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Expressions

Blocks

A block expression should have a newline after the initial { and before the terminal }. Any qualifier before the block (e.g., unsafe) should always be on the same line as the opening brace, and separated with a single space. The contents of the block should be block indented:

fn block_as_stmt() {
    a_call();

    {
        a_call_inside_a_block();

        // a comment in a block
        the_value
    }
}

fn block_as_expr() {
    let foo = {
        a_call_inside_a_block();

        // a comment in a block
        the_value
    };
}

fn unsafe_block_as_stmt() {
    a_call();

    unsafe {
        a_call_inside_a_block();

        // a comment in a block
        the_value
    }
}

If a block has an attribute, it should be on its own line:

fn block_as_stmt() {
    #[an_attribute]
    {
        #![an_inner_attribute]

        // a comment in a block
        the_value
    }
}

Avoid writing comments on the same line as the braces.

An empty block should be written as {}.

A block may be written on a single line if:

  • it is either used in expression position (not statement position) or is an unsafe block in statement position
  • contains a single-line expression and no statements
  • contains no comments

A single line block should have spaces after the opening brace and before the closing brace.

Examples:

fn main() {
    // Single line
    let _ = { a_call() };
    let _ = unsafe { a_call() };

    // Not allowed on one line
    // Statement position.
    {
        a_call()
    }

    // Contains a statement
    let _ = {
        a_call();
    };
    unsafe {
        a_call();
    }

    // Contains a comment
    let _ = {
        // A comment
    };
    let _ = {
        // A comment
        a_call()
    };

    // Multiple lines
    let _ = {
        a_call();
        another_call()
    };
    let _ = {
        a_call(
            an_argument,
            another_arg,
        )
    };
}

Closures

Don't put any extra spaces before the first | (unless the closure is prefixed by move); put a space between the second | and the expression of the closure. Between the |s, you should use function definition syntax, however, elide types where possible.

Use closures without the enclosing {}, if possible. Add the {} when you have a return type, when there are statements, there are comments in the body, or the body expression spans multiple lines and is a control-flow expression. If using braces, follow the rules above for blocks. Examples:

|arg1, arg2| expr

move |arg1: i32, arg2: i32| -> i32 {
    expr1;
    expr2
}

|| Foo {
    field1,
    field2: 0,
}

|| {
    if true {
        blah
    } else {
        boo
    }
}

|x| unsafe {
    expr
}

Struct literals

If a struct literal is small it may be formatted on a single line. If not, each field should be on it's own, block-indented line. There should be a trailing comma in the multi-line form only. There should be a space after the colon only.

There should be a space before the opening brace. In the single-line form there should be spaces after the opening brace and before the closing brace.

Foo { field1, field2: 0 }
let f = Foo {
    field1,
    field2: an_expr,
};

Functional record update syntax is treated like a field, but it must never have a trailing comma. There should be no space after ...

let f = Foo { field1, ..an_expr };

Tuple literals

Use a single-line form where possible. There should not be spaces around the parentheses. Where a single-line form is not possible, each element of the tuple should be on its own block-indented line and there should be a trailing comma.

(a, b, c)

let x = (
    a_long_expr,
    another_very_long_expr,
);

Tuple struct literals

There should be no space between the identifier and the opening parenthesis. Otherwise, follow the rules for tuple literals, e.g., Foo(a, b).

Enum literals

Follow the formatting rules for the various struct literals. Prefer using the name of the enum as a qualifying name, unless the enum is in the prelude. E.g.,

Foo::Bar(a, b)
Foo::Baz {
    field1,
    field2: 1001,
}
Ok(an_expr)

Array literals

For simple array literals, avoid line breaking, no spaces around square brackets, contents of the array should be separated by commas and spaces. If using the repeating initialiser, there should be a space after the semicolon only. Apply the same rules if using the vec! or similar macros (always use square brackets here). Examples:

fn main() {
    [1, 2, 3];
    vec![a, b, c, d];
    let a = [42; 10];
}

If a line must be broken, prefer breaking only after the ;, if possible. Otherwise, follow the rules below for function calls. In any case, the contents of the initialiser should be block indented and there should be line breaks after the opening bracket and before the closing bracket:

fn main() {
    [
        a_long_expression();
        1234567890
    ]
    let x = [
        an_expression,
        another_expression,
        a_third_expression,
    ];
}

Array accesses, indexing, and slicing.

No spaces around the square brackets, avoid breaking lines if possible, never break a line between the target expression and the opening bracket. If the indexing expression covers multiple lines, then it should be block indented and there should be newlines after the opening brackets and before the closing bracket. However, this should be avoided where possible.

Examples:

fn main() {
    foo[42];
    &foo[..10];
    bar[0..100];
    foo[4 + 5 / bar];
    a_long_target[
        a_long_indexing_expression
    ];
}

Unary operations

Do not include a space between a unary op and its operand (i.e., !x, not ! x). However, there must be a space after &mut. Avoid line-breaking between a unary operator and its operand.

Binary operations

Do include spaces around binary ops (i.e., x + 1, not x+1) (including = and other assignment operators such as += or *=).

For comparison operators, because for T op U, &T op &U is also implemented: if you have t: &T, and u: U, prefer *t op u to t op &u. In general, within expressions, prefer dereferencing to taking references.

Use parentheses liberally, do not necessarily elide them due to precedence. Tools should not automatically insert or remove parentheses. Do not use spaces to indicate precedence.

If line-breaking, put the operator on a new line and block indent. Put each sub-expression on its own line. E.g.,

foo_bar
    + bar
    + baz
    + qux
    + whatever

Prefer line-breaking at an assignment operator (either = or +=, etc.) rather than at other binary operators.

Control flow

Do not include extraneous parentheses for if and while expressions.

if true {
}

is better than

if (true) {
}

Do include extraneous parentheses if it makes an arithmetic or logic expression easier to understand ((x * 15) + (y * 20) is fine)

Function calls

Do not put a space between the function name, and the opening parenthesis.

Do not put a space between an argument, and the comma which follows.

Do put a space between an argument, and the comma which precedes it.

Prefer not to break a line in the callee expression.

Single-line calls

Do not put a space between the function name and open paren, between the open paren and the first argument, or between the last argument and the close paren.

Do not put a comma after the last argument.

foo(x, y, z)

Multi-line calls

If the function call is not small, it would otherwise over-run the max width, or any argument or the callee is multi-line, then the call should be formatted across multiple lines. In this case, each argument should be on it's own block- indented line, there should be a newline after the opening parenthesis and before the closing parenthesis, and there should be a trailing comma. E.g.,

a_function_call(
    arg1,
    a_nested_call(a, b),
)

Method calls

Follow the function rules for calling.

Do not put any spaces around the ..

x.foo().bar().baz(x, y, z);

Macro uses

Macros which can be parsed like other constructs should be formatted like those constructs. For example, a macro use foo!(a, b, c) can be parsed like a function call (ignoring the !), therefore it should be formatted following the rules for function calls.

Special case macros

Macros which take a format string and where all other arguments are small may be formatted with arguments before and after the format string on a single line and the format string on its own line, rather than putting each argument on its own line. For example,

println!(
    "Hello {} and {}",
    name1, name2,
);

assert_eq!(
    x, y,
    "x and y were not equal, see {}",
    reason,
);

Casts (as)

Put spaces before and after as:

let cstr = "Hi\0" as *const str as *const [u8] as *const std::os::raw::c_char;

Chains of fields and method calls

A chain is a sequence of field accesses and/or method calls. A chain may also include the try operator ('?'). E.g., a.b.c().d or foo?.bar().baz?.

Prefer formatting on one line if possible, and the chain is small. If formatting on multiple lines, each field access or method call in the chain should be on its own line with the line-break before the . and after any ?. Each line should be block-indented. E.g.,

let foo = bar
    .baz?
    .qux();

If the length of the last line of the first element plus its indentation is less than or equal to the indentation of the second line (and there is space), then combine the first and second lines, e.g.,

x.baz?
    .qux()

let foo = x
    .baz?
    .qux();

foo(
    expr1,
    expr2,
).baz?
    .qux();

Multi-line elements

If any element in a chain is formatted across multiple lines, then that element and any later elements must be on their own line. Earlier elements may be kept on a single line. E.g.,

a.b.c()?.d
    .foo(
        an_expr,
        another_expr,
    )
    .bar
    .baz

Note there is block indent due to the chain and the function call in the above example.

Prefer formatting the whole chain in multi-line style and each element on one line, rather than putting some elements on multiple lines and some on a single line, e.g.,

// Better
self.pre_comment
    .as_ref()
    .map_or(false, |comment| comment.starts_with("//"))

// Worse
self.pre_comment.as_ref().map_or(
    false,
    |comment| comment.starts_with("//"),
)

Control flow expressions

This section covers if, if let, loop, while, while let, and for expressions.

The keyword, any initial clauses, and the opening brace of the block should be on a single line. The usual rules for block formatting should be applied to the block.

If there is an else component, then the closing brace, else, any following clause, and the opening brace should all be on the same line. There should be a single space before and after the else keyword. For example:

if ... {
    ...
} else {
    ...
}

if let ... {
    ...
} else if ... {
    ...
} else {
    ...
}

If the control line needs to be broken, then prefer to break before the = in * let expressions and before in in a for expression; the following line should be block indented. If the control line is broken for any reason, then the opening brace should be on its own line and not indented. Examples:

while let Some(foo)
    = a_long_expression
{
    ...
}

for foo
    in a_long_expression
{
    ...
}

if a_long_expression
    && another_long_expression
    || a_third_long_expression
{
    ...
}

Where the initial clause is multi-lined and ends with one or more closing parentheses, square brackets, or braces, and there is nothing else on that line, and that line is not indented beyond the indent on the first line of the control flow expression, then the opening brace of the block should be put on the same line with a preceding space. For example:

if !self.config.file_lines().intersects(
    &self.codemap.lookup_line_range(
        stmt.span,
    ),
) {  // Opening brace on same line as initial clause.
    ...
}

Single line if else

Formatters may place an if else or if let else on a single line if it occurs in expression context (i.e., is not a standalone statement), it contains a single else clause, and is small. For example:

let y = if x { 0 } else { 1 };

// Examples that must be multi-line.
let y = if something_very_long {
    not_small
} else {
    also_not_small
};

if x {
    0
} else {
    1
}

Match

Prefer not to line-break inside the discriminant expression. There must always be a line break after the opening brace and before the closing brace. The match arms must be block indented once:

match foo {
    // arms
}

let x = match foo.bar.baz() {
    // arms
};

Use a trailing comma for a match arm if and only if not using a block.

Never start a match arm pattern with |, e.g.,

match foo {
    // Don't do this.
    | foo => bar,
    // Or this.
    | a_very_long_pattern
    | another_pattern
    | yet_another_pattern
    | a_forth_pattern => {
        ...
    }
}

Prefer

match foo {
    foo => bar,
    a_very_long_pattern
    | another_pattern
    | yet_another_pattern
    | a_forth_pattern => {
        ...
    }
}

Avoid splitting the left-hand side (before the =>) of a match arm where possible. If the right-hand side of the match arm is kept on the same line, never use a block (unless the block is empty).

If the right-hand side consists of multiple statements or has line comments or the start of the line cannot be fit on the same line as the left-hand side, use a block.

The body of a block arm should be block indented once.

Examples:

match foo {
    foo => bar,
    a_very_long_patten | another_pattern if an_expression() => {
        no_room_for_this_expression()
    }
    foo => {
        // A comment.
        an_expression()
    }
    foo => {
        let a = statement();
        an_expression()
    }
    bar => {}
    // Trailing comma on last item.
    foo => bar,
}

If the body is a single expression with no line comments and not a control flow expression, then it may be started on the same line as the right-hand side. If not, then it must be in a block. Example,

match foo {
    // A combinable expression.
    foo => a_function_call(another_call(
        argument1,
        argument2,
    )),
    // A non-combinable expression
    bar => {
        a_function_call(
            another_call(
                argument1,
                argument2,
            ),
            another_argument,
        )
    }
}

Line-breaking

Where it is possible to use a block form on the right-hand side and avoid breaking the left-hand side, do that. E.g.

    // Assuming the following line does done fit in the max width
    a_very_long_pattern | another_pattern => ALongStructName {
        ...
    },
    // Prefer this
    a_very_long_pattern | another_pattern => {
        ALongStructName {
            ...
        }
    }
    // To splitting the pattern.

Never break after => without using the block form of the body.

If the left-hand side must be split and there is an if clause, break before the if and block indent. In this case, always use a block body and start the body on a new line:

    a_very_long_pattern | another_pattern
        if expr =>
    {
        ...
    }

If required to break the pattern, put each clause of the pattern on its own line with no additional indent, breaking before the |. If there is an if clause, then you must use the above form:

    a_very_long_pattern
    | another_pattern
    | yet_another_pattern
    | a_forth_pattern => {
        ...
    }
    a_very_long_pattern
    | another_pattern
    | yet_another_pattern
    | a_forth_pattern
        if expr =>
    {
        ...
    }

If the pattern is multi-line, and the last line is less wide than the indent, do not put the if clause on a newline. E.g.,

    Token::Dimension {
         value,
         ref unit,
         ..
    } if num_context.is_ok(context.parsing_mode, value) => {
        ...
    }

If every clause in a pattern is small, but does not fit on one line, then the pattern may be formatted across multiple lines with as many clauses per line as possible. Again break before a |:

    foo | bar | baz
    | qux => {
        ...
    }

We define a pattern clause to be small if it matches the following grammar:

[small, ntp]:
    - single token
    - `&[single-line, ntp]`

[small]:
    - `[small, ntp]`
    - unary tuple constructor `([small, ntp])`
    - `&[small]`

E.g., &&Some(foo) matches, Foo(4, Bar) does not.

Combinable expressions

Where a function call has a single argument, and that argument is formatted across multiple-lines, the outer call may be formatted as if it were a single- line call. The same combining behaviour may be applied to any similar expressions which have multi-line, block-indented lists of sub-expressions delimited by parentheses (e.g., macros or tuple struct literals). E.g.,

foo(bar(
    an_expr,
    another_expr,
))

let x = foo(Bar {
    field: whatever,
});

foo(|param| {
    action();
    foo(param)
})

Such behaviour should extend recursively, however, tools may choose to limit the depth of nesting.

Only where the multi-line sub-expression is a closure with an explicit block, this combining behaviour may be used where there are other arguments, as long as all the arguments and the first line of the closure fit on the first line, the closure is the last argument, and there is only one closure argument:

foo(first_arg, x, |param| {
    action();
    foo(param)
})

Ranges

Do not put spaces in ranges, e.g., 0..10, x..=y, ..x.len(), foo...

When writing a range with both upper and lower bounds, if the line must be broken, break before the range operator and block indent the second line:

a_long_expression
    ..another_long_expression

For the sake of indicating precedence, we recommend that if either bound is a compound expression, then use parentheses around it, e.g., ..(x + 1), (x.f)..(x.f.len()), or 0..(x - 10).

Hexadecimal literals

Hexadecimal literals may use upper- or lower-case letters, but they must not be mixed within the same literal. Projects should use the same case for all literals, but we do not make a recommendation for either lower- or upper-case. Tools should have an option to convert mixed case literals to upper-case, and may have an option to convert all literals to either lower- or upper-case.

Patterns

Patterns should be formatted like their corresponding expressions. See the section on match for additional formatting for patterns in match arms.

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