data.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
util.c util.c: more precision
variable.c * gc.c: add support to estimate increase of oldspace memory usage.
version.c loadpath.c: split
version.h * 2013-11-23
vm_core.h vm_core.h: extract VM_STACK_OVERFLOWED_P
vm_debug.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
vm_eval.c eval_intern.h: refine stack overflow detection
vm_exec.c vm_core.h: extract VM_STACK_OVERFLOWED_P
vm_exec.h vm_core.h: extract VM_STACK_OVERFLOWED_P
vm_insnhelper.c * insns.def: unify ic_constant_serial and ic_class_serial into one field
vm_insnhelper.h * compile.c (iseq_compile_each): emit opt_str_freeze if the #freeze
vm_method.c * class.c: unify names of vm state version counters to 'serial'.
vm_opts.h fix minor code comment typos
vm_trace.c * vm_trace.c (symbol2event_flag): add secret feature.


= What's Ruby

Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and
easy object-oriented programming.  It has many features to
process text files and to do system management tasks (as in
Perl).  It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

== Features of Ruby

*   Simple Syntax
*   *Normal* Object-Oriented features(ex. class, method calls)
*   *Advanced* Object-Oriented features(ex. Mix-in, Singleton-method)
*   Operator Overloading
*   Exception Handling
*   Iterators and Closures
*   Garbage Collection
*   Dynamic Loading of Object files(on some architecture)
*   Highly Portable (works on many Unix-like/POSIX compatible platforms
    as well as Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS etc.)

== How to get Ruby

For a complete list of ways to install Ruby, including using third party
tools like rvm, see:

The Ruby distribution files can be found in the following FTP site:

The trunk of the Ruby source tree can be checked out with the
following command:

  $ svn co ruby

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

  $ git clone git://

There are some other branches under development.  Try the following
command and see the list of branches:

  $ svn ls

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

  $ git ls-remote git://

== Ruby home-page

The URL of the Ruby home-page is:

== Mailing list

There is a mailing list to talk about Ruby.
To subscribe this list, please send the following phrase

        subscribe YourFirstName YourFamilyName
        subscribe Joseph Smith

in the mail body (not subject) to the address <>.

== How to compile and install

This is what you need to do to compile and install Ruby:

0.   If you want to use Microsoft Visual C++ to compile ruby,
     read win32/README.win32 instead of this document.

1.   If +./configure+ does not exist or is older than,
     run autoconf to (re)generate configure.

2.   Run +./configure+, which will generate config.h and Makefile.

     Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your
     environment.  Specify <tt>optflags=..</tt> and <tt>warnflags=..</tt> as
     necessary to override them.

3.   Edit +defines.h+ if you need. Usually this step will not be needed.

4.   Remove comment mark(<tt>#</tt>) before the module names from +ext/Setup+
     (or add module names if not present), if you want to link modules

     If you don't want to compile non static extension modules
     (probably on architectures which does not allow dynamic loading),
     remove comment mark from the line "<tt>#option nodynamic</tt>" in

     Usually this step will not be needed.

5.   Run +make+.

6.   Optionally, run '<tt>make check</tt>' to check whether the compiled Ruby
     interpreter works well. If you see the message "<tt>check succeeded</tt>",
     your ruby works as it should (hopefully).

7.   Run '<tt>make install</tt>'

     This command will create following directories and install files
     onto them.

     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/bin</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/gems/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/man/man1</tt>
     * <tt>${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/ri/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/system</tt>

     If Ruby's API version is '_x.y.z_', the <tt>${MAJOR}</tt> is '_x_', the
     <tt>${MINOR}</tt> is '_y_', and the <tt>${TEENY}</tt> is '_z_'.

     *NOTE*: teeny of the API version may be different from one of
     Ruby's program version

     You may have to be a super user to install ruby.

If you fail to compile ruby, please send the detailed error report with
the error log and machine/OS type, to help others.

Some extension libraries may not get compiled because of lack of
necessary external libraries and/or headers, then you will need to run
'<tt>make distclean-ext</tt>' to remove old configuration after
installing them in such case.

== Copying

See the file +COPYING+.

== Feedback

Questions about the Ruby language can be asked on the Ruby-Talk mailing list
( or on websites like

Bug reports should be filed at

== The Author

Ruby was originally designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (Matz) in 1995.


Local variables:
mode: rdoc
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