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***
All cryptographic software in this package is subject to the following legal
notice:
This package includes publicly available encryption source code which,
together with object code resulting from the compiling of publicly
available source code, may be exported from the United States under License
Exception TSU prsuant to 15 C.F.R Section 740.13(e).
***
Security Design of corosync
The corosync project intends to mitigate the following threats:
1. forged group messaging messages which are intended to fault the corosync
executive
2. forged group messaging messages which are intended to fault applications
using corosync apis
3. monitoring of network data to capture sensitive information
The corosync project does not intend to mitigate the following threats:
1. physical access to the hardware which could expose the private key
2. privledged access to the operating system which could expose the private key
or be used to inject errors into the ais executive.
3. library user creates requests which are intended to fault the corosync
executive
The corosync project mitigates the threats using two mechanisms:
1. Authentication
2. Secrecy
Library Interface
-----------------
The corosync executive authenticates every library user. The library is only
allowed to access services if it's GID is ais or 0. Unauthorized library
users are rejected.
The ais group is a trusted group. If the administrator doesn't trust the
application, it should not be added to the group! Any member of the ais group
could potentially send a malformed request to the executive and cause it to
fault.
Group Messaging Interface
-------------------------
Group messaging uses UDP/IP to communicate with other corosync executives using
messages. It is possible without authentication of every packet that an
attacker could forge messages. These forged messages could fault the corosync
executive distributed state machines. It would also be possible to corrupt
end applications by forging changes.
Since messages are sent using UDP/IP it would be possible to snoop those
messages and rebuild sensitive data.
To solve these problems, the group messaging interface uses two new interfaces
interal to it's implementation:
1. encrypt_and_sign - encrypts and signs a message securely
2. authenticate_and_decrypt - authenticates and decrypts a message securely
When the executive wants to send a message over the network, it uses
encrypt_and_sign to prepare the message to be sent. When the executive
wants to receive a message from the network, it uses
authenticate_and_decrypt to verify the message is valid and decrypt it.
There are currently two encryption methods available in corosync.
sha1/hmac/sober which are coded internally, and AES/SHA256 which
are in the Mozilla Network Security Services (libnss) library.
The internal functions utilize the following algorithms:
sha1 - hash algorithm secure for using with hmac
hmac - produces a 16 byte digest from any length input
sober - pseudo random number generator and stream cipher
Every message starts with a
struct security {
unsigned char digest[20]; A one way hash digest
unsigned char salt[16]; A securely generated random number
}
INTERNAL SECURITY CODE:
-----------------------
The hmac algorithm requires a 16 byte key.
The sober algorithm requires a 16 byte private key.
The sober algorithm requires a 16 byte public initial vector.
The private key is read from disk and stored in memory for use with the
sober algorithm to generate the three required keys.
When a message is sent (encrypt_and_sign):
------------------------------------------
1. sober is used to create a 16 byte random number (salt) using the md4
algorithm
2. sober is keyed with the private key and the initial vector is set to the
salt. Then a 48 byte key is read from the sober algorithm. This 48 byte
key is split into 3 16 byte keys. The keys are the hmac key, the sober key
and the sober initial vector.
3. A sober instance is keyed with the sober key and sober initial vector
from step #2.
4. The data of the packet, except for the security header, is encrypted using
the sober cipher that was initialized in step #3.
5. The salt is stored in the security header of the outgoing message.
6. The hmac is initialized with the hmac key generated in step #2.
7. The message, except for the security header, is hmaced to produce a digest
using the sha1 algorithm.
8. The digest is stored in the outgoing message.
9. The message is transmitted.
When a message is received (decrypt_and_authenticate):
------------------------------------------------------
1. sober is keyed with the private key and the initial vector is set to the
salt in the received message. Then a 48 byte key is read from the sober
algorithm. This 48 byte key is split into 3 16 byte keys. The keys are the
hmac key, the sober key and the sober initial vector.
2. The sober key and sober initial vector from step #1 are used to key a
new sober instance.
3. The hmac is setup using the hmac key generated in step #1 using sha1.
5. The message is authenticated, except for the security header.
6. If the message was not authenticated, the caller is told of the result.
The caller ignores the message.
7. The message is decrypted, except for the security header, using the sober
algorithm in step #2.
8. The message is processed.
This does consume some resources. It ensures the private key is never shared
openly, that messages are authenticated, that messages are encrypted, and that
any key exposure of the sober encryption key, sober initial vector, or hmac
key can only be used to attack one of the algorithms. Finally every key used
is randomly unique (within the 2^128 search space of the input to sober) to
ensure that keys are never reused, nonce's are never reused, and hmac's are
never reused.
USING LIBNSS
------------
The process is similar in concept to the above, but most of the details are
hidden inside the NSS library. When corosync is started up libnss is initialised,
the private key is read into memory and stored for later use by the code.
When a message is sent (encrypt_and_sign):
------------------------------------------
- The message is encrypted using AES.
- A digest of that message is then created using SHA256 and based on the
private key.
- the message is then transmitted.
When a message is received (decrypt_and_authenticate):
- A Digest of the encrypted message is created using the private key
- That digest is compared to the one in the message security_header
- If they do not match the packet is rejected
- If they do match then the message is decrypted using the private key.
- The message is processed.
Compatibility
-------------
The default mode of operation is to allow for wire-compatibility with existing
openais systems. That means that the internal encryption system is used
and all received packets are expected to use that system. This allows a rolling
upgrade from openais to corosync.
Once all nodes in the cluster are running corosync they can be changed to allow
the newer libnss-based encryption by setting the
totem {
crypto_accept: new
}
option in corosync.conf.
This enables the new encryption system but does not switch it on. It simply
adds a byte to the end of the packets to indicate the encryption type.
Once all nodes have been upgraded and 'crypto_accept: new' has been set,
the encryption type can be set using a single command:
# corosync-cfgtool -c1
This will tell all cluster nodes to start using libnss encryption. Note that
it is possible to upgrade node individially by seetting the encryption type in
corosync.conf. The last byte of the packet indicates the decryption algorithm
that the receiver should use.
Once all nodes are using libnss encryption, the option should be set in
in corosync.conf so that it takes effect at the next system reboot.
Comments welcome mailto:corosync@lists.osdl.org